New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Exam 4 Study Guide + In-class Assignments

by: Ming-Han Lu

Exam 4 Study Guide + In-class Assignments BIOL 2312

Marketplace > University of Texas at Dallas > Biology > BIOL 2312 > Exam 4 Study Guide In class Assignments
Ming-Han Lu
GPA 3.96

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Good luck on the next exam guys! I made a really detailed study guide with figures here and there.
BIOL 2312 Introduction to Modern Biology II
Dr. Mehmet Candas
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in BIOL 2312 Introduction to Modern Biology II

Popular in Biology

This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ming-Han Lu on Tuesday August 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2312 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Dr. Mehmet Candas in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see BIOL 2312 Introduction to Modern Biology II in Biology at University of Texas at Dallas.


Reviews for Exam 4 Study Guide + In-class Assignments


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 08/02/16
BIOL 2312 ­ MODERN BIOLOGY II EXAM 4 STUDY GUIDE  1. Where does fertilization of a human egg take place?  The Fallopian tubes (oviduct) is where the fertilization of a human egg takes place. 2. How does an oocyte released from a human ovary enter the oviduct?  It is released from a human ovary during ovulation. Ovulation occurs when the follicle is mature  and releases its secondary oocyte into the oviduct (fallopiano tubes). 3. Where do human sperm cells first arise and where do they mature?  Sperm cells are first produced in the testes (where spermatogenesis occurs). They are stored in  the epididymis.  4. Which structure of the male reproductive anatomy in humans produces molecules that  stimulate smooth muscle contractions in the uterus of females?  Seminal vesicles produce prostaglandins stimulate smooth­muscle contractions in the uterus. 5. What are the three phases of the human ovarian cycle?  1. Menstruation 2. Follicular Phase 3. Luteal phase 6. What is menstruation and what does it accomplish during ovarian cycle? What are the  hormones and how are they involved in menstrual cycle?  Menstruation is the expulsion (removal) of the uterine lining. Menstruation purges pathogens and protects fertilization. The hormones that play a part are: luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle­ stimulating hormone (FSH), gonadotropin­releasing hormone (GnRH), estradiol, and  progesterone.  7. What is the primary difference between estrous and menstrual cycles?  In an estrous cycle, the lining of the uterus is reabsorbed if pregnancy does not occur. When the  thickening lining of the uterus degenerates in menstrual cycles, it causes menstrual bleeding.  8. What is gonadotropin­releasing hormone (GnRH)? Where it is secreted and what is its  function?  Gonadotropin­releasing hormone (GnRH) is a hormone that is released from the hypothalamus  into the anterior pituitary gland. GnRH is also known as the initiator of puberty. It causes the  release of hormones from other glands, which in this case would be luteinizing hormone (LH)  and follicle­stimulating hormone (FSH).  Estradiol surges during the follicular phase, while progesterone surges during the luteal  phase. 9. What is the primary function of the corpus luteum?  The primary function is to support the egg, but if no implantation occurs, it degenerates. It  secretes large amounts of progesterone and small quantities of estradiol, in response to LH.  10. What is progesterone? Where it is secreted and what is its function?  It is a steroid hormone produced along with estrogens, including estradiol, in the ovaries.  Progesterone is secreted from the ovaries. Its function is to support the maturation of the  thickened uterine lining. It also serves as a negative feedback on the pituitary hormones. It  lowers production of LH and FSH and activates the thickened uterine lining, creating a spongy  tissue with a well­developed blood supply. Progesterone fosters an environment that supports embryonic development if fertilization occurs. 11. What is luteinizing hormone (LH)? Where it is secreted and what is its function?  The luteinizing hormone (LH) is released when GnRH is induced. It is secreted from the anterior pituitary gland. LH triggers the increases in testosterone and estradiol.  12. What is follicular response? How is ovulation regulated?  The follicle matures during the follicular phase, which lasts an average of 14 days. Primary  oocytes complete meiosis I during this phase. Ovulation occurs when the follicle is mature and  releases its secondary oocyte into the oviduct. 13. What is estradiol? Where it is secreted and what is its function? Estradiol is a steroid hormone from the family of estrogens. Estradiol is secreted by the ovaries.  The function is to develop the female reproductive system. 14. How does the drug RU486, or Mifepristone, function?  It blocks progesterone receptors (less thickening so it makes it easier to menstruate) so  menstruation occurs even after fertilization and implantation.  15. How do the birth control pills (oral contraceptives) work?  Hormone­based contraceptives methods deliver synthetic versions of progesterone or of  progesterone and estradiol. These hormones suppress the release of GnRH, FSH, and LH through negative feedback inhibition. Because an LH spike does not occur during the follicular phase of  the cycle, the follicle does not mature and ovulation does not occur. 16. What is tubal ligation?  It is a procedure in which the fallopian tubes are severed or clamped shut, so it prevents the eggs  from reaching the uterus for implantation. 17. What is a vasectomy?  A vasectomy is the surgical procedure where they sever the vas deferens from the male’s  reproductive tract, so there will be no sperm in the urethra when ejaculation occurs. 18. When are the peaks of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle­stimulating hormone (FSH)  production occur?  The peaks of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle­stimulating hormone (FSH) are at the  moment where the egg is ovulated into the oviduct (fallopian tubes). 19. Which hormone is used as a reliable "marker" in the urine for a pregnancy?  Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) 20. What is innate immunity?  Innate Immunity refers to immune system cells that are ready to respond to foreign invaders at  all times.  ­ Evolutions conserved (all metazoans have/share)  Non­specific (against all invaders)  Starts immediately (min to hour)  Genetically encoded (receptor and secreted molecules)  Anatomical barriers (skin, wax, mucus, eye lid, tear, sweat, oil)  Physiological barriers (stomach pH, urination, emptying/purging through vomiting,  diarrhea)  No memory/defaulted at each episode  Inflammation  o Increased heat o Increased tissue permeability o Increased blood circulation o Secretion of inflammatory molecules (Histamines are first secreted).  Cytokines  Chemokines  Interleukins  interferons 21. Which immune cells perform phagocytosis (cell­eating)?  1. Neutrophils  2. Macrophages 22. What is the composition of the lymphatic fluid?  It is a mixture of (interstitial) fluid and lymphocytes 23. What is the inflammation­causing signal released by mast cells at the site of an infection?  The inflammation­causing signal released by mast cells at the site of an infection is histamine.  Histamine constricts blood vessels at wound site—reducing blood flow and thus blood loss. 24. What is septic shock?  Septic shock is a systemic inflammatory response that is often life­threatening. It results in a  drop in the blood pressure and abnormalities in the cellular metabolism, ultimately, death of the  host. It is a shock that stems from sepsis, which is a life­threatening condition that arises when the  body’s response to an infection injures its own tissues and organs. 25. How does the complement system work?  Co­stimulation of complement proteins Antibodies that are bound to pathogens also stimulate  a lethal group of proteins called the complement system. Complement proteins circulate in the  bloodstream and assemble at antigen­antibody complexes. When complement proteins activate,  they punch deadly holes in the plasma membranes of pathogens. 26. What is the aim in antihistamine treatment?  It reduces allergen symptoms by blocking histamine receptors.  27. What are the inflammatory responses?  Inflammatory response, a multistep, innate immune response observed in array of animals.  If a break in the skin allows bacteria to enter the body. Blood components (platelets) immediately  release proteins that form clots and lessen bleeding. Other clotting proteins in the blood form  cross­inked structures that help wall off the wound and reduce blood loss. Wounded tissues and  leukocytes called macrophages secrete chemokines, which are signaling molecules that recruit  other cells to the site of infection. Mast cells release chemical messengers such as histamine that constrict blood vessels which reduces blood flow and thus blood loss. Leukocytes called  neutrophils move out of dilated blood vessels and migrate to the site of the infection. Cells that  will mature into macrophages arrive. Besides secreting chemokines, these macrophages produce  additional cytokines that have an array of effects. 28. What are the Toll­like receptors (TLRs)?  Toll­like protein functions as a receptor that receives the signal that a pathogen is present. Toll­ like receptors (TLRs) are a subset of a larger group of proteins called pattern­recognition  receptors, which serve as a sentinels to signal the presence of molecules associated with  pathogens.  When it receives the signal that an invader is present, they trigger a signal cascade within the cell that will have different consequences depending on which TLRs were activated. 29. What is adaptive immunity? Cells that have adaptive immunity respond in an extremely specific way to the particular strains  of bacteria, viruses, or fungi that enter the body.  Specific (recognizes pathogen and/or their antigens)  Memory is built (repertoire of molecular knowledge for previous pathogen encounters)  Takes time to build (5­10 days)  Involves recombinant events altering genetic organization in B & T cells  Antibody secretion 30. What is an antigen epitope?  Antibodies, BCRs, and TCRs do not bind to the entire antigen. Instead, they bind to a selected  region of the antigen called an epitope. Each epitope is recognized by a particular antibody, BCR, or TCR.  31. What is the function of histocompatibility complexes?  The dendritic cells contain proteins called MHC (major histocompatibility) protein, antigen­ presenting proteins that have a groove where small peptide fragments, typically 8 to 20 amino  acids in length, bind. It serves as a signal for T cells, it says it’s an antigen­presenting cell which carries the message  “I’ve found antigen—response required.” 32. Where do the receptors on T cells and B cells bind?  They bind to a selected region of the antigen called an epitope. 33. How are the DNA sequences corresponding to the V, J, and C gene segments rearranged  during B cell differentiation?  They are rearranged during gene recombination. As B cells mature, DNA recombination  combines a V, a J, and a C segment to form a new light­chain gene. 34. What is the general structure of an antibody molecule?  The antibody has the same structure as the B­cell receptor. The B­Cell Receptor has three  components: 1. Two identical light chains—the smaller peptide. 2. The two heavy chains that are twice the size of the light chains. 35. How do different classes of antibodies, IgM, IgG, IgA, IgD, and IgE differ from each other?  Each class is distinguished by the heavy chain it contains, and each has a distinct function in the  immune response.  36. What is clonal selection in immune system function?  The activated T cells undergo clonal expansion—they divde to produce a series of genetically  identical daughter cells, leading to a large lymphocyte population capable of responding to a  specific antigen. 37. What are the memory cells in immune response? How are they activated?  Activated B cells and T cells produce specialized daughter cells called memory cells that do not  participate in the primary immune response. This is system is known as immunological  memory.   Memory cells provide for a secondary immune response if the same antigen enters the  body again.  38. What is passive immunity?  It occurs naturally when the maternal antibodies are transferred to the fetus through the through  the placenta. 39. What is an autoimmune disease? An autoimmune disease results in the destruction of the body’s own cells and structures.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.