New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

KIN 212, Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Keri Strand

KIN 212, Exam 1 Study Guide KIN 212

Marketplace > University of Miami > Kinesiology > KIN 212 > KIN 212 Exam 1 Study Guide
Keri Strand
GPA 3.75

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Chapters 1-4
Elements of Sports Psychology
Brian Arwari
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Elements of Sports Psychology

Popular in Kinesiology

This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Keri Strand on Tuesday August 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to KIN 212 at University of Miami taught by Brian Arwari in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Elements of Sports Psychology in Kinesiology at University of Miami.

Similar to KIN 212 at UM


Reviews for KIN 212, Exam 1 Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 08/02/16
KIN 212 Exam 1 Study Guide Chapters 1-4 Chapter 1 1. Two objectives of sport psychology:  Understand effects of psychological factors on physical and motor performance. (ex: anxiety affecting free-throws. Does imagery training facilitate the recovery process in athletes.)  Understand effects of participation in physical activity on psychological development, health and well-being (ex: does running reduce depression? Do young athletes learn to be overly aggressive from participation in sports?) 2. Clinical vs educational sport psychology  Clinical: licensed psychologists trained to work with athletes with eating disorders and substance abuse.  Educational: teach training and skills using mental coach approach. Have training in kinesiology. Work with anxiety, arousal, performance issues, adherence, etc. 3. Study vs experiment  Study: observe and assess without changing environment (ex: correlation between physical activity as a child and adult obesity)  Experiment: manipulate variables, observe and examine. Advantage is that researchers are better able to determine causal (or cause-and-effect) relationships. 4. Methods of Knowing (in order of decreasing accuracy)  Scientific method (experiment)  Systematic observation (study)  Single case study  Shared (public) experience  Introspection  Intuition Chapter 2 1. Personality structure  Psychological core – most internal, changes the least (bottom of pyramid). (ex: religious values)  Typical responses – traits (ex: being shy or happy-go-lucky)  Role-related behavior – most external or superficial, changes most. How one acts in a particular situation (top of pyramid) (ex: behavior as parent or friend) 2. Models of personality (approaches to understanding personality)  Psychodynamic approach: behavior determined by unconscious, conflicting factors. Emphasis is placed on understanding the person as whole rather than isolated traits. (ex: Asimo robot)  Trait approach: behavior determined by stable traits. Habits – traits – personality o Eysenck’s PEN model: describes all personality, like three primary colors o Psychoticism, extroversion, neuroticism o Extroverts: cortical arousal, extroverts low, introverts high o RAS – reticular activating system – determines level of arousal  Situational approach: opposite of trait approach. Behavior is determined by environment or situation. We have scripts that we act upon without realizing it. Social norms. o Asch experiment: matching wrong lines. Conformity o Elevator experiment o Zimbardo Stanford prison experiment o Fight on NYC subway (script rupture example)  Interactional approach: combination of personality and situation to determine behavior. Favored by most contemporary sport and exercise psychologists. 3. Definition of trait vs state  Trait: a typical style of behavior  State: the situation’s effect on behavior – a “right now” feeling that can change from moment to moment.  More effective to compare personality test scores to themselves – baseline improvement 4. Morgan’s iceberg profile:  Successful athletes exhibit greater positive mental health than do less successful athletes.  Have more vigor but more depression and tension than less successful athletes. 5. Relationship between personality, self-esteem and exercise  Type A – more anger, offset by exercise  Exercise increases self-esteem – those with low self-esteem have more room for improvement  The more you improve, the harder it is to improve – ceiling & pavement effect, tendency towards the mean Chapter 3 1. Motivation: the direction and intensity of effort  Direction of effort: seeking out situations  Intensity of effort: how much effort an individual puts forth in a situation 2. Views of motivation  Participant or trait-centered view: personality, needs, interests, goals  Situational views: leader-coach style, facility attractiveness, team win-loss record  Interactional view: both interact to form participant motivation 3. 5 guidelines for building motivation  1: Both situations and traits motivate people (ex: who will fall on grenade)  2: People have multiple motives for involvement. Understand why they are involved (ex: athlete vs older person exercising)  3: Change the environment to enhance motivation. (ex: competitive and recreational opportunities)  4: Leaders influence motivation directly and indirectly  5: Use behavior modification to change undesirable participant motives. 4. Achievement motivation vs competitiveness  Achievement: Self-comparison. Strive for task success and experience pride of accomplishment.  Competitiveness: Social evaluation or comparison. Strive for satisfaction when compared to others. 5. Theories of achievement motivation  Need achievement theory (probability theory) o Success needs to be achievable o To be successful, failure needs to be avoided o Probability of it actually happening – reward vs punishment  Attribution Theory o How people explain their successes and failures. Examples include: stability, locus of causality, locus of control o Stability: (ex: sunrise and sunset time vs rain. Should you wait for bus?) o Locus of Causality: (ex: “it broke” vs “I fixed it”. Can cause something even though not meant o Locus of Control: (ex: gambling gives illusion of control)  Achievement Goal Theory o Outcome goal orientation (or competitive goal orientation): comparing performance with and defeating others. o Task (mastery) goal orientation: Improving relative to one’s own past performances. It’s more important to focus on this. o Social goal orientation: judging competence in terms of affiliation with the group and recognition of being liked by others. (ex: wanting to be famous) 6. High achievers vs low achievers  High achievers o High motivational orientation to achieve success, low to avoid failure o Focus on pride of success o Ascribe success to STABLE and INTERNAL factors within their control o Ascribe failure to UNSTABLE and EXTERNAL factors outside of control o Usually adopt task goals o Perceived competence and control: high o Task choice: seek out challenges and demanding tasks o Performance: perform well in evaluative conditions  Low achievers o Low motivational orientation to achieve success, high to avoid failure o Focus on shame and worry that may result from failure o Ascribe success to UNSTABLE and EXTERNAL factors o Ascribe failure to STABLE and INTERNAL factors within their control o Usually adopt outcome goals o Perceived competence and control: low and feel achievement is outside their control o Task choice: avoid challenges, seek out very difficult or very easy tasks o Performance: perform poorly in evaluative conditions 7. Stages of developing achievement motivation and competitiveness  Autonomous competence stage  Social comparison stage  Integrated (self- and social-comparison stage) Chapter 4 1. Arousal: blend of psychological and physiological activation, varying in intensity along a continuum  Voluntary: horror movies, skydiving, relaxing on beach  Involuntary: theme park designs, movie music 2. Cognitive/somatic arousal: subset of state anxiety  Cognitive state anxiety: moment-to-moment changes in worries and negative thoughts  Somatic state anxiety: moment-to-moment changes in perceived physiological arousal  Brain can be amped up and not body and vice versa (ex: bored on treadmill) 3. Anxiety: negative emotional state with feelings of worry, nervousness, and apprehension associated with activation or arousal of the body  State anxiety: refers to “right now” feelings that change from moment to moment  Trait anxiety: personality disposition which is stable  People with high trait anxiety usually have more state anxiety 4. Stress: imbalance between physical and psychological demands placed on an individual and her response capability under conditions in which failure to meet demands has important consequences.  Every stressor is met by the body as a physical thing – fight or flight  Valence independent: doesn’t matter if it’s negative or positive 5. Stress process: implications of the stress process for practice (intervene at any of the stress process stages of the cycle).  Environmental demand  Individual perception of threat  Physical and psychological response  Consequences (outcome)  Is it resolved? If not, then go through cycle again 6. Situational and personal sources of stress  Situational sources o Event importance – reward or punishment (ex: typist given electrical shock) o Uncertainty (Pavlov’s dog neurosis). Decision is easy if it’s clearly good or bad. It’s the in between options that cause the most stress.  Personal sources o Trait anxiety o Self-esteem o Social physique anxiety 7. Different arousal/performance theories and graphs  Drive theory: crowds increase arousal and improve performance. Presence of others enhances performance on simple or well-learned skills and inhibits performance on complex or unlearned skills.  Inverted-U hypothesis: not too much, not too little (typists)  IZOF Theory: individualized zones of functioning  Multidimensional anxiety theory:  Catastrophe model: performance drops drastically if too aroused  Reversal theory (cognitive theory): how arousal affects performance depends on an individual’s interpretation of her arousal level. Can be pleasant or unpleasant  Anxiety direction and intensity: to understand the anxiety-performance relationship, we must consider both the intensity (how much anxiety one feels) and direction (interpretation)  Significance of all of these views 8. Social facilitation theory  Home-field advantage  Championship choking is result of performer self-consciousness


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.