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KIN 212, Exam 3 Study Guide

by: Keri Strand

KIN 212, Exam 3 Study Guide KIN 212

Marketplace > University of Miami > Kinesiology > KIN 212 > KIN 212 Exam 3 Study Guide
Keri Strand
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Chapters 12-15
Elements of Sports Psychology
Brian Arwari
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Keri Strand on Wednesday August 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to KIN 212 at University of Miami taught by Brian Arwari in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Elements of Sports Psychology in Kinesiology at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 08/03/16
KIN 212 - Test 3 Study Guide Chapters 12-15 Chapter 12: Arousal Regulation 1. Anxiety self-awareness  You must increase your awareness of your psychological states before you can control your thoughts and feelings  Once aware, can employ arousal regulation (reduction, maintenance, induction) strategies.  Coping with anxiety most important. 2. Cognitive, somatic and multimodal anxiety reduction techniques  Somatic: o Muscle control: progressive relaxation – learn to feel the tension in your muscles and then to let go of the tension. o Breath control: when tense, breathing is short. Learn to breath smooth, deep, and rhythmic to become calmer, confident, and in control. o Biofeedback: becoming more aware of your autonomic nervous system and control your physiological and autonomic responses by receiving physiological feedback not normally available.  Cognitive: o Relaxation response teaches individuals to quiet the mind, concentrate, and reduce tension by meditating. o Autogenic training focuses on warmth and heaviness to produce a relaxed state.  Multimodal o Stress inoculation training (SIT): exposed to and learns to cope with stress in increasing amount, thereby enhancing immunity to stress. o Productive thoughts, mental images, and self-statements o Four steps to SIT: 1. Prepare for the stressor. 2. Control and handle the stressor. 3. Cope with the feelings of being overwhelmed. 4. Evaluate coping efforts.  Hypnosis: in an unusually relaxed state and responds to suggestions designed to alter perceptions, feelings, thoughts, and actions. 3. Stress inoculation training (above) 4. Hypnosis stages  Induction phase – lower arousal (45 min)  Hypnotic phase – (10 min)  Waking phase – (5 min)  Posthypnotic phase – day to day life after hypnosis 5. Matching hypothesis  Technique should be matched to a particular problem. 6. Coping categories: best to do both  Problem-focused coping (active coping): manage problems that are causing stress (time management, avoidance) o Long-term: active coping produced positive relationship, whereas a negative relationship was found with avoidance.  Emotion-focused coping: (relaxation, meditation, self-blame) 7. Withdrawal coping  Avoidance – effective in reducing the immediate stress of competition.  Type of problem-focused coping. 8. Corrective experiences – coping with emotions  Athlete makes a conscious decision to engage in the behavior that is of concern, which can reduce anxiety and correct past mistakes. Learned resourcefulness: resourceful individuals realize that coping skills can apply to different aspects of life.  Autism summer camp or Boy Scouts – if you can learn skills, you can transfer it to learning other things. Resourcefulness  Generalize successes to other situations. Learned helplessness: impotence that generalizes to other situations.  Generalize failures to other situations.  Tied elephants demonstrate this. Chapter 13 - Imagery 1. Definition and basics of imagery  AKA visualization, mental rehearsal, symbolic rehearsal, covert practice, and mental practice.  Creating or re-creating an experience in your mind.  Involves all the senses: visual, kinesthetic, auditory, tactile, olfactory  Kinesthetic sense is particularly important for athletes 2. Functions of imagery: motivational  Specific: goal-oriented responses (imaging winning an event)  General: arousal (including relaxation by imaging a quiet place) Functions of imagery: cognitive  Specific: skills (imaging performing on balance beam successfully)  General: strategy (imaging carrying out strategy to win) 3. Imagery perspective  Internal perspective: visualizing the execution of a skill from your own vantage point (as if you had a camera on your head)  External perspective: visualizing yourself from the perspective of an outside observer (as if you were watching yourself in a movie)  Internal or external less important than choosing a comfortable style that produces clear, controllable images. 4. Four theories of imagery – How imagery works  Psychoneuromuscular theory o Programs muscles for action o Facilitates the learning of motor skills because imagined events innervate the muscles.  Symbolic learning theory o Helps us understand movement patterns o Functions as a coding system (as mental blueprints) to help people understand and acquire movement patterns  Bioinformational theory o Made of stimulus and response propositions o It is critical to imagine not only stimulus propositions (statements that describe the scenario to be imagine) but also response propositions (imaginer’s response to the scenario).  Psychological skills hypothesis o Imagery develops mental skills o Imagery develops and refines mental skills and reduces anxiety 5. 2 keys to effective imagery:  Vividness: use all the senses to make images as vivid and detailed as possible  Controllability: learn to manipulate your images so they do what you want them to do. Chapter 14 – Self-Confidence 1. Self-confidence definition  Belief that you can do something – can be trait or state 2. Dispositional and state self-confidence: trait or state  Dispositional: degree of certainty individuals usually have about their ability to succeed.  State: belief of certainty that individuals have at a particular moment about their ability to succeed. 3. Self-fulfilling prophecy (the Pygamlion effect – Greek sculptor)  Expecting something to happen helps cause it to happen  Negative self-fulfilling prophecy: expectation of failure leads to actual failure.  Examples: o Roger Bannister: ran mile under 4 minutes, then many did it soon afterwards o Egyptian hang gliders: used Egyptian technology to build – no one thought it was possible back then, so just didn’t try o Frankenstein: organ transplants and defibulators were knew ideas that author thought of o Star Trek: space shuttle enterprise – first cell phone modeled after captain Kirk’s communicator o Bobby McFerrin: Penta scale – audience knew what was expected when they sang so they were able to sing together o Colour changing card trick: attention is shifted so you don’t notice major changes. Confirmation bias: o Arm wrestling expectations: mental aspect – if you think your opponent is stronger than he actually is, you will lose. 4. Benefits of self-confidence – obvious  Arouses positive emotions, facilitates concentration, affects the setting and pursuit of challenging goals, increases effort; affects games strategies, psychological momentum, and performance. 5. Optimal level of self-confidence: not overconfident (false confidence) or having a lack of confidence 6. 4 stages of how expectations influence outcomes (Coaches’ expectations and athletes’ performance) 1. Coaches form expectations based on personal cues and performance information. Problems occur when inaccurate expectations (too high or too low) are formed. 2. Coaches’ expectations influence their behavior regarding: o Frequency and quality of coach interactions o Quantity and quality of instruction o Type and frequency of feedback 3. Coaches’ behaviors affect athletes performance 4. Athlete’s performance confirms the coaches’ original expectations.  Examples: o Pygmalion in the classroom: give a student more attention and credit and they will do better and vice versa o Stone soup: belief, then act on it, then outcome is as expected  Recommendations: o Be aware of biases 7. Self-efficacy sources: learned helplessness and opposite (Bandura)  Provides model for how we generalize our feelings of accomplishment.  Observing someone else is enough to make a decision (observational learning)  Sources: 1. Past (performance) accomplishments – most dependable source 2. Various experiences (modeling) 3. Verbal persuasions 4. Imaginal experiences (imagery) 5. Physiological states 6. Emotional states 8. Modeling  Reason there are movie ratings: worried that if children see something, they’ll do it  Bobo doll experiment  Rubber necking: stop and look at an accident to see what happened so you can avoid it Chapter 15 – Goal Setting  Saying “do your best” is worthless  Females set goals more often and find them more effective than men do. 1. Subjective vs objective goals  Subjective: General statements of intent such as having fun or doing your best - can’t measure.  Useful but not the focus in sports  Attention has been paid in literature for personal productivity and applied business management  Objective (scientific definition): Attaining a specific standard of proficiency on a task, usually in a specified time 2. Process, performance and outcome goals: ways of objectively measuring goal achievement  Outcome goals: Focus on a competitive result of an event (e.g., beating someone).  Process goal: focus on the actions an individual must engage in during performance  Performance goals: focus on achieving standards of performance or objectives independently of other competitors (e.g., running mile in under 4 minutes) 3. Why goal setting works -allows you to track performance and have something to shoot for  Indirect thought process view: o Psychological factors – anxiety, confidence, satisfaction o Mechanism behind cheap video games like Candy Crush. Because you have goals and can brag about results, people keep playing.  Direct mechanistic explanation: o Direct attention to skill o Mobilize performers’ efforts o Prolong persistence o Foster development of new learning strategies 4. Principals of goal setting  Set specific goals  Set moderately difficult but realistic goals  Set long- and short-term goals (long-term first) o When setting short-term goals, have them closer together at the beginning to stay motivated (continuous reinforcement and then move to partial)  Set performance and process goals as well as outcome goals  Set practice and competition goals  Record goals – write it down  Develop goal achievement strategies – how much and how often things will be done  Consider participants’ personalities and motivations – what is rewarding to individuals  Foster an individual’s goal commitment – encourage progress and solicit input  Provide goal support  Provide evaluation of and feedback about goals 5. Common problems in goal setting  College students: lack of time, stress, fatigue, academic pressure, and social relationships  Olympians: lack of confidence, lack of goal feedback, too many goals or conflicting goals, lack of time, work commitments, and family and personal relationships  Convincing students, athletes, and exercisers to set goals  Failing to set specific goals  Setting too many goals too soon  Failing to adjust goals  Failure to recognize individual differences  Not providing goal follow-up and evaluation


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