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Study guide to Exam 2 Topics are Learning Memory and Cognitive and Development Lectures and readings on Memory Chapter 7 1 What is the modal model of memory What are the working processes of memory attention rehearsal encoding and retrieval Modal model of memory Three stages Sensory StoreMemory Short Term Memory 0 Long Term Memory Attention selects information from sensory memory Rehearsal repeating information to extend its duration keeps it longer than 1015 seconds maintains information in working memory Encoding thinking about the information what it means how it is related to other things we already know transfers to Long Term Memory Retrieval bringing information back to Short Term Memory from LTM to working memory 2 What is Sensory memory What is its capacity duration and function How did the Sperling study measure the duration and capacity of sensory memory Sensorv StoreMemory brief storage of perceptual information before passed to Short Term Memory 0 Tied closely to raw materials of our experiences our perceptions of the world 0 fill in the blanks see the world as an unbroken stream of events Capacity very large scenic can hold onto everything that is out there Duration Very short 123 sec before passing on SOME to STM Function to sustain sensations for identification keep it around long enough as needed SPERLING STUDY First experiment on sensory memory study of visualiconic memory Showed us visual memory sticks around for about 12 second whole report procedure asked to do the whole thing partial report procedure asked to do one row won39t know which row until after see the letters longer interval between when shown the letters and when told which row you would have to write down correctness decreases with increase in delay in seconds 0000 3 What are echoic and iconic memory What is the duration of each of these TYPES OF SENSORY STOREMEMORY lconic memorv visual sensory memory 0 Duration last about a second gone forever 0 eidetic imagery photographic memory hold visual image in mind Echoic memorv auditory sensory memory 0 Duration can last 510 sec taking notes in lecture remember what professor said after said it so you can type it 4 What is Shortterm memory What is its capacity duration and function What is chunking What is the magic number How did Peterson and Peterson study the duration of short term memory Short Term Memory STM Function to do conscious work to think 0 Capacity 7 plus or minus 2 items of quotchunksquot of information between 5 amp 9 o Chunking organizing information into meaningful groupings allowing us to extend the span of shortterm memory MEANINGFUL patterns 0 Magic number the span of shortterm memory according to George miller seven plus or minus two pieces of information between five and nine digits in the digit test Duration 1015 seconds unless keep repeating it and then maybe it will stay longer PETERSON AND PETERSON STUDY 0 Remembering letters then count backward by 73 0 Amount of letters correct depends on the amount of time spent counting backwards by 7 more time spend less numbers you get correct 5 What are the three levels of processing and what kinds of tasks are associated with each Which will produce the best recall Levelsofprocessing depth of transforming information which influences how easily we remember it deeper process more remember o visual how the words look o phonological soundrelated how the words sound 0 semantic meaningrelated sentence s meaning 6 What is Longterm memory What are its capacity duration and function Long Term Memory LTM 0 Capacity enormous essentially unlimited 0 Duration very long essentially permanent o Function to tie together the past with the present 7 What are the different kinds of longterm memory What kinds of memory are typical of each different kind TYPES OF LONG TERM MEMORY Permastore type of longterm memory that appears to be permanent Explicit Memory consciously trying to remember something memories we recall intentionally and of which we have conscious awareness declarative memory 0 episodic memorv recollection of events in our lives activated right frontal cortex o things that happen at a specific time at a specific place 0 a what you had for breakfast where were you on your 18th birthday 0 semantic memorv our knowledge of facts about the world activates left frontal cortex o general knowledge brought out by repeated exposure that allows to abstract out this information 0 Your mother s first name is a dolphin a fish what bird is black and white lives in Antarctic and swims rather than flies Implicit memory memories we don t deliberately remember or reflect on consciously opening a door outside our awareness o procedural memory memory for how to do things including motor skills and habits I ride a bike or open a soda can typing shoes 0 Classical Conditioning Pavlov s dogs salivating to sound test anxiety 0 aversion therapy and systematic desensitization forms of treatment for classical conditioning o priming our ability to identify a stimulus more easily or more quickly after we ve encountered similar stimuli 0 can also happen when we aren t consciously aware of influence I shown word queen then play a game of fill in blank k more likely to fill in king as opposed to kill or know I doesn t require deliberate effort 8 Who is Clive Wearing What kinds of things could he remember and what kinds of things could he not remember as a result of his brain injury What do these deficits and retentions indicate about memory CLIVE WEARING a moment with no present to anchor it and no future to look ahead to only see what is in front of him and then it fades thinks he wasn t conscious for his previous journal entries gets angry perfectly luscious and highly intelligent but was robbed of his own life he can t get a grasp of what is wrong with him he remembers his wife the English language how to write etc shows the importance of long term memory 9 What is the serial position effect What is recency What is primacy What kind of memory seems to be involved in primacy What kind of memory is involved in recency If you want to eliminate the recency effect what would you do serial position curve graph depicting both primacy and recency effects of people s ability to recall items on a list recencv effect tendency to remember words at the end of a list especially well 0 type of memory primacv effect tendency to remember words at the beginning of a list especially well 0 type of memory 10 What is a mnemonic What is imagery What is the method of loci What is the keyword method mnemonic learning aid strategy or device that enhances recall 0 rely on internal mental strategies o mword method word that rhymes with the number the word associated with number is a pegword one is a bun 0 method of Loci relies on imagery of places locations name of the mnemonic I have five things you need to remember pick a place and a walk to remember pick five things you will see and associate it with what you need to remember 0 Kevword method comparing it to another word to help remember 11 What is a schema How do schemas helphinder memory schema organized knowledge structure or mental model that we ve stored in memory 0 Help 0 process at a restaurant is same even if go to a different one 0 buy a new ipad you know somewhat how to work it due to past experience 0 Hinder 0 Only think of the one function hard of us to think of something as using it for a different function 12 What is the difference between recall recognition and relearning as measures of memory Who was Ebbinghaus and what was his forgetting curve Recall generating previously remembered information Recognition selecting previously remembered information from an array of options Relearning reacquiring knowledge that we d previously learned but largely forgotten over time 0 law of distributed versus massed practice studying information in small increments over time distributed versus in large increments over a brief amount of time massed EBBINGHAUS 13 What is massed practice versus distributive practice What are the helpful study hints derived from memory research Table 72 law of distributed versus massed practice studying information in small increments over time distributed versus in large increments over a brief amount of time massed SUMMARY set of evidencebased tips 1 Distributed versus massed study spread review out 2 testing effect test frequently on the materials 3 elaborative rehearsal connect new knowledge w existing knowledge 4 levels of processing capture information in own words don t copy word for word 5 mnemonic devices reminders and cues 14 What are the tipofthetongue phenomenon and encoding specificity contextdependent learning statedependent learning pofthetongue TOT phenomenon experience of knowing that we know something but being unable to access it failure of retrieval Encoding specificity phenomenon of remembering something better when the conditions under which we retrieve information are similar to the conditions under which we encoded it o Contextdependent earning superior retrieval of memories when the external context of the original memories matches the retrieval context 0 example of taking test in the same room as learned the information o Statedependent earning superior retrieval of memories when the organism is in the same physiological or psychological state as it was during encoding o the internal state while learning mooddependent learning 0 difficulties retrospective bias current state can distort memories of past 15 In forgetting what is the difference between decay and interference What does each of these look like as a cause of forgetting What is retroactive interference What is proactive interference decay fading of information from memory over time interference loss of information from memory because of competition from additional incoming information o retroactive interference interference with retention of old information due to acquisition of new information learning something new hampers earlier learning 0 proactive interference interference with acquisition of new information due to previous learning of information earlier learning gets in the way of new learning 0 proactive and retroactive interference are more likely to occur when the old and new stimuli are similar 16 What is the role of the hippocampus and amygdala in memory What is longterm potentiation What is anterograde amnesia retrograde amnesia Longterm potentiation LTP gradual strengthening of the connections among neurons from repetitive stimulation 0 neurons that fire together wire together withdraw memory from prefrontal cortex a major bank for withdrawing memory memories distribute themselves throughout many areas of the cortex retrograde amnesia loss of memories from our past anterograde amnesia inability to encode new memories from our experiences damage to hippocampus impairs explicit memory but leaves implicit memory amygdala helps us recall the emotions associated with fearprovoking events hippocampus help us recall the events themselves 17 What is a flashbulb memory What is source monitoring Memory illusions What is a suggestive memory technique flashbulb memorv emotional memory that is extraordinarily vivid and detailed Source monitoring confusion lack of clarity about the origin of a memory 0 ever started to tell a story to someone you realized you already told to Memory Illusion false but subjectively compelling memory typically because our brain tends to go beyond the information available to it suggestive memory techniques procedure that encourages patients to recall memories that may or may not have taken place 18 What is the misinformation effect Who is Elizabeth Loftus What are examples of implanted memories What kinds of things increase the likelihood of false memories misinformation effect creation of fictitious memories by providing misleading information about an event after it takes place o Loftus studies o parent recount photos 0 EVENT PLAUSIBILITY only so far we can go with false memories couldn t do winning the lottery or a trivia contest 0 controversy of eyewitness tend not to remember so much the details attention can also be something else and change our views when see someone similar to the actual criminal Lectures and readings on Cognitive chapter 8 Reasoning and decision making 1 What are heuristics What are algorithms algorithms stepbystep learned procedure used to solve a problem 0 example of making a peanut butter and jelly sandwich can require a lot of time Heuristic rule of thumb that produce quick solutions at the cost of possible error people use this 2 What is inductive reasoning What is deductive reasoning What is a syllogism Syllogisms c all chefs are violinists major premise John is a chef minor Premise ls Jong a violinist c all psychology majors are students major Denise is a pscyh major minor premise 3 What is a normative approach What is a descriptive approach Normative agproach how we ought to reason what is optimal performance 0 psychologists don t care about this approach Gives us bias for us to compare to o In economics Descriptive Agproach How people really solve problems Psychologists are interested in this 4 What are base rates Confirmation bias What is framing Base rate how common a characteristic or behavior is in the general population Confirmation Bias 0 a if vowel then even 0 most people select vowel and even but need to choose an odd or constant to make sure it s not proved wrong framing the way a question is formulated that can influence the decisions people make example of the accident and the word choice used 5 What is the representativeness heuristic What is the availability heuristic Egresentative Heuristic heuristic that involves judging the probability of an event by its superficial similarity to a prototype like a stereotype quiet shy computer science major Availabilitv Heuristic heuristic that involves estimating the likelihood of an occurrence based on the ease with which it comes to our minds Problem solving 1 ln problem solving what is the initial state the goal state and the current state What is a weak method of problem solving What is forward chaining What is backwards chaining ProblemSolving generating a cognitive strategy to accomplish a goal 0 Initial state chess with each pieces on appropriate side 0 Goal state want to win 0 Current state where you are with the problem right now o weak methods 0 forward chaining I move the current state toward the goal state 0 backward chaining I move the goal state toward the current state 2 What is the difference between expert and novices in problem solving What is the paradox of expertise 3 What are the following obstacles to problem solving The salience of surface similarities Mental sets Functional fixedness What is Duncker s candle problem Salience of surface similarities salience how attention grabbing something is 0 example thinking of a solution that destroys tumor but protects healthy tissue laser treatment Mental set phenomenon of becoming stuck in a specific problemsolving strategy inhibiting our ability to generate alternatives o boxed in by our experiences 0 example having trouble picking out a paper topic that wasn t already mentioned in class but someone not in the class could easily do so Functional Fixedness difficulty conceptualizing that an object typically used for one purpose can be used for another 0 Dunker s Candle problem 0 given a box of tax and told to find a safe way to mount the candle to the board and be able to light it o The effect of verbal labels attached to all the prompts board labeled board box of tacks labels etc I reduces the time from 9 minutes to 12 minute I easier because the box is labeled box whereas before it was simply something held by the tacks and we are blinded and we associate it with a specific function Linguistic Relativity 4 Explain the Linguistic relativity hypothesis also known as the SapirWhorf hypothesis or linguistic determinism SapirWhorf hvloothesis the language that you speak determines how you perceive think about and remember the world around you 0 implication people who speak different languages perceive think about and remember the world differently 5 What is linguistic determinism linguistic relativity inguistic determinism view that all thought is represented verbally and that as a result our language defines our thinking Linguistic relativity view that characteristics of language shape our thought processes 6 What were the findings of research on the question of whether labels help or hurt memory for pictures a First study show people a simple line drawing while each had attached a label 12 saw eyeglasses 12 saw dumbbell o the image was distorted depending on the word places in the image ex those that said eyeglasses the line between two circles became curves 0 shows that verbal labels hurt memory of pictures 0 Another study shows people simple line drawings 0 draw people with labels had much more detail 0 verbal labels help memory for pictures DEPENDS ON HOW THE LABELS ALLOW YOU TO MAKE SENSE OF THE PICTURE 7 Describe the research done with the Tarahumara and what was its finding Why has so much research been done with colors Tested native speakers of English and Tarahumara 0 colors A B and C all have the same name in Tarahumara but A has a different name in EngHsh o wavelength of B lies between those of A and C o B and C are more different in terms of wavelength than A and B o which color is the most different from the others oddoneout task 0 was a green light blue dark blue in english but in Tarahumara they are all of blue 0 english speakers say A the green 0 tarahumaras say C frequency of light of green and light blue are closer in compared to the dark blue GET IT WRONG BECAUSE OF OUR LANGUAGE 8 What is the current psychological view on howif language affects how we reason and remember about the world Lectures and readings on Development Chapter 10 What methods are used by development psychologists 1 What is habituation How is it used to study infant abilities Habituation process by which we respond less strongly over time to repeated stimuli teeth against teeth or roof of mouth 0 Used to study infant abilities 0 Examples of studies with same nurture and ended up similar versus different nurture and ended up merely different 2 What is a crosssectional study What is a longitudinal study What is a cohort Crosssectional desig wesearch design that examines people of different ages at a single point in time 0 problem with them don t control cohort effects Cohort effects effect observed in a sample of participants that results from individuals in the sample growing 0 group living in one time period vs a different time period 0 Solve the problem by using Longitudinal Desigm research design that examines development in the same group of people on multiple occasions over time o can be costly and time consuming o attrition participants dropping out before study is finished What abilities are present at birth and how can experience affect these abilities 1 At birth babies have the abilities to 1 recognize patterns 2 respond to their mother s voices 3 learn events We see three videos illustrating the research behind these claims What was the evidence that infants are born with these abilities o readily learn connections btw events and own action o recall the connection later 0 Respond to mother s voice 0 reading Dr Seuss book child can distinguish this passage read by morn versus others 2 What emotions are found in babies at birth What emotions appear between 24 months At Birth interest disgust distress contentment 24 Months anger sadness surprise fear 3 What is the effect of deprivation on development What is a teratogen Identify some common teratogens Teratogen an environmental factor that can exert a negative impact on prenatal development 0 mom doesn t know she is pregnant does activities that are potentially harmful 0 brain is particularly vulnerable 0 Fetal Alcohol Svndrome condition resulting from high levels of prenatal alcohol exposure causing learning disabilities physical growth retardation facial malformations and behavioral disorders 0 Common one is cigarette smoking 0 Genetic Disorders random errors in cell division 0 Premature Birth normal 40 weeks of pregnancy 4 Identify the causes and symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome FAS Fetal Alcohol Svndrome condition resulting from high levels of prenatal alcohol exposure causing learning disabilities physical growth retardation facial malformations and behavioral disorders 5 The lecturer provided two examples of how enrichment can enhance development the visual cliff and the sticky mitten intervention What are these How does each of these illustrate how experience affects development ls enrichment always a good idea What is Piaget s theory of cognitive development 1 What is the great debate How do continuous models of development differ from stage models Who is Jean Piaget Was Piaget s theory of development a stages or continuous model Stage like development a bumpy but moving upward type line Continuous development no bumps but gradually goes up type line Jean Piaget Swiss Psychologist stage theorists started study of cognitive development 0 children s development is through stages domaingeneral o cognitive change is a result of children s need of equilibrium maintaining balance between experiences and understanding of it 2 Describe the cognitive processes of assimilation and accommodation ln Piaget s model what is a schema and what is it used for Assimilation piagetian process of absorbing new experience into current knowledge structures 0 can only last so long when child can no longer assimilate experiences into her existing knowledgeable structures something has to budgeforced into accommodation Accommodation piagetian process of altering a belief to make it more compatible with expenence stage changes are a result of accommodation 3 What are Piaget s four stages of cognitive development What are the characteristics of each stage that is what are object permanence representational thought conservation egocentrism mental operations concrete thinking abstract thinking How do researchers define when one has moved from one stage to the next 1 Sensorimotor Stag stage in Piaget s theory characterized by a focus on the here and now without the ability to represent experiences mentally 0 mental representation ability to think about things that are absent from immediate surroundings birth to two years Obiect permanence the understanding that objects continue to exist even when out of view 0 Deferred imitation ability to perform an action observed earlier 2 Preoperational Stag ability to construct mental representations of experience but not yet perform operations on them a 27 years 0 Egocentrism inability to see the world from other s points of views 0 Inability to perform mental operations ex can imagine a vase on table if it isn t actually there but can t imagine if someone knocked if off 0 Conservation Piagetian task requiring children to understand that despite a transformation in the physical presentation of an amount the amount remains the same 3 Concrete Operations characterized by the ability to perform mental operations on physical events only a 711 years 0 Ex sorting coins by size 4 Formal Operations characterized by the ability to perform hypothetical reasoning beyond the here and now a 11 years adulthood 0 Experiments hypothesis ifthen eitheror statements 4 Describe the changes in cognitive functioning revealed by the classic conservation tests pouring colored water into different size containers lining up pennies a Different containers same amount of liquid 0 As get older understand that the amount of liquid is the same 0 When youngerit is based off of appearance How have later researchers tested and improved Piaget s theory 1 What do researchers mean by object concepts number concepts and person concepts Object concepts 0 object permanence objects exist even when not in view 0 conceptual understanding emerges from SENSORIMOTOR development 0 first two substages infants actions involve their own body I reflexes I primary circular reactions repeating actions that are pleasurable thumbsucking o Substages 3 4 5 and then substage 6 1824 mos I representation thought or conceptual understanding 0 object permanence language Number concejc quality perception conservation 0 number or amount stays the same despite changes in appearance I video with juice in cups I example of amount of chips two lines right on top first one is same second model has one line more spread out so it appears differently but is the same person concepts preoperational stage age 27 0 governed by EGOCENTRISM tendency to center on oneself or ones point of view a when asked about a doll39s perspective children always choose the picture that matches their own perspective false belief task 0 by age 4 children achieve the basic insight that other people39s behavior is guided by their beliefs limits that stand in the way of true operation thinking very different from adult thinking 2 Describe Rene Baillargeon s research on object permanence What can we conclude about Piaget s model based on her findings What are the conclusions of research on person concepts and number concepts 0 Physical reasoning objects solid fall when drop disappear but still there 0 Baillargeon 3 What is the Theory of Mind What is the False Belief Test FBT and how does it test egocentrism SelfConcept and concept of other a Theory of Mind ability to reason about what other people know or believe False belief task someone else believes something that they know to be true 4 What cognitive changes occur between age 3 amp 4 At what age does a child gain the cognitive ability to take another person s point of view At what age do children begin to deliberately deceive others What are some explanations of these findings What are alternate explanations for limits in a child s ability to deliberately deceive 5 Dr Koenig observed that the False Belief Test measured transient changes She sought evidence of more stable and lasting knowledge differences Her research has found that children could identify and mistrust an unreliable informant at what ages How do her findings expand the findings from the Theory of Mind research Language development From Cognitive amp Development 1 Define language and identify the following features of language phonemes morphemes and syntax What are semantics extralinguistic information Language largely arbitrary system of communication that combines symbols such as words and gestural signs in rulebased ways to create meaning 0 is automatic it requires little attention to make meaning and interpret 0 Four levels of analysis 0 Phoneme category of sounds that our vocal apparatus produces I vocal tract lips teeth tongue placement vibration of vocal cords open and closing of throat etc I example rolling of R s in spanish language 0 morpheme smallest meaningful unit of speech the menu items I created by stringing phonemes together I most are semantic meaning from words and sentences I also are pieces such as ish meaning to a moderate degree 0 syntax grammatical rules that govern how words are composed into meaningful strings putting the meal together I the idealized language formally written but often broken when we speak o extralinguistic information elements of communication that aren t part of the content of language but are critical to interpreting its meaning the overall dining expenence I use of gestures and facial expression I previous statements of others in a conversation 2 Describe the steps observed as infants and children acquire human language and the ages and characteristics of each stage Learning language 0 starts at five months pregnancy can pick up on mother s vocalizations o Babbling intentional vocalization that lacks specific meaning Important role in language development evolves over first year of life 0 comprehension o procedes production 0 oneword stage early period of language development when children use single word phrases to convey an entire thought doggie There is a dog 0 is a CRITICAL PERIOD for language development example so much easier for youngers to learn second language versus adult sensitive period an interval during which people are more receptive to learning and can acquire new knowledge more easily except for children of emotion and physical neglect they may not have developed language 0 homesign system of signs invented by children who are deaf and born of hearing parents and therefore receive no language input shows impressive ingenuity and motivation to communicate 3 What is universal adaptability By what age does it seem to go away What was Janet Werker s method When researchers looked at whether or not the loss of universal adaptability could be reversed what did they find What is the role of social interaction in language learning infants begin with universal sensitivity to the phonemes of the worlds natural language in a monolingual environment this universal sensitivity adapts to the target language Social Pragmatics account of language acquisition that proposed that children infer what words and sentences mean from context and social interactions 0 expressions gestures behavior 4 What drives specialization of language maturation or experience What is the evidence That is are language capacities innate or are they learned 0 According to one hypothesis language understanding is carried out by special language quotmodulesquot that are not influenced by our other cognitive abilities special part of mind that born with and is devoted to language in special part of brain just for us but has a limited way to do this informationally encapsulated stored away 5 What is the evidence for resilience innatenessresilience 0 external variation 0 within culture variability in input 0 across culture variability in input 0 internal variation 0 hearing loss blind children down syndrome autism Cognitive and Moral Development 1 According to Dr Koenig what cognitive and social capacities are shared with other species What sets humans apart from other species What is symbolic representation When does it emerge Nonhuman animal communication differ in type and complexity scent markings visual displays communication often takes place sex and violence tried to teach human language to animals as well struggle have seen similar aspects 2 What are Kohlberg s three levels of moral reasoning and what kind of reasoning is associated with each Moral Dilemmas situations in which there are no clear right or wrong answers 0 Associate right from wrong in fear aka punishment Reasoning process Lawrence Kohlberg o Preconventional moralitv focus on punishment and reward 0 Conventional moralitv focus on societal values what others approvedisapprove of o Postconventional moralitv internal moral principles that may differ from conventional societal values AUTISM Please note that Dr Ellison may shorten his lecture and that may affect these objectives Stay tuned 1 What are the behavioral characteristics that define autism in children 0 Social Impairments I lack of social reciprocity I difficulty sharing enjoyment with others I diminished expression body posture etc 0 Communication Deficits I language delay I echolalia repeated what just heard I Reciprocal conversation skills 0 Stereotyped Interests and rigid or repetitive behavior I unusual interest intensity or content I inflexible adherence to routines I motor stereotypies I preoccupation with parts of objects When operant conditioning is used to treat autistic children which behaviors are reinforced Which behaviors are extinguished Broadly speaking how did 10 hour and 40 hour groups of autistic children compare before and after treatment How did early theorists conceptualize autism What is euthanasia Who was Leo Kanner and how did he conceptualize infantile disorder What were the strengths of children with infantile autistic disorder Euthanasia Leo Kanner 0 published series of descriptive case histories described syndrome infant 0 contribution I a disorder of affective contact is different from quotfeeblemindednessquot I highlighted strengths ex excellent rote memory intelligent relation to objects Bruno Bettelheim proposed that autism was caused by the refrigerator mother what did he mean Bruno Bettelheim o conceptualized autism as a result of maternal deprivation What are two pieces of evidence that autism may have a biological basis Rimland s and Folstein and Butter Susan Folstein and Michael Butter 0 pointed to a genetic cause for autism 0 first study to systemize monozygotic and dizygotic twins 7 What is Nosology What are three different ways to classify diseases What do psychologists and psychiatrists use to classify disorders 0 Etiology o Pathogenesis mechanism by which the diseasedisorder is caused 0 Behavior Manifestationsigns 8 What are the differences between the classification of autism and autistic spectrum disorders in the DSMIV and the DSMV 9 What are diagnostic symptoms of autism What are associated features 10 What do epidemiologists mean by incidence and prevalence o prevalence approximately 1 in 88 individuals has autism 0 count of the total number of people with a specific disease in a given population at a given time o it is an estimate a prediction 0 incidence 0 an index usually rate of the total number of new cases identified within a given population during a specified time 0 very few studies of this 11 Why the increase in the number of children diagnosed with autism o why the increase of prevalence o greater public awareness more people know what autism is and finding people with the disorder better case ascertainment lower age at diagnosis diagnostic substitution changes in diagnostic criteria 0000 12 What is the current conceptualization of autism What are some different theoretical conceptualizations of the symptom profile ls Autism heterogeneous or homogeneous Autism is homogeneous Note that the topic of Attachment pages 390 394 will be covered in Personality Reading on Learning chapter 6 Classical conditioning 1 What is learning What is habituation What is sensitization learning change in an organism s behavior or thought as a result of experience I lies at the heart of every domain of psychology Habituation process by which we respond less strongly over time to repeated stimuli teeth against teeth or roof of mouth Sensitization repeated exposure to stimuli did not lead to habituation but instead respond more strongly over time ex someone whispering while you study 2 Who was Pavlov Describe the studies with the dog and metronome or bell Ivan Pavlov discovered classical conditioning primary research was digestion on dogs sticking tub into salivary glands to study digestive responses to meat powderthey began salivating to the stimuli associated with the meat powerand led to this term a learning to connect stimulus forming associations 3 Define unconditioned stimulus sometimes abbreviated US and sometimes UCS and unconditioned response UR or UCR Define conditioned stimulus CS and a conditioned response CR 0 unconditioned stimulus UCS stimulus that elicits an automatic response meat powder 0 unconditioned response UCR automatic response to non neutral stimulus that does not need to be learned salivation I automatically happens response of a product of nature 0 Conditioned response CR response previously associated with a nonneutral stimulus that is elicited by a neutral stimulus through conditioning I product of nurture experience I dogs salivated to the metronome o Conditioned stimulus CS initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a response due to association with an unconditioned stimulus 4 How can classical conditioning be used to produce an emotional response fear for example to a neutral stimulus When might this emotional conditioning be useful 5 What is acquisition What makes a stimulus more likely to become a CS Acguisition learning phase during which a conditioned response is established 6 What is extinction and what leads to extinction in classical conditioning Extinction gradual reduction and eventual elimination of the conditioned response after the conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus after times of having metronome wout meat powderdogs eventually stopped salivating in response to it 0 creates a new response ex the absence of salivation 0 doesn t vanish completely is only overwritten w new behavior 7 What are spontaneous recovery stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination Who was little Albert Please note that stimulus discrimination and discriminative stimulus are different concepts Spontaneous Recoverv sudden reemergence of an extinct conditioned response after a delay in exposure to the conditioned stimulus o renewal effect sudden reemergence of a conditioned response following extinction when an animal is returned to the environment in which the conditioned response was acquired Stimulus Generalization process by which conditioned stimuli similar but not identical to the original conditioned stimulus elicit a conditioned response Stimulus Discrimination process by which organisms display a less pronounced conditioned response to conditioned stimuli that differ from the original conditioned stimulus 0 example fear of tornado in moviescary movie vs tornado in real life performed by John B Watson Little Albert liked rats John struck gong behind rat began to cry at just the rat then at random white things such as rabbit or Santa Claus 8 What is higher order conditioning Practice identifying the CS CR US UR in practical examples such as advertising conditioned fears sexual arousal food aversions and other emotional responses gherOrder Conditioning developing a conditioned response to a conditioned stimulus by virtue of its association with another conditioned stimulus 0 example pic of a circle shown with the tone to salivation from meat powder 0 response gets weaker as more and more added secondorder conditioning then third order conditioning so on 9 What is a conditioned taste aversion What makes it different from the usual models of classical conditioning Conditioned Taste Aversions classical conditioning can lead us to develop avoidance reactions to the taste of food 0 contradicts classical conditioning like palov and dogs 0 in contrast these only require one trial to develop 0 delay between CS and UCS can be as long as 6 to 8 hours 0 remarkably specific and display little evidence of stimulus generalization Instrumental ConditioningOperant Conditioning ResponseEvent Learning 1 Who is EL Thorndike What is Thorndike s Law of Effect What is a learning curve What is insight EL Thorndike did experiment on cats in box w rat outside only needed to hit correct solution for box to open Once got it right and redid experiment escape decreased gradually over 60 trials a human learning occurs by trial and error Law of effect principle asserting that if a stimulus followed by a behavior results in a reward the stimulus is more likely to give rise to the behavior in the future more likely to repeat the behavior insight grasping the underlying nature of a problem 2 Who is BF Skinner What is a Skinner box Skinner Box small animal chamber constructed by BF Skinner to allow sustained periods of conditioning to be administered and behaviors to be recorded unsupervised o electronically records animal s responses and prints out a graph 0 Negative no human observation could miss some important behaviors 3 Define Discriminative stimulus and identify it in practical situations Discriminative Stimulus stimulus that signals the presence of reinforcement exsnapping at a dog so it will come for you to pet it 4 Define Reinforcement and Punishment Reinforcement outcome or consequence of a behavior that strengthens the probability of the behavior 0 positive reinforcement presentation of a stimulus that strengthens the probability of the behavior 0 example give a chocolate to kid who picked up toys 0 negative reinforcement removal of a stimulus that strengthens the probability of the behavior 0 example when kid stops whining allow to end timeout early Punishment outcome or consequence of a behavior that weakens the probability of the behavior 0 Positive administering a stimulus ex spanking 0 negative taking away a stimulus ex taking away a favorite toy o disadvantages only tells what NOT to do creates anxiety may encourage subversive behavior become sneakier acting as a model can convey that bad things are acceptable ie slapping o association with aggressiveness 5 What do negative and positive refer to in operant conditioning Define and identify positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement as used in operant conditioning see above 6 According to Skinner and others what are the disadvantages of punishment see above 7 What is a primary reinforcer What is a secondary reinforcer What are examples of each Secondary reinforcers neutral object that becomes associated with a primary reinforcer tokens points etc Primary Reinforcers item or outcome that naturally increases the target behavior fav food or drink 0 get so many pointscan trade in for something you like 8 What are acquisition and extinction in operant conditioning Acguisition learning phase Extinction stop delivering reinforcers following a previously reinforced behavior ex child screams give toy may cause child to scream now for the toy instead buy earplugs and don t give toyeventually will stop screaming 9 What is a conditioned reinforcer Think how a clicker can be used in dog training The clicker is a neutral object It becomes a CS that signals the arrival of a treat Then the clicker can be used to reinforce the dog s behavior in an operant conditioning event Sit you say to the dog the discriminative stimulus The dog sits the behavior You immediately click the clicker to reinforce the sitting behavior Then you give the dog a treat The clicker has become a conditioned reinforcer 10 What is shaping What is chaining Shaping conditioning a target behavior by progressively reinforcing behavior that come closer and closer to the target Chaining A cue for B B to C and so on Schedules of reinforcement 1 What is the difference between continuous schedule of reinforcement and intermittent schedules of reinforcement Schedule of Reinforcement pattern of reinforcing behavior 0 continuous reinforcement reinforcing a behavior every time it occurs resulting in faster learning but faster extinction than only occasional reinforcement partial reinforcement only occasional reinforcement of a behavior resulting in slower extinction than if the behavior had been reinforced continually 2 Describe the four different partial reinforcement schedules and how they may be appear in practical situations Fixed ratio FR schedule pattern in which we provide reinforcement following a regular number of responses 0 ex give a rat something after presses lever 15 times Variable ratio VR schedule pattern in which we provide reinforcement after a specific number of responses on average with the number varying randomly 0 yield the highest rate of responding to all 0 example casino reward on an irregular basis based on gambler s responses this keeps gamblers hooked Fixed interval Fl schedule pattern in which we provide reinforcement for producing the response at least once following a specified time interval 0 example being paid once a week Variable interval VI schedule pattern in which we provide reinforcement for producing the response at least once during an average time interval with the interval varying randomly 3 Which is more resistant to extinction a variable or a fixed schedule Comparing classical and operant conditioning 1 What are three ways in which operant conditioning differs from classical conditioning What areas of the brain are associated with classically conditioned fear reactions What neurotransmitter is associated with operant conditioning Difference between operant amp classical conditioning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Target behavior is Elicited automatically Emitted voluntarily Reward is Provided unconditionally contingent on behavior Behavior depends primarily Autonomic nervous system skeletal muscles on Putting operant amp classical conditioning together 0 similar 0 acquisition extinction stimulus generalization 0 Difference o classical conditioning amygdala o operant conditioning brain areas rich in dopamine linked to reward o interact 0 have phobias why don t they go away I because twoprocess theory we need both classical and operant conditioning to explain the persistence of anxiety disorders 2 What is the two process theory Using phobias how does classical conditioning explain the development of a phobia How does operant conditioning explain the maintenance of a phobia see above as well Cognitive models of learning and Observational learning 1 Define observational learning Define modeling Who is Albert Bandura and what was the Bobo doll experiment Observation Learning learning by watching others models parents teachers those influential often regarded as a form of latent learning because allows to learn without reinforcement spares expense of having to learn firsthand 0 Alfred Bandura Bobo Doll aggression experiment some children watched adult act aggressively on Bobo Doll put in play room moved to diff one with just a Bobo doll observed that these children watched and had more aggressive behavior 2 Explain how observational learning can explain how watching media violence may increase the likelihood of physical aggression Does exposure to media violence contribute to realworld violence correlational studies longitudinal studies laboratory studies and field studies 0 all say some sort of causal relation
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