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CAS100A Final

by: Brianne Hargrove

CAS100A Final CAS100A

Brianne Hargrove
Penn State

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About this Document

This information covers the study guide that is provided by the teacher, however, also look at any other notes.
CAS 100A
Dr. Stec
Study Guide
Motivatedsequence, Hierarchy of Needs, fallacies of reasoning, Rhetorical Situation
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brianne Hargrove on Wednesday August 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CAS100A at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Stec in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see CAS 100A in Speech & Communication at Pennsylvania State University.


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Date Created: 08/03/16
1  Chapter Two ● Public Advocacy ○ Activity of speaking or writing to civic audiences in arguing for policies ● Civic Engagement ○ Active involvement in community life and social issues ● Critical Listening/Thinking ○ To be able to listen to others’ messages and distinguish the good from the bad ○​ “​ ritical” - to be discerning, make judgments ○ Involves determining the speaker’s purpose, what you are being asked to believe, whether the speaker provides good reasons for taking action, whether facts are solid and conclusion is linked logically to them, whether you are being appealed to emotionally, whether the language is clear or precise ● Plagiarism ○ Presenting another’s ideas or words as if they are purely one’s own ○ Prevented by giving proper credit where due Chapter Four ● Communication Model ● Basic Components of Communication Model ○ Sender ​- person that creates and sends the message ○ Receiver ​- person that takes in and makes sense of the message ○ Message - ​ something that is said or done ○ Context ​- the setting, occasion, and time that affect the way a conversation is held ● Other Components of Communication Model 2  ○ Meanings ​- central ideas that we want another person to understand and respond to (can be conscious or unconscious thoughts) ○ Symbols ​- cognitive (conscious) meanings that include words, hand signals, and ​deliberate​ ​facial expressions ■ Ex) waving, winking ○ Signs ​- emotional (unconscious) meanings that include one’s emotional state being revealed through ​involuntary ​body language, tone, or facial expression ■ Ex) shaking during speech (nervousness), blushing (embarrassment) ○ Encoding ​- finding and selecting symbols to represent one’s cognitive meanings so that it makes sense to the receiver ○ Decoding ​- interpretation of a message by the receiver by using his or her own meanings toward the sender’s symbols and signs ○ Feedback ​- the encoded message sent by the receiver back to the sender ○ Medium (channel)​ - the means of communication ■ Ex) face-to-face, phone, text, email, letter ○ External noise​ - environmental factors that interfere with the transmission of the message ■ Ex) a passing ambulance or police car ○ Internal noise​ - noise between the sender and the receiver ■ Ex) purposeful silence, inattention, selective hearing ● How a Message is Influenced by the Sender and Receiver ○ Personal experiences ○ Interests ○ Values and beliefs ○ Priorities ○ Goals and motivations ○ Feelings toward other person ○ Mood ○ Language skills ○ Self-confidence ○ Knowledge ● Rhetorical Situation ○ Occurs when an issue or problem creates the need for communication ■ Three Components ➢ Exigence​ (the problem) that can be corrected through discourse ➢ Audience​ - people affected by discourse that can assist in solving a problem ➢ Constraints​ (time, physical setting, psychological factors of audience, topic, speaker’s own character and knowledge) Chapter Five ● Speech Purposes​ - to produce psychological effects in the minds of readers ○ To Inform 3  ■ Creating awareness and understanding of a subject and its causes, effects, magnitude, inner workings ■ Utilizes devices such as definitions, descriptions, examples, illustrations, demonstrations, analogies, statistics, and testimony ○ To Convince ■ Influencing a listener's beliefs or opinions about a subject ■ Producing conviction or agreement ■ Utilizes arguments and reasoning (logic - logos) and ethos ○ To Motivate ■ Moving someone to action ■ Utilizes pathos ○ To Celebrate ■ Honoring, praising, solemnizing, or commemorating persons or events ■ Utilizes descriptions, explanations, arguments, emotional appeals, honorability, praise or blame, morality, historic events, worthwhileness of personal accomplishments ● Thesis Statement ○ Expresses what you want your audience to take away from your speech ○ The ​residual message ○ Includes the central idea and the psychological response you want to produce in the audience ● Audience Analysis ○ Process of gaining insight into an audience’s psychological makeup ■ Its beliefs, attitudes, opinions, misconceptions, knowledge, values, motivations, language abilities, emotional states (​refer to communication model - how the message is influenced​) ● Informative Speaking ○ Educating the audience on an issue or problem so that they understand it ● Persuasive Speaking ○ Posing possible solutions to a problem that the audience is already knowledgeable about and concerned about ○ Generating belief and agreement in your audience to accept your recommendations ● Focuses of Persuasion ○ Question of Fact ■ Ex) Questions of existence ○ Question of Value ■ Ex) Something is right/wrong, moral/immoral, better/worse ○ Question of Policy ■ You argue that some action should or should not be taken ■ Ex) To persuade the audience that X should be Y 4  Chapter Six ● The Classical Canons ○ Invention ​- generating content and strategies for a speech through a speaker’s research and judgment ■ Involves: ➢ Identifying main points for speech ○ Allows us to narrow and focus research efforts ➢ Devising appropriate communication techniques ○ Allows us to obtain a desired response from the audience ➢ Research ○ Allows us to find relevant material that will be used to inform, convince, or motivate​ an audience ■ In the process of selection, information must be based on: ● The audience ● Relevance to main ideas ● Whether it provides the strongest support ○ Arrangement ​- organizing and structuring the “invented” material ■ Introduction, Body - where central ideas are presented (arguments and motivational techniques), Conclusion ■ Patterns ➢ Chronological/temporal​ - past, present, future ➢ Narrative​ - variation of chronological, based on storytelling ➢ Spatial​ - organized according to geography or space, relation of places to one another ➢ Cause-Effect​ - how something happens or what will follow from it ➢ Problem-Solution​ - used to advocate a policy to address an exigency ➢ Need-Plan-Advantages​ - variation of ​Problem-Solution​ - introduces the problem, presents policy, shows how policy is better than others ➢ Alternatives-Elimination-Residues​ - introduces several alternatives to a problem, eliminates each, and proposes the preferred alternative ➢ Comparison-Contrast​ - shows how a subject is similar and different from other subjects that the audience is familiar with ○ Used to inform and educate an audience ➢ Ascending-Descending​ - material either builds up to or descends from a climactic ending or beginning 5  ➢ Inductive​ - variation of ascending, information builds logically to the ultimate conclusion ➢ Deductive​ - variation of descending, ultimate proposition is presented first and then the supporting arguments ➢ Topical-Categorical​ - main points arranged to how they can be fit together most logically in terms of content and audience’s interests ➢ Motivated Sequence​ - a progression of ideas to move an audience to take personal action​ ttention, Need, Satisfaction, Visualization, Action​) ■ Factors to Consider for Arrangement ➢ Subject Matter ➢ Purpose (t ​ o Inform, Convince, Motivate, Celebrate​) ➢ Audience ■ Types of O​ utlines ➢ Working outline ➢ Preparational outline (full sentence) ➢ Keyword outline (speaking) ➢ Formal outline ■ Functions of an Introduction ➢ Gain Audience Attention ➢ Orient audience toward topic, speech purpose, and speaker ➢ Identify the topic of speech ➢ Preview the main points ■ Functions of a Conclusion ➢ Signal the end of speech ➢ Summarize main ideas ➢ Re-emphasize the thesis ➢ Leave audience in an appropriate frame of mind ■ Transitions ➢ Vocal - tone ➢ Internal summaries - brief recap of previous point followed by a lead into next point ➢ Internal previews - brief preview of specific main point within the body ➢ Signposting - repetition of keywords used in the preview ○ Style ■ Elements of Style ➢ Clarity ➢ Accuracy/Precision ➢ Appropriateness ➢ Simplicity ➢ Concreteness 6  ➢ Familiarity ➢ Vividness ■ Stylistic Devices for Imagery ➢ Adjectives/adverbs that evoke visual, auditory, other images ➢ Descriptions using vivid language to create a detailed word-picture of an object or idea ➢ Metaphors - implicit comparison between two things ➢ Similes ■ Stylistic Devices for Rhythm ➢ Alliteration ➢ Onomatopoeia ➢ Repetition ➢ Parallel ➢ Antithesis ■ Stylistic Demands ➢ Accuracy/precision ➢ Occasion ➢ Speech purpose ➢ Audience ○ Memory ■ Forms of Memorization ➢ Internal (impromptu) ➢ External (manuscript) ➢ Mixed (extemporaneous - not word for word as prepared) ○ Delivery ■ Vocal Components ➢ Volume ➢ Rate ➢ Pitch ➢ Tone ➢ Pronunciation/Enunciation/Articulation ➢ Pauses ➢ Fluency ➢ Vocal Variety - all vocal components ■ Physical Components ➢ Facial expressions ➢ Eye contact ➢ Gestures ➢ Movement ➢ Posture ➢ Appearance 7  Chapter Ten ● Ceremonial Speaking ○ Serves to articulate a group’s commitment to a shared value or set of values ○ Encourage social cohesion and adherence to communal ideas ● Occassion for Ceremonial Speaking ○ Speeches of Greeting ■ Welcome Speech ■ Speech of Introduction ○ Receiving an Award ■ Acceptance Speech ○ Speeches that honor ■ Toast ■ Roast ■ Testimonial ■ Presenting an Award ■ Commencement Address ■ Eulogy ■ Dedication ■ Commemoration ○ Farewell Speech ○ After-dinner Speech ● Creating a Ceremonial Speech ○ Identify the exigence ○ Identify the occasion ○ Identify audience expectations (norms) ○ Identify audience values ○ Identify constraints (time, subject matter) ○ Identify purpose for speech ○ Formulate thesis statement ○ Apply the canons (​ Invention, Arrangement, Style, Memory, Delivery) Chapter Eleven ● Fallacies ○ Definition​: an error in reasoning that can be both intentional or unintentional; leaving out information purposefully. Providing insufficient or irrelevant information ○ Types ■ Non Sequitur ​- “does not follow” ● Fails to create a connection between premises; irrelevant reasons support a claim 8  ● Ex) “I wore a red shirt when I took the test, so that is probably why I did well on the test.” ■ Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc ● Because one thing followed the other, it was caused by the other ● Assumes that correlation means causation ● Ex) “A black cat walked by Sally so later that day she ended up in an accident.” ■ Ad Hominem​ - “ against the person” ● Attacking opponent's personal character to undermine their argument ● Ex) “How can you argue your case for vegetarianism when you are enjoying your steak?” ■ Slippery Slope ● Assumes without sufficient evidence that if a step is taken that catastrophic events will arise from it ● Ex) “If we continue to litter, rats will take over the world and spread the bubonic plague again.” ■ Straw Man ● Exaggerates or misrepresents an opponent’s true argument to make their own position seem stronger ● Ex) “We should put more money into healthcare and education. Do you hate this country that much that you want to cut back on military spending?” ■ Red Herring ● An irrelevant topic is introduced to divert the audience’s attention from the issue at hand ● Ex) “I can’t believe you cheated on me! You really need to take the garbage out; it smells.” ■ Bandwagon ● Appealing to the fact that many people do something to validate the argument ● Ex) “All the freshmen love partying, and we drink at parties, so they should love drinking too.” ● Types of Reasoning (Logos) ○ Inductive ■ Process of forming beliefs about something from a limited number of encounters or experience with it ■ Reasoning from specific facts to a general, factual conclusion (specific to general) ■ Used to support a general inductive conclusion ● Examples ● Statistics ● Narratives 9  ○ Deductive ■ Process of reasoning from general facts, through a general principle, to specific conclusion (general to specific) ■ Drawing specific inferences from our observations in conjunction with general beliefs ● Major Premise​ (​Warrant​) - general rule accepted by the audience ● Minor Premise​ (​Evidence​) - factual observation or assertion ● Conclusion ( ​ ​Claim​) - logical proposition inferred from the two premises together) Ex)​ e-reasoning.html 10 


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