GLOAassginment1.pdf GLOA 101
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alicia Muir on Wednesday August 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GLOA 101 at George Mason University taught by Gavin Mueller in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Intro to Global Affairs in Global Studies at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 08/03/16
The Reunification of Cyprus In 1974 the two major demographics in Cyprus, the Turkish cypriots and the Greek Cypriots, started to battle each other primarily because military troops from Turkey began to inhabit the northern part of Cyprus. This battle caused the separation between the two nationalities in Cyprus; the Turkish Cypriots are in the north and the Greek Cypriots are in the south. However, this past summer discussions of reunification, fostered by the U.N., began between Nicos Anastasiades, the Greek Cypriot leader, and Mustafa Akinci, the turkish Cypriot leader. Although both groups claim to be their own selfgoverning state only Greek Cypriots have international recognition and membership in the U.N and the E.U as the Republic of Cyprus. On the other hand, even though northern Cyprus has its own government and citizens, it is only recognized by Turkey. This inequality has caused problems with past negotiations aiming to reunite Cyprus because normally the Republic of Cyprus turns down the deal because they do not have as much to lose as the northern Cyprus if the reunification deal were to fail. The Republic of Cyprus enjoys all the benefits of statehood even while they are separated from the north. However, with two willing and motivated leaders on both sides, a reunification fostered by the U.N is reinstilling hope in the general public of Cyprus. In the eyes of Nicos Anastasiades, the reunification has obvious technical problems and disagreements that will have to be dealt with, but there is a lot to gain by reunifying the country as one. The economy of Cyprus will improve drastically if reunification occurs. Turkey, as the only supporter of northern Cyprus, has an embargo on the Republic of Cyprus which costs the republic revenue from their closest neighbor. On the other hand, Northern Turkey lacks recognition by the E.U which means that the accepted and enforced trade rules that all members of the E.U must uphold do not apply in northern Turkey; this decreases the interest of investors and partners to get involved with northern Cyprus. Also, famous tourist beaches that provided jobs and revenue to the island have been shut down for 40 years because they are in noman'sland in between the two sections of Cyprus. Overall, by unifying Cyprus, their economy would increase and recover more quickly from the 20092010 global financial crisis. The economic benefits is one of the major causes for the push to reunify. In this situation where two “states” that have been on opposing sides of a battle for forty years need to put all of their differences aside and unite as one, it would be an understatement to say that they will have serious hurdles to overcome. At the moment, the Republic of Cyprus is an example of a nationstate and the Northern Turkish Republic of Cyprus is an example of a stateless nation. While only the south has a nationstate due to its international recognition as the sole ruling power in Cyprus, both parts of Cyprus are rooted in ethnic and national ties. This nationalism is founded on a common identity and ethnicity that has preserved the conflict for four decades, must dissolve into one common Cypriot nation in order for success to be possible. The reintegration process is a key aspect to reunification meaning that the Turks and Greeks of Cyprus can not stay separated; therefore, an expensive relocation process will have to occur and the issue of property rights before the separation will have to be discussed. Many individuals from both sides took refuge in the north or the south forcing them to leave their homes behind. 40 years later what are these people’s rights to the old property if any? Nicos Anastasiades and Mustafa Akinci see property and relocation as the first main hurdle to a unified nation. Afterall, the relocation process will cost a lot of money because of the aid they will have to provide each family to move and Cyprus does not have a booming economy at the moment. Cyprus displays two states with strong ethnic nationalism that need to be melted down and reshaped in order to represent a truly united Cyprus. Nationalism is rooted in culture, traditions, and beliefs, but not necessarily ethnicity. The fact that Cyprus is separated into two factions, Turks and Greeks, is only a barrier to reunification if they make it one. A singular ethnicity is not mandatory for Cyprus to be successful, but thorough integration and the emergence of a blended culture is essential. Works Cited: Morgan, Tabitha. "Cyprus Peace Talks: Rocky Road to Reunification BBC News." B BBC, 16 June 2015. Web. 07 Oct. 2015. Gorvett, Jonathan. "Cyprus Hopes Reunification Talks Will Revive a Resort, Population 0." The New York Times. The New York Times, 31 Aug. 2015. Web. 07 Oct. 2015. "President Tells UN." U N News Center. UN News Center, 29 Sept. 2015. Web. 7 Oct. 2015. Neoliberalism a bipartisan movement that occurred in the 1970s starting in England and the U.S. led by margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan that was a direct rejection of Keynesian economics. This new system embraced the limitations placed on government when it comes to its ability to intervene in the economy so some key characteristics include privatization, the creation of new markets, a decrease in social spending, the use of monetary policy to financial policies and a deregulation of finance. Characteristics of Capitalism: ● shift of populations from rural to urban ● economic growth is a necessity ● industrial society is a must Globalization: a complex web of multiple ongoing social processes that intensifies and expands cultural, political, technological and economic exchanges and connections through a series of flows which ultimately connects local and national governments to global structures. ● refers to the expansion and intensification of social relations and consciousness across world time and worldspace Adjudication: settling a dispute formally in a courtroom or another formal structure Kyoto Protocol: the conference the U.N held to help the environment based on influence from a NGO GATT General Agreement of Trade and Tariffs reduced trade barriers across countries which was a treaty but powers were taken over by the WTO Monetarism: the value of money, interest rates and inflation rates need to be helped in order to improve after financial crisis not the demand of good themselves. Solution is to deregulate to make more money ICJ International Court of Justice in the U.N15 seats 9 year terms Global Imaginary people’s growing consciousness of global connectivity SAPs Structural adjustment programs led by World Bank, WTO, and the IMF who are all products of the Bretton Woods conference Culture: refers to the shared beliefs, values, myths, norms, symbols and ideals of a shared entity. 3 reactions to Westernization: ● local cultures are largely replaced ● global pressures can lead to a resurgence of attention and celebration of local culture ● cultural hybridity with the exchange of two cultures SmallL liberalism: classical liberalism by reducing state intervention in the economy (laissezfaire) with free autonomous individuals who have natural civil liberties ● citizenshipasstatus in global terms where there are legal rights to protect Small R republicanism:civil liberties that should not be messed with and the idea of selfgovernance(democratic) that individuals have a stake in their government. ● Citizenshipasactivity in global terms where participation is key Proponents of Free Trade argue that it increases global wealth which increase consumer choice. But the profits from free trade do not spread themselves out equally among different classes. TNCs: transnational corporations sometimes even have a higher GDP than countries. Like Walmart and Exon. Why Neoliberalism? (need to understand better) ● economic ○ wages were rising but businesses wanted to stop that because it was cutting into profits ■ rate of profit slows down ● fix this by outmaneuvering unions ● political ○ antiwar, antirace, civil rights mvmt by people against govt. ■ social mvmts are threat to ruling classes Asian Financial Crisis: ● Indonesia, Malaysia, S. Korea ect. were built up too much too quick so value of assets drop. Then the World Bank funded with enough money just to get the financial investors to get their money back and then market crashed. Financialization: ● increase in riskiness ○ contracts too complicated and most did not read them ● credit default swap money off of worker’s insurance ● collateralized debt obligation is when subprime loans (give loans to people who can’t pay them back) ● realestate crashes, unemployment increases ○ used monetarism to solve the problem ■ lowered interest rates all the way so now this option is off the table for the next crisis ● now speculative capital is going into the technology markets, renewable energy, and real estate in core cities (NY, D.C, San Francisco) Nationalism: A shared sense of culture and political belonging, including traditions, languages, rituals, and the “outside”, that is territorially bounded which gives people an active sense of purpose through their belief in an imagined community. Muir 1 Population ● overpopulation is an outdated concept ● population can’t be seen as a solution to overconsumption like the textbook suggests ○ verging on eliminating people which is not an option ● zero population growth rate population neither grows nor declines ● negative growt rates indicates that population figures are declining ● population growth is not distributed evenly ○ Asia has the highest ○ trend where developing countries’ populations are increasing and developed countries’ populations are decreasing ■ demographic transition heory that links industrial development with declining fertility (economic explanation) ● developed countries are close to their replacement levels, but developing countries are much higher. ● natural increase the yearly difference in # of births and deaths in a population (birth rate death rate= natural increase) Consumption: ● carrying capacity (Outdated concept because it is hard to calculate) the ability of the Earth’s natural environment to sustain the human population ○ some think these can be expanded others think they are finite ● food security is an issue ○ green revolution GMOs ■ used more water water scarcity ■ used more fertilizer increased $$ and increase in weeds ○ locavore eat only local food ● consumer culture ○ increased attention to marketing caused the public to believe they NEED the product ■ increase of wages and expansion of credit facilitated this shift Global Commodity Chains: ● commodity is a raw material or good that you can use but you can also buy/sell ● Basic commodity chain: ○ 1. production ○ 2. distribution ○ 3. consumption ○ 4. waste ● global capitalism is complicated because companies like Nike don’t have actual factories. They subcontract, so they can’t be blamed for malpractices that occur in the factories like suicide or poor treatment. ● global labor arbitrag hen barriers to trade are lowered, corporations can seek out the lowest wages for their workers possible (outsourcing is an example) Muir 2 ○ nike gets plausible deniability ○ Nike is more of an advertising company makes ads and profits ■ probably 50 cents to make Jordans but they sell it for 189.99 ● Nike workers are almost all female except for managers intimidation factor ○ gender inequality in the workplace uneven ● EXAMPLE: republican model of global citizenship can be seen in regards to Nike because of the student against sweatshops conference ○ college students, target audience of Nike, get univeristy to dump Nike as a school provider ● Barriers to trade ■ technology of transportation ■ tariff tax on an imported good ■ skilled laborers ■ conflicts ■ regulations min. wage, child labor laws, environmental restrictions ■ organized labor/unions want to increase wages ● Containerization: ○ global standardization with uniformity ○ global trade benefits from this automatic process because it is constant and automatic Economy as a World System: ● worldsystem theory ○ looks for where economy is connected rather than individual actors ● developeddevelopingleast developed countries are the new terms instead of 1st world to 3rd world ○ assumes all countries moving towards development and that it is a continual process Environment: ● Problems our environment is facing: ○ ozone layer depletion ○ global climate change ○ carbon emissions caused by the burning of fossil fuels ○ deforestation ○ ocean ○ dessertification ○ clean water ○ human generated waste (technology) ● Great Pacific Garbage Patch ○ unknown size could be Texas to the entire U.S ○ have to map and monitor but we need to develop standards first ○ located in the gyres don’t know how many exist Muir 3 ● Recycling targets consumer end but you could also target the producer end ● anthropogenic climate change caused by humans ● why have global environmental efforts failed? ○ trade agreements can override these regulations since they can be argued as a barrier ○ powerful MNCs can manipulate poorer countries and ignore regulations ○ developing nations see restrictions on their industrialization as unfair ○ major countries refuse to participate like the U.S ● Ewaste ○ Moore’s Law ??? ○ extended producer responsibility producer still responsible after commodity is sold ○ some tech materials for things like cellphones are rare so recycling is necessary ■ technology also has a lot of toxins that hurt workers, consumers, and the environment. ○ modular designs could help because than products would be easy to fix (just replace one part) ■ would help recycle them since they would be easy to remove while also helping consumers customize their good ○ externality cost not associated with the production of a good. (sometimes a social cost) not on the books. EX. could be pollution or overexploitation of resources Globalization and the Internet: ● ARPANet US military built it in the Cold War era in order to create decentralized communication out of fear for an atomic bomb ● Tim Berners created http:// and he gave it away for free ● internet viewed as borderless ○ but infrastructure crosses boundaries ■ fiber cables in the deep oceansubmarine cable ● culture globalized through the internet ○ PSY gangnam style ○ globalization from below instead of topdown ○ viral in nature ■ vine ● cultural misunderstandings ■ memes ● english is heavily used on the web forcing nonenglish speakers to talk ● even w/out border national cultures are still important and unevenness can still persist. ● gold farming do basic gold selling (video games) and sell it for real money ○ global labor arbitrage ● Sahel Music area ○ globalization Muir 4 Human Rights: ● there was a declaration of human rights by the UN after WW2 ○ cold war brought forth and ideological and geopolitical conflict between the U.S and the USSR ■ both had veto powerso it was hard to do things in the UN ● negative vs. positive rights ○ negative rights from things (protections from the state) ex. freedom of speech ■ US ideology ○ positive rights to things (social rights) ex. health care + paid time off ■ USSR ideology ● global rights weren’t a concern until 1970s and Jimmy Carter for the U.S ○ ICJ African leaders tried there ● Torture ○ not supposed to do it ○ U.S does it and we are looked down upon for this ■ we can’t tell other countries to treat people right when we imprison and torture a lot too. (hypocrite conundrum) ● Humanitarian Intervention ○ human rights violations are used to justify military actions ■ Like vietnam war, iraq war, korean war, syrian conflict ● even aspects of the white savior narrative here ○ war is justified by this to appear as helping people from “badguys” ■ conceals strategic goals ○ Yugoslavia NATO intervened based on human rights ○ The Act of Killing in class movie shows that man is capable of not having humanity. ■ no guilt in Indonesia for over 1 million murders ● genocides can become statistics rather than people Gender Issues: ● unevenness of globalization carries over to gender ● women make up 70% of the world’s poor ○ need to be targeted to address world poverty ■ can’t just hire women more women need to go to college ○ caretaker role is an issue ● women’s formal labor force participation is stagnant at 55% ● women own less than 1% of the world’s property ● formal vs informal labor ○ formal is on the books normal job ○ informal cooking, cleaning, raising the children ■ unpaid labor ● patriarchythe structure of social lifelabor, state, and consciousness such that more social resources and value accrue to men as a group than women as a group Muir 5 ● microfinance ○ it is a bad idea that has decreased in popularity, but is still present ○ loans to people from very poor countries and poor people targeted especially women ■ high interest rates Trafficking: ● Nick Kristoff NY times columnist who bought prostitutes to free them ● white savior narrative ○ white protagonist(typically a man) encounters ethnic “others” in a hostile foreign setting and he helps to save the good people from the bad people and learns something about himself along the way (Ex. Avatar) ■ white man’s burden ● 1899 poem by Rudyard Kipling ● ideology to help justify colonialism ● Problems with the White Savior Narrative ○ 1. all about the journey of the protagonist ○ 2. takes away the power of those suffering to save themselves ○ 3. shows intervention as a solution to problems caused by dysfunctional society (when the problems could have been started by intervention and globalization in the first place) ○ 4. isolate and individualizes problems that are often complicated and interconnected. ● Trafficking is the ○ recruitment, transportation, transfer or harbouring or receipt of person by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, etc. for the purpose of exploitation ■ UN definition ● Myths of Trafficking ○ always violent ○ primarily involves prostitution ○ victims are kidnapped or tricked ○ victims are always most innocent person ■ TAKEN shows most of these myths ● Sex Workers and Saviors ○ people sell sex for a variety of reasons and under a variety of circumstances ■ not all are coerced ○ outlawing sex work doesn’t solve the problem ■ instead it makes sex work more dangerous since sex workers are reluctant to talk to law enforcement and politicians ● Antitrafficking laws don’t address the reasons people migrate ○ these laws can make the circumstances of vulnerable migrants more difficult leading them to illegal actions
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