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by: Alicia Muir

FinalReview.pdf GLOA 101

Alicia Muir
GPA 4.0

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Comprehensive Final Study Guide. This will get you an A
Intro to Global Affairs
Gavin Mueller
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alicia Muir on Wednesday August 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GLOA 101 at George Mason University taught by Gavin Mueller in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Intro to Global Affairs in Global Studies at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 08/03/16
    Muir 1  Population  ● overpopulation is an outdated concept   ● population can’t be seen as a solution to over­consumption like the textbook suggests  ○ verging on eliminating people­ which is not an option  ● zero population growth rate­ ​population neither grows nor declines  ● negative growt​  rates­​ indicates that population figures are declining  ● population growth is not distributed evenly  ○ Asia has the highest  ○ trend where developing countries’ populations are increasing and developed  countries’ populations are decreasing  ■ demographic transition­ ​ heory that links industrial development with  declining fertility (economic explanation)  ● developed countries are close to their replacement levels, but  developing countries are much higher.   ● natural increase­​ the yearly difference in # of births and deaths in a population (birth  rate­ death rate= natural increase)    Consumption:  ● carrying capacity (Outdated concept because it is hard to calculate)­ the ability of the  Earth’s natural environment to sustain the human population  ○ some think these can be expanded others think they are finite  ● food security is an issue  ○ green revolution­ GMOs­   ■ used more water­ water scarcity  ■ used more fertilizer­ increased $$ and increase in weeds  ○ locavore­ eat only local food  ● consumer culture  ○ increased attention to marketing caused the public to believe they NEED the  product  ■ increase of wages and expansion of credit facilitated this shift    Global Commodity Chains:  ● commodity­​ is a raw material or good that you can use but you can also buy/sell  ● Basic commodity chain:  ○ 1. production  ○ 2. distribution  ○ 3. consumption  ○ 4. waste  ● global capitalism is complicated because companies like Nike don’t have actual  factories. They subcontract, so they can’t be blamed for malpractices that occur in the  factories like suicide or poor treatment.  ● global labor arbitrag​ hen barriers to trade are lowered, corporations can seek out the  lowest wages for their workers possible (outsourcing is an example)      Muir 2  ○ nike gets plausible deniability   ○ Nike is more of an advertising company­ makes ads and profits  ■ probably 50 cents to make Jordans but they sell it for 189.99  ● Nike workers are almost all female except for managers­ intimidation factor  ○ gender inequality in the workplace­ uneven  ● EXAMPLE: republican model of global citizenship can be seen in regards to Nike  because of the student against sweatshops conference  ○ college students, target audience of Nike, get univeristy to dump Nike as a school  provider  ● Barriers to trade  ■ technology of transportation  ■ tariff­ tax on an imported good  ■ skilled laborers  ■ conflicts  ■ regulations­ min. wage, child labor laws, environmental restrictions  ■ organized labor/unions­ want to increase wages  ● Containerization:  ○ global standardization with uniformity   ○ global trade benefits from this automatic process because it is constant and  automatic    Economy as a World System:  ● world­system theory  ○ looks for where economy is connected rather than individual actors  ● developed­developing­least developed countries are the new terms instead of 1st world  to 3rd world   ○ assumes all countries moving towards development and that it is a continual  process    Environment:  ● Problems our environment is facing:  ○ ozone layer depletion  ○ global climate change  ○ carbon emissions­ caused by the burning of fossil fuels  ○ deforestation  ○ ocean  ○ dessertification  ○ clean water  ○ human generated waste (technology)  ● Great Pacific Garbage Patch  ○ unknown size­ could be Texas to the entire U.S  ○ have to map and monitor but we need to develop standards first  ○ located in the gyres­ don’t know how many exist      Muir 3  ● Recycling targets consumer end­ but you could also target the producer end   ● anthropogenic climate change­ caused by humans  ● why have global environmental efforts failed?  ○ trade agreements can override these regulations since they can be argued as a  barrier  ○ powerful MNCs can manipulate poorer countries and ignore regulations  ○ developing nations see restrictions on their industrialization as unfair  ○ major countries refuse to participate like the U.S  ● E­waste  ○ Moore’s Law ???  ○ extended producer responsibility­ producer still responsible after commodity is  sold  ○ some tech materials for things like cell­phones are rare so recycling is necessary  ■ technology also has a lot of toxins that hurt workers, consumers, and the  environment.  ○ modular designs could help because than products would be easy to fix (just  replace one part)  ■ would help recycle them since they would be easy to remove while also  helping consumers customize their good  ○ externality­​ cost not associated with the production of a good. (sometimes a  social cost) ­ not on the books. EX. could be pollution or overexploitation of  resources    Globalization and the Internet:  ● ARPANet ­ US military built it in the Cold War era in order to create decentralized  communication out of fear for an atomic bomb  ● Tim Berners created http:// and he gave it away for free  ● internet viewed as borderless  ○ but infrastructure crosses boundaries   ■ fiber cables in the deep ocean­submarine cable   ● culture globalized through the internet  ○ PSY­ gangnam style  ○ globalization from below instead of top­down  ○ viral in nature  ■ vine   ● cultural misunderstandings  ■ memes  ● english is heavily used on the web forcing non­english speakers to talk  ● even w/out border national cultures are still important and unevenness can still persist.   ● gold farming­ do basic gold selling (video games) and sell it for real money  ○ global labor arbitrage  ● Sahel Music area  ○ globalization      Muir 4  Human Rights:  ● there was a declaration of human rights by the UN after WW2  ○ cold war brought forth and ideological and geopolitical conflict between the U.S  and the USSR  ■ both had veto power­so it was hard to do things in the UN  ● negative vs. positive rights  ○ negative­ rights from things (protections from the state) ex. freedom of speech  ■ US ideology   ○ positive­ rights to things (social rights) ex. health care + paid time off  ■ USSR ideology   ● global rights weren’t a concern until 1970s and Jimmy Carter for the U.S  ○ ICJ­ African leaders tried there  ● Torture  ○ not supposed to do it  ○ U.S does it and we are looked down upon for this  ■ we can’t tell other countries to treat people right when we imprison and  torture a lot too. (hypocrite conundrum)  ● Humanitarian Intervention  ○ human rights violations are used to justify military actions  ■ Like vietnam war, iraq war, korean war, syrian conflict  ● even aspects of the white savior narrative here  ○ war is justified by this to appear as helping people from “bad­guys”   ■ conceals strategic goals  ○ Yugoslavia­ NATO intervened based on human rights   ○ The Act of Killing­ in class movie­ shows that man is capable of not having  humanity.   ■ no guilt in Indonesia for over 1 million murders  ● genocides can become statistics rather than people    Gender Issues:  ● unevenness of globalization carries over to gender  ● women make up 70% of the world’s poor  ○ need to be targeted to address world poverty  ■ can’t just hire women­ more women need to go to college  ○ care­taker role is an issue  ● women’s formal labor force participation is stagnant at 55%  ● women own less than 1% of the world’s property  ● formal vs informal labor  ○ formal is on the books­ normal job  ○ informal­ cooking, cleaning, raising the children   ■ unpaid labor  ● patriarchy­­­​the structure of social life­labor, state, and consciousness­ such that more  social resources and value accrue to men as a group than women as a group      Muir 5  ● microfinance  ○ it is a bad idea that has decreased in popularity, but is still present  ○ loans to people from very poor countries and poor people targeted­ especially  women  ■ high interest rates    Trafficking:  ● Nick Kristoff­ NY times columnist who bought prostitutes to free them   ● white savior narrative  ○ white protagonist(typically a man) encounters ethnic “others” in a hostile foreign  setting and he helps to save the good people from the bad people and learns  something about himself along the way (Ex. Avatar)  ■ white man’s burden  ● 1899 poem by Rudyard Kipling  ● ideology to help justify colonialism  ● Problems with the White Savior Narrative  ○ 1. all about the journey of the protagonist  ○ 2. takes away the power of those suffering to save themselves  ○ 3. shows intervention as a solution to problems caused by dysfunctional society  (when the problems could have been started by intervention and globalization in  the first place)  ○ 4. isolate and individualizes problems that are often complicated and  interconnected.   ● Trafficking​ is the   ○ recruitment, transportation, transfer or harbouring or receipt of person by means  of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of  deception, etc. for the purpose of exploitation  ■ UN definition  ● Myths of Trafficking   ○ always violent  ○ primarily involves prostitution   ○ victims are kidnapped or tricked   ○ victims are always most innocent person  ■ TAKEN shows most of these myths  ● Sex Workers and Saviors  ○ people sell sex for a variety of reasons and under a variety of circumstances  ■ not all are coerced  ○ outlawing sex work doesn’t solve the problem  ■ instead it makes sex work more dangerous since sex workers are  reluctant to talk to law enforcement and politicians  ● Anti­trafficking laws don’t address the reasons people migrate  ○ these laws can make the circumstances of vulnerable migrants more difficult  leading them to illegal actions 


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