FinalReview.pdf GLOA 101
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alicia Muir on Wednesday August 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GLOA 101 at George Mason University taught by Gavin Mueller in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Intro to Global Affairs in Global Studies at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 08/03/16
Muir 1 Population ● overpopulation is an outdated concept ● population can’t be seen as a solution to overconsumption like the textbook suggests ○ verging on eliminating people which is not an option ● zero population growth rate population neither grows nor declines ● negative growt rates indicates that population figures are declining ● population growth is not distributed evenly ○ Asia has the highest ○ trend where developing countries’ populations are increasing and developed countries’ populations are decreasing ■ demographic transition heory that links industrial development with declining fertility (economic explanation) ● developed countries are close to their replacement levels, but developing countries are much higher. ● natural increase the yearly difference in # of births and deaths in a population (birth rate death rate= natural increase) Consumption: ● carrying capacity (Outdated concept because it is hard to calculate) the ability of the Earth’s natural environment to sustain the human population ○ some think these can be expanded others think they are finite ● food security is an issue ○ green revolution GMOs ■ used more water water scarcity ■ used more fertilizer increased $$ and increase in weeds ○ locavore eat only local food ● consumer culture ○ increased attention to marketing caused the public to believe they NEED the product ■ increase of wages and expansion of credit facilitated this shift Global Commodity Chains: ● commodity is a raw material or good that you can use but you can also buy/sell ● Basic commodity chain: ○ 1. production ○ 2. distribution ○ 3. consumption ○ 4. waste ● global capitalism is complicated because companies like Nike don’t have actual factories. They subcontract, so they can’t be blamed for malpractices that occur in the factories like suicide or poor treatment. ● global labor arbitrag hen barriers to trade are lowered, corporations can seek out the lowest wages for their workers possible (outsourcing is an example) Muir 2 ○ nike gets plausible deniability ○ Nike is more of an advertising company makes ads and profits ■ probably 50 cents to make Jordans but they sell it for 189.99 ● Nike workers are almost all female except for managers intimidation factor ○ gender inequality in the workplace uneven ● EXAMPLE: republican model of global citizenship can be seen in regards to Nike because of the student against sweatshops conference ○ college students, target audience of Nike, get univeristy to dump Nike as a school provider ● Barriers to trade ■ technology of transportation ■ tariff tax on an imported good ■ skilled laborers ■ conflicts ■ regulations min. wage, child labor laws, environmental restrictions ■ organized labor/unions want to increase wages ● Containerization: ○ global standardization with uniformity ○ global trade benefits from this automatic process because it is constant and automatic Economy as a World System: ● worldsystem theory ○ looks for where economy is connected rather than individual actors ● developeddevelopingleast developed countries are the new terms instead of 1st world to 3rd world ○ assumes all countries moving towards development and that it is a continual process Environment: ● Problems our environment is facing: ○ ozone layer depletion ○ global climate change ○ carbon emissions caused by the burning of fossil fuels ○ deforestation ○ ocean ○ dessertification ○ clean water ○ human generated waste (technology) ● Great Pacific Garbage Patch ○ unknown size could be Texas to the entire U.S ○ have to map and monitor but we need to develop standards first ○ located in the gyres don’t know how many exist Muir 3 ● Recycling targets consumer end but you could also target the producer end ● anthropogenic climate change caused by humans ● why have global environmental efforts failed? ○ trade agreements can override these regulations since they can be argued as a barrier ○ powerful MNCs can manipulate poorer countries and ignore regulations ○ developing nations see restrictions on their industrialization as unfair ○ major countries refuse to participate like the U.S ● Ewaste ○ Moore’s Law ??? ○ extended producer responsibility producer still responsible after commodity is sold ○ some tech materials for things like cellphones are rare so recycling is necessary ■ technology also has a lot of toxins that hurt workers, consumers, and the environment. ○ modular designs could help because than products would be easy to fix (just replace one part) ■ would help recycle them since they would be easy to remove while also helping consumers customize their good ○ externality cost not associated with the production of a good. (sometimes a social cost) not on the books. EX. could be pollution or overexploitation of resources Globalization and the Internet: ● ARPANet US military built it in the Cold War era in order to create decentralized communication out of fear for an atomic bomb ● Tim Berners created http:// and he gave it away for free ● internet viewed as borderless ○ but infrastructure crosses boundaries ■ fiber cables in the deep oceansubmarine cable ● culture globalized through the internet ○ PSY gangnam style ○ globalization from below instead of topdown ○ viral in nature ■ vine ● cultural misunderstandings ■ memes ● english is heavily used on the web forcing nonenglish speakers to talk ● even w/out border national cultures are still important and unevenness can still persist. ● gold farming do basic gold selling (video games) and sell it for real money ○ global labor arbitrage ● Sahel Music area ○ globalization Muir 4 Human Rights: ● there was a declaration of human rights by the UN after WW2 ○ cold war brought forth and ideological and geopolitical conflict between the U.S and the USSR ■ both had veto powerso it was hard to do things in the UN ● negative vs. positive rights ○ negative rights from things (protections from the state) ex. freedom of speech ■ US ideology ○ positive rights to things (social rights) ex. health care + paid time off ■ USSR ideology ● global rights weren’t a concern until 1970s and Jimmy Carter for the U.S ○ ICJ African leaders tried there ● Torture ○ not supposed to do it ○ U.S does it and we are looked down upon for this ■ we can’t tell other countries to treat people right when we imprison and torture a lot too. (hypocrite conundrum) ● Humanitarian Intervention ○ human rights violations are used to justify military actions ■ Like vietnam war, iraq war, korean war, syrian conflict ● even aspects of the white savior narrative here ○ war is justified by this to appear as helping people from “badguys” ■ conceals strategic goals ○ Yugoslavia NATO intervened based on human rights ○ The Act of Killing in class movie shows that man is capable of not having humanity. ■ no guilt in Indonesia for over 1 million murders ● genocides can become statistics rather than people Gender Issues: ● unevenness of globalization carries over to gender ● women make up 70% of the world’s poor ○ need to be targeted to address world poverty ■ can’t just hire women more women need to go to college ○ caretaker role is an issue ● women’s formal labor force participation is stagnant at 55% ● women own less than 1% of the world’s property ● formal vs informal labor ○ formal is on the books normal job ○ informal cooking, cleaning, raising the children ■ unpaid labor ● patriarchythe structure of social lifelabor, state, and consciousness such that more social resources and value accrue to men as a group than women as a group Muir 5 ● microfinance ○ it is a bad idea that has decreased in popularity, but is still present ○ loans to people from very poor countries and poor people targeted especially women ■ high interest rates Trafficking: ● Nick Kristoff NY times columnist who bought prostitutes to free them ● white savior narrative ○ white protagonist(typically a man) encounters ethnic “others” in a hostile foreign setting and he helps to save the good people from the bad people and learns something about himself along the way (Ex. Avatar) ■ white man’s burden ● 1899 poem by Rudyard Kipling ● ideology to help justify colonialism ● Problems with the White Savior Narrative ○ 1. all about the journey of the protagonist ○ 2. takes away the power of those suffering to save themselves ○ 3. shows intervention as a solution to problems caused by dysfunctional society (when the problems could have been started by intervention and globalization in the first place) ○ 4. isolate and individualizes problems that are often complicated and interconnected. ● Trafficking is the ○ recruitment, transportation, transfer or harbouring or receipt of person by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, etc. for the purpose of exploitation ■ UN definition ● Myths of Trafficking ○ always violent ○ primarily involves prostitution ○ victims are kidnapped or tricked ○ victims are always most innocent person ■ TAKEN shows most of these myths ● Sex Workers and Saviors ○ people sell sex for a variety of reasons and under a variety of circumstances ■ not all are coerced ○ outlawing sex work doesn’t solve the problem ■ instead it makes sex work more dangerous since sex workers are reluctant to talk to law enforcement and politicians ● Antitrafficking laws don’t address the reasons people migrate ○ these laws can make the circumstances of vulnerable migrants more difficult leading them to illegal actions
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