History 1302 Exam 4 Study Guide
History 1302 Exam 4 Study Guide History 1302
Tarrant County College
Popular in US History II since 1867
Popular in History
This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Constance Aguocha on Thursday August 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to History 1302 at Tarrant County College taught by Dr. Peter Martinez in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see US History II since 1867 in History at Tarrant County College.
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Date Created: 08/04/16
Test 4 Exam Review KEY WORDS AND PHRASES WILL BE BOLDED AND UNDERLINED The First New Deal ● Franklin Delanor Roosevelt ook office in March of 1933 ● Fireside Chats ○ About 30 total ○ Chats given by FDR via the radio to instill hope and pride in the American people ○ First time that a president extensively utilized the radio ○ These programs also described fascist states that were rising up ■ Italy, Germany, and Spain ○ The public is made aware that if it comes to war, that the US will be prepared ● Bank Holiday ○ March 6, 1933 ○ Congress convenes and discussed how to keep more banks from failing ○ All banks were closed during this time, hence the term “holiday” ○ Emergency Banking Act ■ March 9, 1933 ■ Provided for banks to be reopened as soon as examiners found them to be financially secure ● GlassSteagall Act ○ June 1933 ○ Gives the US the ability to stop irresponsible loan distribution by banks ○ Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation(FDIC) ■ Provided insurance on peoples’ bank accounts for amounts up to $2,500 ■ Before this was established, if a bank failed then your money would be gone ● Security and Exchange Commission(SEC) ○ 1934 ○ Required companies to give full financial disclosures if they wanted to sell stocks ○ Prevented unfair manipulation of stock exchanges ● Agricultural and Adjustment Act(AAA) ○ May 1933 ○ Gave the federal government the right to mandate what crop and how much of a crop that a farmer could grow ○ Farmers would be compensated for unused land ○ Later declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court ○ Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act ■ Federal government paid farmers to grow less so that the soil would be preserved and erosion would be reduced ■ Encouraged farmer to grow grass and other soil conserving crops ● Rural Electrification Administration ○ 1935 ○ Federal government provided electricity to areas that didn’t have any MadebyConstanceAguocha ● National Industrial Recovery Act(NIRA) ○ 1933 ○ Authorized the president to regulate industry in an attempt to stimulate the economy ○ National Recovery Administration(NRA) ■ 1933 ■ Established a $0.300.40 minimum wage ■ Calls for abolition of child labor ■ 3540hr work week ■ Price fixing by big business ○ NIRA declared unconstitutional ■ Federal government has no right to infringe on business ■ Having a federal minimum wage infringed on states rights ■ Believed that congress had excessive power in regulating interstate commerce ● Public Works Administration(PWA) ○ 1933 ○ Put people to work with public works projects ○ Provided jobs for artists and industry ○ Short term ● Tennessee Valley Authority(TVA) ○ 1933 ○ Provided jobs through dam construction ○ Improved water transportation and helped eliminate flooding ○ Provided cheaper electricity ○ Samuel Insull ■ Monopoly over electricity ■ Went bankrupt after the stock market crashed ■ TVA was created after his monopoly failed ○ Put pressure on other electricity companies to lower their prices so that the federal government wouldn’t intervene ● Federal Emergency Relief Administration(FERA) ○ 1933 ○ Gave loans and cash grants to states to operate relief programs ● Civil Works Administration(CWA) ○ 1933 ○ Created by the FERA ○ Put more than 4 million people to work on temporary public works projects ○ Lasted 6 months ● Civilian Conservation Corps(CCC) ○ 1933 ○ Operated under the US military ○ Encouraged young men to plant trees, make parks, etc. MadebyConstanceAguocha ○ Very militaristic ○ Lasted 9 years ○ Prepared people for military experience ● National Housing Act of 1934 ○ FDR wants the US to have more owners ○ Only 40% of the US were homeowners at the time ○ Federal Housing Administration(FHA) ■ Stimulated the housing industry by giving loans to people who wanted to be homeowners ■ Gave insurance and mortgages for the construction of new homes ● The American Liberty League ○ 1934 ○ Opposed the New Deal and wanted to have FDR removed ○ DuPont Family, John Jacob Raskob, and Jouett Shouse ■ Industrial titans ■ Afraid of losing money because they can’t compete with the federal government ○ Not very large ■ Too many people were suffering from the depression to care about the problems of rich people The Second New Deal ● The Share Our Wealth Society ○ Huey P. Long founder ■ Nicknamed “The King Fish” ■ Democrat ■ Louisiana senator ■ Used the Louisiana government to assist in modernizing infrastructure and creating jobs ■ Believed that FDR was being too soft and conservative ■ Wanted to apply taxes to the extremely wealthy ● People who made more $1 million or more annually or had more that $5 million in savings ■ Had a radio program with over 25 million listeners ■ Wrote “My First Days in the White House” ● Detailed what Long would do if he was elected president ● Assassinated before publication ● Published posthumously ○ 7.5 million members ● Industrial Unionization ○ Committee on Industrial Organization ■ John L. Lewis ● Founder ■ Represented unskilled laborers MadebyConstanceAguocha ○ United Auto Workers ■ Organized the first sit down strike ■ GM(General Motors) was denied their request to have the federal government break up the strike ● Social Security Act ○ 1935 ○ Created to assist the elderly and disabled ● Works Progress Administration(WPA) ○ 1935 ○ Work relief program ○ Employed over 8.5 million ○ Lasted for 8 years ○ Provided $8 million in public relief ○ Average pay for WPA members was $41 a month ■ Just enough to get by ○ Biggest work relief program ● United States Housing Authority(USHA) ○ Part of the Housing Act of 1937 ○ Rise in public housing ○ Intended for housing the lower middle class, not for low income families ■ Required a minimum income ○ Wanted to eliminate slums ● The “Roosevelt Recession” ○ Economy appears to be improving, so FDR lays off 1.5 million people form the WPA ○ Another 4 million people lose their jobs instantly ■ Small stores start to close because people can’t afford to go to stores now that they’ve been laid off ○ Shows that the economy still isn’t stable ● Fair Labor Standards Act ○ Established a national minimum wage and a 40 hour work week ○ Limits child labor The Interwar Period International Involvement ● Washington Naval Conference ○ Led by Charles Evans Hughes ■ US Secretary of State ■ Proposed for the US and Great Britain to reduce their naval fleets ○ Five Power Pact ■ US, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, and France will reduce their naval fleets ● US will have 5 tons of warships ● Great Britain will have 5 tons MadebyConstanceAguocha ● Japan will have 3 tons ● Italy will have 1.5 tons ● France will have 1.5 tons ■ Effectively reduces the naval fleets, while still leaving Great Britain and the US would the most ■ Japan denounces this and withdraws in 1934 ● KelloggBriand Pact ○ Aristide Briand ■ French foreign war minister ■ Proposed that the US defend France in case Germany attacks ○ Frank Kellogg ■ US ■ Agrees to create a treaty to outlaw war as an instrument of foreign policy ○ Outlaws war ○ If invasion occurs, the US will intervene because the treaty has been broken, not because they are obligated to defend a specific country ○ 14 nations sign, including Germany, England, and Japan ○ Has no instrument of enforcement ● Adolph Hitler and the Nazi Power ○ Growing in power during the 30s ○ Lebensraum ■ The idea that Germany is meant to expand and spread the Aryan race ● “Good Neighbor Policy” ○ FDR ends the use of military force and armed intervention in the western hemisphere ○ FDR signs a law prohibiting US banks from loaning money to countries that are already in debt ○ Part of isolationism Isolationism ● Neutrality Act of 1935 ○ Resulted from Italy invading Ethiopia ○ Established a mandatory arms embargo on any warring nation ○ Declared that Americans who rode on the ships of warring nations did so at their own risk ○ Cash and Carry ■ Policy for selling non military goods to warring nations ■ Countries sail to US ports, pay cash for their purchase, and then sail back ○ Makes statement to quarantine China ■ FDR backs off of this after a bad reaction from the US people ● Panay ○ The Japanese sank the USS Panay, a US gunboat ○ Dec. 1937 ○ 3 americans died MadebyConstanceAguocha ○ The japanese claimed not to know that the ship was American and apologize ○ The US forgives them and doesn’t take military action ● German Expansion ○ Mein Kampf ■ Written by Hitler while he was in jail ■ Detailed the expansion of Germany and the spread of the Aryan race ■ Wanted to copy what Americans did to the Native Americans ○ The Rhineland ■ March 1936 ■ Germany breaks the Treaty of Versailles and takes over the Rhineland ○ Austria ■ Germany takes over Austria in 1938 ■ Austrians welcome Hitler’s invasion ○ The Sudetenland ■ Germany takes over September of 1938 ■ The Munich Agreement ● Hitler meets wit eville Chamberlai Great Britain), Edouard Daladier France), a Benito Mussolin Italy) ● An agreement was made in which Hitler would be allowed to keep the Sudetenland as long as Hitler doesn’t invade any more land ○ Poland (September 1939WWII begins) ■ MolotovRibbentrop Pact ● Nonaggression pact made between Germany and the Soviets ● Soviet Union promises not to attack Germany when they invade Poland and the Soviets would also get a share of Poland ■ Poland is unequipped to fight back ● Polish army is heavily calvary based ● German army is tank based and comprised of 1.5 million Germans and 500,000 Soviets WWII ● Blitzkrieg (lightning war) ○ Tank based attack with an infantry support ○ Heinz Guderian ■ Mastermind behind the military strategy ○ Luftwaffe ■ German air force ○ Very successful early on ■ The rapid pace becomes an issue later in the war because they are moving too fast to refill supplies effectively ○ Denmark, Norway, The Netherlands, Belgium, and France are taken pretty quickly ○ England and France declare war two days after the Polish invasion, but take a long time building up their army and supplies for the war MadebyConstanceAguocha ■ France falls in June of 1940 ● Vichy France ○ Term used to describe the French government which was friendly towards Germany and the Nazi invasion after the free French government was thrown out ○ Charles de Gaulle ■ Was meant to be the free French leader ■ Escaped to England as France is being taken ● England was a safe place for government officials at the the ○ Philippe Petain ■ Vichy French leader ○ Germany takes France May of 1940 ● BurkeWadsworth Act ○ First peacetime military draft ● “Lend Lease” Act ○ Allowed the US to sale, transfer, or lease military supplies to any country whose defence of their president deems vital to the defense of the United states ○ Signed by Roosevelt ○ Partially created to assist England in response to Germany’s repeated bombing of London ○ Signals a move from neutrality ● Operation Barbarossa ○ Over 4 million Axis soldiers invade the Soviet Union at once ○ Biggest wartime invasion of all time ○ Leads to the US extending its “lend lease” policy to the Soviet Union ○ US declared the Western Atlantic to be neutral ■ Any german ship sailing on this side would be shot down ● The USS Reuben James ○ October 1941 ○ Sank by a German UBoat ○ First US ship to sink in WWII ○ Lead to congress approving merchant ships to be armed and sail to belligerent ports ● Atlantic Charter ○ August, 1941 ○ FDR and Winston Churchill meet off the coast of Newfoundland, Canada and outline their goals for a postwar world order ■ Winston Churchill is the Prime Minister of Britain ○ FDR believes in selfdetermination and for all the countries to have their freedom back ■ This includes the countries that Britain has colonized ■ British imperialism is part of the reason that FDR doesn’t want to join the war ○ End of Nazism MadebyConstanceAguocha ○ Reduced tariffs ○ The world would abandon traditional military alliances and govern their relations with each other through a democratic process ○ Protection of every nation's’ freedom ● Tripartite Pact ○ September, 1940 ○ Signed between Germany, Japan, and Italy ○ Defence pact ○ War would be declared on any country that declared war on any of the countries in the pact ○ Axis Powers ■ Name formally taken on by Japan, Germany, and Italy after making the pact ● Japan is expanding its territory all along the Chinese coast ○ Manchuria, Korea, Laos, and surrounding islands had been taken ○ Japan is continually expanding ○ Japan is expanding as Germany is expanding ○ US freezes all assets in Japan ■ Japan sends ambassadors to the US in a fake attempt to improve relations ● Secretly planning an attack on Pearl Harbor and the Philippines ● Pearl Harbor and the Philippines ○ December 7, 1941Pearl Harbor is attacked ■ 24,000 soldiers and sailors killed, 1000 injured ○ Philippines are attacked 10 hours later ○ Japan successfully cripples the naval presences in the Philippines and Hawaii ● US congress declares war on December 8, 1948 ○ Unanimous senatorial vote ○ One dissenting congressional vote ■ Jeanette Rankin ● Sole dissenter ● First congresswoman War in the Pacific Early Pacific Battles ● Battle of Bataan ○ Douglas MacArthur ■ General in the Philippines after the bombing ■ Navy in the Philippines is crippled ■ Called away from the Philippines to Australia ■ Famous quote: “I will return” ■ Leaves Edward King in charge ○ Edward King MadebyConstanceAguocha ■ Goes against orders to keep fighting and surrenders because the supplies are running low and he wants to save his men ■ Japan views this surrender as shameful ● Bataan Death March ○ Homma Masaharu ■ Oversaw the march ■ Eventually killed by firing squad after being tried for war crimes ○ 65 mile march leading the Philippine/US forces to an internment camp ○ Took 3 days ○ 10,000 die along the way ● US takes a 2 prong approach to the Philippines ○ MacArthur would island hop north from Australia ○ Admiral Chester Nimitz would island hop west from Hawaii ● Battle of the Coral Sea ○ May 48, 1942 ○ Japan tries to take Papau, New Guinea ○ MacArthur’s fleet against the Japanese fleet ○ First naval battle in the world where the opposing ships never meet ○ MacArthur finds the Japanese fleet first ○ 92 Japanese aircrafts are destroyed ○ 69 US aircrafts are destroyed ○ Ends in a draw ○ First battle in the war that Japan didn’t win ● Battle of Midway ○ June 47, 1942 ○ Led by Nimitz ○ US victory ○ 4 Japanese carriers destroyed and 3000 Japanese are killed ○ 1 US carrier and 300 Americans are killed ● Battle of Guadalcanal ○ August 1942 February 1943 ■ Led by MacArthur ■ Solomon Islands ■ Longest campaign in the Pacific ■ Fought on sea and on land ■ British possession before Japan took over ■ Japan loses 25,000 of 31,000 soldiers ● The Japanese fight until the death ■ US lost 2,000 of 6,000 The European Theatre ● Northern Africa ○ General Erwin Rommel ■ German MadebyConstanceAguocha ■ Nicknamed “The Desert Fox” ■ Such a good general that even British newspapers wrote about him ■ Used Blitzkrieg tactics ■ Moves so fast that he leaves supply lines behind ■ Becomes quite a few times and eventually can’t hold on to Northern Africa ■ Disobeys Hitler’s orders and surrenders ● Removed by Hitler ● Trend of Hitler removing great military leaders ■ Not a Nazi, just a German ■ Assassination attempt is made on Hitler by high ranking military officials ● Rommel is suspected to be a participant, even though there’s no proof ● Nazi party gives him the option of going to trial, in which he would be declared guilty no matter what, or taking a cyanide pill and killing himself ○ Rommel killing himself would be kept in secret and he would be buried with honor as a war hero ○ Rommel chose to kill himself ○ General George S. Patton ■ United States ■ Battle of the Bulge ● December, 1944January, 1945 ● Germany’s last offensive line ● Patton moved troops into Sicily and towards German troops ● 90,000 US casualties ● Armed officials are finally able to push past Italy in 1944 ○ Italy was difficult to defeat because Hitler told his men not to let Rome fall, no matter what ○ Hitler likened himself to Caesar ● Concentration Camps ○ Originally used as a slave labor camp for communists ○ Hitler’s Final Solution changes concentration camps ○ Auschwitz ■ Biggest camp ■ Over 1 million killed ○ Over 10 million killed ■ 6 million were Jewish ○ Mostly done in the 1940s ○ US doesn’t destroy the tracks that the Germans used to transport people to the concentration camp, even though they had the ability to ■ US does this because they might want to use the tracks in the future End of the Great Depression ● Mid 1940s MadebyConstanceAguocha ● Influx in jobs because of the war effort ● Rise in the middle class because of the rise of the war industry ● White Americans benefit the most Minorities in the US and the Conclusion of the War ● Fair Employment Practices Commission(FEPC) ○ June 1941 ○ A. Philip Randolph ■ Threatened to make a march to Washington, D.C. because of inequality towards colored people in the workplace ○ FDR creates the FEPC after Randolph’s threat ○ Investigates unfair practices against colored people ○ Brings improvement, but not equality ● Bracero Program ○ Made after people started to move away from the farms and into the war industry ○ US contracts with Mexico to bring laborers into the US temporarily ■ Mexico is an ally and contributes to the war effort by sending in laborers ○ Laborers end up being low wage labor for large farms ○ Drives up immigration because many of the mexican immigrants would go to work for better paying farms in the US who weren’t part of the Bracero Program ○ Lasts from 19421964 ■ Was only supposed to last until the war ended, which was in 1945 ● Japanese Internment Camps ○ About 110,000 to 120,000 Japanese people were relocated into prison camps as the US warred with Japan ○ Weren’t released until Japan of 1945 ● DDay(OperationOverlord) ○ June 6, 1944 ○ 156,000 allied soldiers sent into Normandy ○ Led by Dwight D. Eisenhower ○ Within a month of DDay, 850,000 allied troops are in France ○ 4,000 Americans die ● 19431944, the Soviet Union and the Allies start closing in on Germany ○ Soviets are closing in from the east and the allies are closing in from the west ● VE Day ○ May 8,1945 ○ Benito Mussolini ■ In hiding and incognito ■ Him and his wife are discovered and shot ■ People take turns beating their dead bodies and eventually hang them on meat hooks ○ Adolph Hitler ■ Commits suicide with his fiance two days after Mussolini is killed ○ Mussolini’s and Hitler’s death lead to Victory in Europe(VE) Day MadebyConstanceAguocha ○ April of 1945, FDR had died Concluding the War ● Battle of Saipan ○ May July, 1944 ○ US victory ○ Saipan was needed in order for the US to island hop to Iwo Jima and Okinawa ○ Many Japanese civilians commit suicide as the US gains victory ■ Encouraged to do so by the Japanese Emperor irohito ■ Civilians were told that they would have an equal spiritual status in the afterlives with those who died in battle ● Battle of Iwo Jima ○ FebruaryMarch, 1945 ○ 750 miles from Tokyo ○ Needed because it was a good launching point to Japan ○ 20,000 of 23,000 Japanese soldiers die ● Battle of Okinawa ○ AprilJune, 1945 ○ 370 miles from Japan ○ US lose 14,000 people and Japan loses 70,000 of 100,000 civilians ○ Many citizens commit suicide after the Americans win ● The european theatre is already over and the rest of the allied forces help the US in battling Japan ● The Soviet Union had promised to assist the US in its war with Japan when the fighting in Europe was over ● The Bomb ○ The atomic bomb is being constructed during the Manhattan Project ○ Harry S. Truman is in office and gives the order to drop the iroshima ○ Enola Gay ■ The plane that drops the atomic bomb on Hiroshima ○ Bombing of Hiroshima ■ August 6, 1945 ■ Kills 80,000 people ○ Soviets declare war on Japan after the first atomic bomb is dropped ○ Bombing of Nagasaki ■ August 9, 1945 ■ Kills 100,000 people ○ VJ Day ■ August 15, 1945 ■ Japanese Emperor Hirohito surrenders on behalf of the Japanese people MadebyConstanceAguocha
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