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Date Created: 08/04/16
Exam 3 Study Guide Thursday, April 110:40 AM * Exam will include questions re: Sidanius et al article PREJUDICE AND STEREOTYPING From Chapter 13 Bold Terms: Prejudice ○ Affective aspect (feelings about a group) Stereotype ○ Generalization you make about a group of people (cognitive not emotion) Illusory correlation ○ Tendency to see correlation or relationship between events that are unrelated Discrimination ○ Behavioral component (treating people differently) Modern racism ○ Outwardly acting unprejudiced while inwardly maintaining prejudiced attitudes Stereotype threat Apprehension experienced by members of a group that their behavior might confirm a cultural stereotype ○ Outgroup homogeneity ○ Seeing outgroups differently (lumping them in a singular way) ○ Belief that "they are all alike" Ultimate attribution error ○ Making a dispositional attribution about an individual's negative behavior and generalizing this to their entire ethnic, race, etc., Realistic conflict theory ○ Idea that limited resources lead to conflict between groups and result in increased prejudice and discrimination Scapegoating ○ Tendency for individuals to when frustrated or unhappy to displace aggression onto groups that are disliked, visible and relatively powerless Jigsaw classroom ○ A setting designed so that students depend on one another and it would be in their best interest to pay attention and encourage one another to accomplish the common goal Some questions to think about: Compare and contrast prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination ○ Prejudice is the emotional aspect of a stereotype, where it is all about your feelings toward a particular group. A stereotype is a generalization you make about a group of people. This is the cognitive aspect. Lastly, discrimination is the behavioral component where you start to treat people differently. What is a minimal group? What do Tajfel and Turner demonstrate about ingroup bias through the use of minimal groups? ○ Complete strangers are formed into groups using the most trivial criteria imaginable Even when the reasons for differentiation are minimal, being in the ingroup makes you want to win against members of the out- group and leads you to treat the latter unfairly, because such tactics build your self-esteem and feeling of “belongingness.” When your group does win, it strengthens your feelings of pride and identiﬁcation with that group What is Patricia Devine’s 2 step model of the cognitive processing of stereotypes? How does this compare with Gilberts modelof attribution (discussed earlier in the class)? ○ Patricia Devine A stereotype is automatically activated when a person encounters a member of a minority group, but the stereotype can be ignored or refuted through conscious processing □ test of automatic and conscious processing: She ﬂashed stereotyped words (e.g., black, hostile, lazy, welfare) and neutral words (e.g., however, what, said) on a screen so quickly that the words were just below the participants’ perceptual (conscious) awareness After ﬂashing the words, she asked the participants to read a story about “ Donald” (a man whose ethnicity was not Social Page 1 After ﬂashing the words, she asked the participants to read a story about “ Donald” (a man whose ethnicity was not mentioned) and to rate their impressions of him. Donald was described somewhat ambiguously; he did some things in the story that could be interpreted either positively or negatively ○ Gilbert Analyzing another person’s behavior ﬁrst by making an automatic internal attribution and only then thinking about possible situational reasons for the behavior, after which one may adjust the original internal attribution What is the justification-suppression of model of prejudice? How might it relate to cognitive dissonance? ○ Wherever a majority group systematically discriminates against a minority to preserve its power, they will claim that their actions are legitimate because the minority is so obviously inferior and incompetent suppressing prejudiced impulses requires constant energy --> so people are always on the lookout for information that will enable them to convince themselves that there is a valid justiﬁcation for disliking a particular out-group. □ Once they ﬁnd that justiﬁcation, they can discriminate all they want and still feel that they are not bigots (thus avoiding cognitive dissonance) Understand the 4 categories of causes of prejudice that the book sets forth 1. Normative Rules 2. Social Identity (Us vs. Them) 3. Attributional Bias 4. Realistic Conflict What is the contact hypothesis? What are the 6 conditions that must be met for intergroup contact to successfully reduce prejudice ○ The most important way to reduce prejudice between racial and ethnic groups is through contact, bringing in-group and out-group members together. However, mere contact is not enough and can even exacerbate existing negative attitudes. mutual interdependence a common goal equal status informal, interpersonal contact multiple contacts social norms of equality. From Prejudice: The Perpetrator’s Perspective lecture: Understand how socialization. motivation and identity contribute to prejudice 1. Socialization 1. Learning theory 1. Observation 2. Reinforcement 2. Children show signs of racial prejudice by the age of 5 (Aboud, 1988) 3. Identification with Parents Predicts Attitudes (Sinclair et al., 2004) 1. Children who highly identify with their parents have more similar attitudes 1. Identification leads to prejudice 2. Correlational data 4. Media and Advertising 1. Invisibility: some not represented 2. Misrepresentation 1. When we do see minority groups represented, they’re often misrepresented 1. Gilens (1996) -- % of poor people who are Black 2. Motivation 1. Psychodynamic 1. Displaced aggression 1. Scapegoat 2. Black lynchings (Hovland & Sears, 1940) 3. Holocaust 2. Authoritarian personality 1. Adorno and colleagues 2. Arises out of early personality conflicts 3. Social Identity 1. We want to see ourselves in positive light 1. To do so --> make favorable ingroup/outgroup comparisons 2. See outgroups differently 1. Outgroup homogeneity (lump them in singular way) 2. Ingroup seen more complex (varied) Social Page 2 How does identification with parents moderate prejudice? What does this suggest about social learning? ○ Sinclair Children who highly identify with their parents have more similar attitudes ○ Children learn to be prejudiced either from their parents or media Understand the different classes of motivational explanations for prejudice (psychodynamic and competition) ○ Psychodynamic Freudian; nonconscious ○ Unresolved conflict Displaced aggression ○ Can't identify the source of frustration or anger Scapegoat Black lynchings Holocaust ○ Intergroup competition Realistic group conflict ○ Limited resources Relative deprivation ○ Even if you have enough and see other having more Social dominance ○ Legitimizing myths --> those who are in higher hierarchy ○ Need for hierarchy High SDO = most protective of hierarchy and most likely to prejudice when threatened Low SDO = don't believe that some groups should be better than others What does social dominance theory predict about the expression of prejudice? When should it be greatest and for who? ○ High SDO = most protective of hierarchy and most likely to prejudice when threatened ○ Low SDO = don't believe that some groups should be better than others Distinguish ingroup favoritism from outgroup derogation. When might these overlap? ○ Ingroup favoritism Most people who are in dominant positions in their society do not see themselves as being prejudiced; they regard their beliefs about the out-group as being perfectly reasonable ○ Outgroup derogation Competition for resources leads to derogation of and discrimination against the competing out-group ○ Overlaps when… Moral superiority Perceived threat Common goals (self-serving bias ; no objective reality) Common values Distinguish the Common Ingroup Identity model and the Mutual Intergroup Differentiation model. What does research suggest about the effectiveness of these models in reducing prejudice? ** ○ Common ingroup identity model ○ Mutual intergroup differentiation model Social Page 3 From Prejudice: The Target’s Perspective lecture: What does the research by Davies suggest about the potential long term effects of stereotype threat? ○ Women in the high-threat condition (stereotypic portrayals), expressed significantly less interest in quantitative domains and significantly more interest in verbal domains than women in the no-threat condition (neutral commercials What is the person - group discrimination discrepancy? Why might it occur? ○ People see more discrimination directed at their group than at themselves as individual members of that group 1. Motivational – denial I'm not actually accounting for the discrimination I face I don't experience the same things my group does because I feel safer ◊ Biased in underreporting yourself ◊ Not recognizing discrimination as discrimination 2. Exaggeration of group level discrimination – not a very popular suggestion Group bar is higher than the individual bar ◊ Misrepresented group bar Made it higher than it actually is ◊ Self-handicapping 3. Information processing – using an additive strategy Not emotionally driven, cold-cognitive process Understand the antecedents and consequences of group versus individual strategies for coping with prejudice Group Individual Antecedents Level of group id. Hi Lo Protection/ Group-based self esteem Personal self-esteem enhancement goal Perceptual consequences Preferred group norms Ingroup norms Outgroup norms Interpretation of discrimination Unjust group status Unjust inclusion of self in the group INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS From Chapter 10 (Gilovitch et al) Bold Terms: 2 different fundamental types of relationship Exchange relationship ○ A relationship in which individuals feel little responsibility toward one another; giving and receiving are governed by concerns about equity and reciprocity; such relationships are usually short term ("trade-based") Salespeople and bureaucrats; workers and supervisors European and Commonwealth countries Protestant countries Communal relationship ○ A relationship in which the individuals feel a special responsibility for one another and give and receive according to the principle needs ; such relationships are often long term Family members and close friends East Asian and Latin American societies Catholic countries Social exchange theory ○ A theory based on the idea that how people feel about a relationship depends on their assessments of its costs and rewards "maximize own feelings of satisfaction" Comparison level ○ Expectations about what people think they deserve or expect to get out of the relationship People who have a high comparison level expect a lot from their relationships Comparison level for alternatives Social Page 4 Comparison level for alternatives ○ Expectations about what people think they can get out of alternative relationships Equity theory ○ The idea that people are motivated to pursue fairness, or equity, in their relationships; a relationship is considered equitable when the benefits are proportionate to the effort both people put into it Not always the goal in collectivistic cultures Attachment styles ○ Attachment theory The idea that early attachments with parents and other caregivers can shape relationships for a person's whole life ○ Anxious attachment Not as reliable in their responses to the infants ○ Avoidant attachment Rejected infants ○ Secured attachment Responded quickly and reliably Anxiety dimension of attachment ○ A facet of attachment that captures the degree to which a person is worried about rejection and abandonment by relationship partners "amount of fear a person feels about rejection and abandonment" Avoidance dimension of attachment ○ A facet of attachment that captures the degree to which a person is comfortable with intimacy and dependence on relationship partners "someone who is not anxious about rejection or abandonment" What influences attraction? Proximity ○ Paths cross frequently Presumably leads to friendship because it facilitates chance encounters Functional distance ○ The influence of an architectural layout to encourage or inhibit certain activities, including contact between people Mere exposure effect ○ The idea that repeated exposure to a stimulus, such as an object or person, leads to greater liking of the stimulus "more you are exposed to something, more you tend to like it" Complementarity ○ "opposites attract" (tendency for people to seek out others with characteristics that are different from, and complement, their own Only for those traits for which one person's needs can be met by the other Investment model ○ A model of interpersonal relationships maintaining that three determinants make partners more committed to each other: relationship satisfaction, few alternative partners, and investments in the relationship Some questions to think about: What is the need to belong? Parent-offspring attachment help ensure that infants and children are protected and will survive until they can function independently Friendship evolved as a means for non-kin to cooperate, thereby avoiding the costs and perils of competition and aggression Compare and contrast exchange and communal relationships. Exchange relationship ○ A relationship in which individuals feel little responsibility toward one another; giving and receiving are governed by concerns about equity and reciprocity; such relationships are usually short term ("trade-based") Salespeople and bureaucrats; workers and supervisors European and Commonwealth countries Protestant countries Communal relationship ○ A relationship in which the individuals feel a special responsibility for one another and give and receive according to the principle needs ; such relationships are often long term ○ Family members and close friends ○ East Asian and Latin American societies ○ Catholic countries Social Page 5 ○ Catholic countries Compare and contrast social exchange theory and equity theory. Understand how these play out in long-term relationships. Social exchange theory ○ A theory based on the idea that how people feel about a relationship depends on their assessments of its costs and rewards ○ "maximize own feelings of satisfaction" Equity theory ○ The idea that people are motivated to pursue fairness, or equity, in their relationships; a relationship is considered equitable when the benefits are proportionate to the effort both people put into it Not always the goal in collectivistic cultures Distinguish the 3 different attachment styles and be able to recognize examples of each. What does research suggest about the stability of these styles across time? ○ Anxious-ambivalent attachment - Not as reliable in their responses to the infants Less comforted by contact ○ Avoidant attachment - Rejected infants ○ Secured attachment - Responded quickly and reliably Understand how proximity, similarity, and physical attractiveness play into attraction ○ The closer you are to the person (proximity) the more likely that you will be attracted to him/her ○ We tend to like people who have or share similar interests as us (similarity) Distinguish passionate (romantic) and companionate love • Passionate love ○ "A wildly emotional state: tender and sexual feelings, elation and pain, anxiety and relief, altruism and jealousy coexist in a confusion of feelings" • Companionate love - "The affection we feel for those with whom our lives are deeply intertwined" How might definitions of love differ between dependent and interdependent cultures? • Arranged marriages in interdependent cultures From Interpersonal Relationships: Love lecture: Define the 3 factors in Sternberg’s definition of love. Passion --> physiological arousal, longing to be with, physical Intimacy --> close bond, sharing, support Commitment --> willing to define as love, commitment to long-term Be able to recognize different patterns of love. Consummate Love - "complete love" - High in intimacy, high in passion, high in commitment - Only few people have this kind of relationship Companionate Love - High in intimacy, high in commitment, low in passion ○ Bestfriend, sister Empty Love - High in commitment, low in intimacy, low in passion Fatuous Love - High in commitment, low in intimacy, high in passion Infatuation - Low in commitment, low in intimacy, high in passion ○ "hookup culture", HS relationships Liking - High in commitment, high in intimacy, low in passion Social Page 6 - High in commitment, high in intimacy, low in passion ○ Temporary friendships Romantic Love - Low, commitment, high in intimacy and passion □ Ambivalence: are we in this or not in this? Understand the factors that affect commitment according to Rusbult Rusbult's Investment Model Satisfaction - degree to which you favorably evaluate your relationship and feel that your needs are met - Based on rewards and expectations - Comparison level (CL) : past relationships, models in your environment ** Satisfaction will be high when… - Your needs are met - When relationship meets or exceeds your expectations Alternatives - degree to which important needs can effectively be met in another relationship, or outside a relationship - Clalt : comparison level for alternatives ○ High ClAlt have lower levels of commitment - Quality of your realistic alternatives - Strength of forces pulling you away from your relationship Investments - things you put into your relationship that you would lose if the relationship ended Time High satisfaction, low alternative, high investment = highest levels of commitment Understand CL and Clalt ○ Comparison level (CL) : past relationships, models in your environment ○ Clalt : comparison level for alternatives ○ High ClAlt have lower levels of commitment Distinguish approach and avoidance relationship motives Approach commitment: a desire for future relationship incentives and rewards Avoidance commitment: a desire to avoid the negative consequences or costs of relationship dissolution Afraid of being alone, losing the investment in the relationship What do the data suggest about the effects of approach versus avoidance motives? ○ Approach goals -> (+) relationship with increased well-being, (+) relationship with daily relationship quality, (+) relationship with satisfaction ○ Avoidance goals -> (-) relationship with satisfaction More avoidance reasons = more likely to break-up ○ High approach, low avoidance = high commitment From Interpersonal Relationships: Social Support and Health lecture: What are the functions of social support? ○ Emotional sustenance (shoulder to cry on) ○ Self-esteem bolstering (self-enhancement / cheerleader) ○ Information/feedback (self-verification) ○ Tangible assistance Be able to recognize the four types of support behaviors. Problem-focused Emotion-focused Approach SOLVE -- find an answer SOLACE -- elicit positive emotions ○ (ex: someone died) Avoid DISMISS -- minimize significance of ESCAPE -- discourage display of (-) problem (ex: no big deal) emotion (ex: not dealing with both problem and emotion What is capitalization? Be able to recognize the 4 different capitalization responses. ○ Process of informing another person about the occurrence of a personal positive event & thereby deriving additional benefit from it Constructive Destructive Social Page 7 Constructive Destructive Active Reacted enthusiastically (only good one) Pointed out the downsides of good event PassiveTries not to make a big deal out of Seemed disinterested AGGRESSION From Chapter 12 Bold Terms: Hostile aggression ○ Aggression stemming from feelings of anger and aimed at inflicting pain or injury Instrumental aggression ○ Aggression as a means to some goal other than causing pain boxing ○ Goal: to win Eros ○ One of the antagonistic forces: the love instinct Thanatos ○ One of the antagonistic forces: the death instinct Frustration - aggression hypothesis ○ The theory that frustration -- the perception that you are being prevented from attaining a goal -- increases the probability of an aggressive response Social learning theory ○ Bandura Through observing other people Catharsis ○ The notion that "blowing off steam" -- by performing a verbally or physically aggressive act, watching others engage in aggressive behaviors, or engaging in a fantasy of aggression -- relieves built-up aggressive energies and hence reduces the likelihood of further aggressive behavior Some questions to think about: Understand the culture of honor and the studies by Nisbett ○ Humans vary greatly in aggressiveness Regional differences in aggressive behavior ○ Some places where insults have higher rates of homicide or violence Homicide rates for white southern males are higher than those for white northern males ◊ True only for "argument-related" homicides, homicides where honor needed to be protected ○ Cohen, Nisbett Conducted on campus in midwest □ Participants either grew up in the North or South □ IV: "accidentally" bumps into participant and calls an insulting name Southerners in insult condition □ Think they would be seen as less masculine □ Experience increased cortisol and testosterone □ Are slower to move out of the confederate's way in a very narrow passageway ○ Gender & Aggression US DOJ □ 90% of murderers in 2005 were male □ 79% of victims were male Archer, 2004 ; Archer & Mehdikhani, 2003 □ Meta-analyses Males more physically aggressive than females True across age groups and cultures How is relative deprivation, which we talked about in the context of prejudice, related to the frustration aggression hypothesis? ○ Relative deprivation Not enough resources to go around, actual competition Even if I have enough, perception of others having more □ The theory that frustration -- the perception that you are being prevented from attaining a goal -- increases the probability of an aggressive response We couldn't get what we want Social Page 8 We couldn't get what we want What affect does punishment have on aggression - in both children and adults? From Aggression lecture: What is the biological evidence in support of aggression as innate? ○ Hormones Testosterone □ Injection of testosterone increases aggression in animals (cause & effect relationship) □ Testosterone levels are higher among prisoners convicted of violent crimes than those convicted of nonviolent crimes Prisoners with higher testosterone levels violated more prison rules □ Compared testosterone levels amongst men in various fraternities Reputation (stereotypical) Known rambunctious and less socially responsible, more crude = highest average testosterone levels Testosterone --> Aggression? Or Aggression --> Testosterone? □ 3rd variable: stress, family history ○ Genes Are people who are more aggressive genetically different from those who are less aggressive? Identical twins twice as likely as fraternal twins to be similar in degree of criminal activity Christiansen □ 35% identical v 13% fraternal showed similarity in serious criminal activity Problems ◊ 65% identical twins did not have similar records ◊ Identical twins may have more similar environments than do fraternal twins What do we know about gender and aggression? What is indirect aggression? ○ Gender & Aggression US DOJ □ 90% of murderers in 2005 were male □ 79% of victims were male Archer, 2004 ; Archer & Mehdikhani, 2003 □ Meta-analyses Males more physically aggressive than females True across age groups and cultures ○ Indirect aggression Verbal aggression behind your back PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR From Chapter 11 Bold Terms: Prosocial behavior ○ Any act performed with the goal of benefitting another person, regardless of motive Altruism □ A form of prosocial behavior Desire to help another person even if it involves a cost to the helper Kin selection ○ Idea that behaviors that help a genetic relative are favored by natural selection ○ Increase chances their genes will be passed along by having their own children and during their genetic relatives have children People most likely to help in ways that ensure survival of their own genes ○ Genes of people who follow this “biological importance” rule more likely to survive Norm of reciprocity ○ Expectation that helping others will increase likelihood they’ll help us in the future ○ Those most likely to survive developed understanding w/neighbors about reciprocity Genetically based? ○ Gratitude evolved to regulate reciprocity Empathy ○ Ability to put oneself in the shows of another and to experience events and emotions the way that person experiences them Empathy altruism hypothesis ○ Idea that when we feel empathy for a person, we’ll attempt to help that person for purely altruistic reasons, regardless of what we have to gain Social Page 9 ○ to gain ○ Don’t feel empathy —> social exchange concerns come into play ○ Act that seems truly altruistic sometimes motivated by self-interest Altruistic personality ○ Qualities that cause an individual to help others in a wide variety of situations ○ Pressures of the situation matter just as much along with ○ Gender, culture in which they grew up, how religious they are, current mood Diffusion of responsibility ○ A person is less likely to take responsibility for action or inaction when others are present. Some questions to think about: Compare evolutionary and social explanations for pro-social behavior ○ Evolutionary -- self interest or egoism ○ Biological and genetic imperative Ultimately it benefits us Social Exchange -- self interest or egoism ○ ○ Quid pro quo Unconscious tally What is the bystander effect? What are the 5 steps that determine whether someone will intervene in an emergency? ○ Bystander effect -- greater # of bystanders - less likely to help ○ Diffusion of responsibility A person is less likely to take responsibility for action or inaction when others are present. ○ 5 steps: 1. Emergency 2. Notice that something is happening 3. Interpret event as an emergency 4. Take responsibility for providing help 5. Decide how to help 6. Provide help From Prosocial Behavior lecture: Compare and contrast prosocial behavior and altruism ○ Prosocial behavior ○ Any act performed with the goal of benefitting another person, regardless of motive ○ Altruism ○ Desire to help another person even if it involves a cost to the helper Social Page 10 Exam 2 Study Guide Thursday, February 25,5:31 PM THESELF FromSelf:SelfEsteemlecture:(DONE) Whydo peoplewithhighself-esteemfeelbetterafterfailure? o People with high self esteem respond in a way that will let them feel better more quickly Is selfesteemalwaysa goodthing? Whyor whynot?Provideevidence. ○ Self-esteem is a good thing because it helps you overcome setbacks. However, when your self-esteem is threatened, it becomes a bad thing because you will do whatever it takes in order to feel better. Whatarethetwokindsof consequencesthatcomewithsocialcomparison? ○ Upward social comparison result into feeling inferior, while downward social comparison result into comparing ourselves with someone worse than us in order for us to feel good about ourselves or boost our ego Understandtheconceptof baskingin reflectedglory. ○ Basking in reflected glory occurs when a person associates themselves with known successful others in a way that their success becomes the individual's own accomplishment o "Would I want my friend or a stranger to succeed" topic Whatis theselfevaluationmaintenancetheory?Whatdoesit suggestaboutthekindof feedbackwe wantrelativetothosearoundus? ○ This refers to the discrepanciesbetween two people in a relationship. If there is an imbalance, we try to adapt to it based on the other person's feeling toward it o "Fingerhut loves PB and his husband doesn't so now he doesn't eat PB as much" Compareandcontrastselfenhancementmotiveswithselfverificationmotives. ○ Self-enhancement refers to the attitude of "tell me that I'm great no matter what the truth is" ; it pushes for positivityand wanting to be liked by others (kiss my ass) ○ Self-verification refers to the attitude of "tell me what I think about myself" ; it pushes for consistencyand wanting to be knownby others ATTITUDESANDATTITUDECHANGE FromChapter6 (DONE) Bold Terms: Cognitivedissonance Inconsistency or conflict between attitude and behavior Postdecisiondissonance A form of regret or worry that one might have not made the right decision or didn't make the best choice Externaljustification A reason or explanation that explains your dissonant behavior such as getting a reward Internal justification Reducing the dissonance by changing something in yourself (attitude/behavior) BenFranklineffect Asking someone you do not like or disagree with for a simple favor and thus creating some sort of connection from that rather than asking for a huge favor Some things to think about: Understandthe3 approachestoreducingdissonancepresentedin Figure6.1 ○ Changing attitude ○ Changing behavior ○ Rationalizing --> interpret o Justification Howdo lowballing(whichwe discusswhenwe talkaboutcompliance)anddissonancego together? ○ Lowballing refers to a type of compliance technique where an individual begins with a reasonable request but it is incomplete. This ties with dissonance because if we commit to the request and then get a follow-up and a negative feeling arises, we reduce it by changing our attitude through self-perception. Our behavior (committing to the request) is used as an inference to what we will be doing next. There has to be consistency. ExplaintheBenFranklineffectusingselfperceptiontheory. Social Page 1 ExplaintheBenFranklineffectusingselfperceptiontheory. ○ Since you asked a person for a simple favor such as borrowing a book that you wanted to read, next time that you ask for a favor or so, the person who lent you the book would be assessing his or her previous behaviors such as letting you borrow the book must mean that s/he had positive attitude toward you and will do the favor you ask. FromChapter7 (DONE) Bold Terms: Explicitattitude Attitudes that we consciously endorse and can easily report ○ "What is your opinion on affirmative action" Implicitattitude Involuntary, uncontrollable and unconscious evaluations Central routeto persuasion Case in which people elaborate on a persuasive communication, listening carefully to and thinking about the arguments which occurs when people have both the ability and motivation to listen carefully to a communication More persuaded when facts are logically compelling Peripheral routeto persuasion Case in which people do not pay attention and listen carefully to the argument and get swayed by peripheral cues Attitudeinoculation Making people immune to being persuaded through the exposure in small doses of arguments against their position allowing them to build upon those oppositional arguments enabling them to have a strong foundation on their belief or attitude toward something Reactancetheory People do not like to feel that their freedom to do or think whatever they want is being threatened ○ The stronger the prohibition is, the more likely the increase in interest in the prohibited activity o Don't touch the wet paint--> Touch the wet paint Attitudeaccessibility Refers to the strength of the association between an object and an evaluation of it ○ When accessibility is high, your attitude comes to mind whenever you see or think about the attitude object Theoryof plannedbehavior Idea that people's intentions are the best predictors of their deliberate behaviors, which are determined by their attitudes toward specific behaviors, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control ○ This is done only when people have timeto contemplate how they are going to behave Some things to think about: Howmightcognitivedissonanceleadtoattitudechange? ○ In cognitive dissonance, a negative feeling arises when there is a conflict between attitude and behavior; thus, one way to reduce this negative feeling is by changing our attitude Whatis theYaleAttitudeChangeapproachandwhatarethedifferentcomponentsin thismodel? Whatis theelaborationlikelihoodmodelof persuasionandhowarethecentralandperipheralroutestopersuasionrelated? ○ Central routes -- paying attention to the message ○ Peripheral routes -- paying attention to the speaker rather than the message Whatis therelationshipbetweenfeararousingcommunicationsandattitudechange? ○ Fear arousing communications do not relay the actual message but only attends to the emotional aspect of it; thus, may not be successful in creating an attitude change Whatdoesthestudyby LaPiere(p 184)suggestaboutthelinkbetweenattitudesandbehaviors? o It leads us in some way to an attitude accessibility-- it is an on the spot decision so it does not give us a clear idea whether our behavior tells us what our attitude is or not Understandthetheoryof plannedbehavior(figure7.8). Idea that people's intentions are the best predictors of their deliberate behaviors, which are determined by their attitudes toward specific behaviors, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control o This is done only when people havetimeto contemplate how they are going to behave Social Page 2 FromAttitudeslecture (DONE) Compareandcontrastthedifferentmodelsof attitudeformationandchange(expectancyvalue,learningtheory,consistencytheories,selfperception theory). ○ Expectancyvalue-- like Kelley's co-variation model, it is a model of what we should do and not what we actually do. This is the weighing of pros and cons through the use of values and then making a decision based on the outcome of it ○ Learningtheory--We form our attitudes or change our attitudes based on observation or study of behavior either through reinforcement/punishment (operant conditioning), associations (classical conditioning), and observation (Bobo dolls; mimicking)] ○ Consistencytheories-- Either through cognitive consistency (interpersonal) where we try not to be hypocritical and take the path of least resistance (there must be balance), while cognitive dissonance (intrapersonal and not about relationships) is where there is conflict between attitude and behavior and a negative arousal that want to be gotten rid of ○ Self-perceptiontheory-- We infer our attitudes by observing our behavior or previous behavior (behavior -> attitude) Compareandcontrastbalancetheoryandcognitivedissonancetheory. ○ Consistencytheories o Cognitive consistency □ interpersonal □ where we try not to be hypocritical and take the path of least resistance (there must be balance) Self-evaluation maintenance theory Cognitive dissonance o □ intrapersonal and not about relationships □ where there is conflict between attitude and behavior a negative arousal that want to be gotten rid of Whatarethevariouswayswe canreducenegativearousalwhenwe experiencedissonance? ○ Change behaviors ○ Change attitudes Rationalize --> reinterpret ○ Understandthestudyandthefindingsof FestingerandCarlsmith. Howdoesthisstudydemonstratecognitivedissonanceandtheinsufficient justificationeffect? ○ When there is insufficient justification effect, people were more likely to experience more dissonance especially if they lack external justification; thus, they try to reduce the dissonance Howdo themessage,thecommunicator,thetarget,andthesituationaffectpersuasion? ○ These are outside forces that influence attitude change o Message is the strength of an argument o Communicator is when the "who" matters o Situation is based on whether the person is resistant against persuasion attempt, if the argument is weak and if a person hashad the chance to solidify one's belief or attitude o Target is when there is involvement or it is in the personality of an individual Whatis mereexposure? ○ Mere exposure effect, also known as repetition, refers to the peripheral cues where everything but the content itself becomesattended Distinguishforewarning,distractionandinoculation. ○ Forewarning -- resistance against persuasion attempt ○ Distraction -- an individual gets more easily persuaded especially if the argument is weak ○ Inoculation -- if a person fails to persuade an individual, it becomes harder for the next person to persuade the individual such that the individual becomes much more or creates more solidification about the belief or attitude CONFORMITY FromChapter8 (DONE) Bold Terms: Conformity Social Page 3 Conformity ○ Tendency to change beliefs and behaviors consistent with the group standards ○ No one asked you to do something Informationalsocial influence ○ Information influence is the desire to be right and so we tend to look at other people who might be more or well-informed aboutsomething and use it as our basis in making a decision and thus can lead to private acceptance Privateacceptance ○ Conforming to other people's behavior out of genuine belief that what they are doing or saying is right Publiccompliance ○ Conforming publicly without necessarily believing in what the group is saying or doing Social norms ○ Rules for acceptable behaviors, values and beliefs Normativesocialinfluence ○ Social influence is the desire to be liked and so we tend to look at other people and act or behave like they do in order to not be the "outcast" Social impacttheory ○ The idea that conforming to social influence depends on the group's importance, its immediacyand the number of people in the group o Strength o Immediacy o Number ○ Conformity will increase as strength and immediacy increase Minorityinfluence ○ Case where a minority of group members can influence the behaviors or beliefs of the majority ○ The key is consistency. Minority views must express the same view over time and different members of the minority must agree with one another Injunctivenorms ○ A type of social norm where people think what other people would approve or disapprove of ○ Motivates behavior by promising rewards for normative behavior and punishment for non-normative behavior Descriptivenorms ○ A type of social norm where people think of how others actually behave in a given situation regardless of whether the behavior is approved or not by others ○ Motivates behavior by informing people about what is effective or adaptive behavior Some things to think about: Whatarethefactorsthatpredictwhenindividualswill conformbecauseof informationalsocialinfluence?(AlsoseeConformitylecture– whatfactors increasethelikelihoodthatonewillconform?) ○ Fromthelecture: o Group size o Unanimity o Group commitment ○ Fromthebook: o Ambiguity of the situation o Crisis o When other people are experts Understandtheconsequencesof resistingnormativesocialinfluence(p 210). ○ Social disapproval o Get ignored or comments regarding the resistant behavior or attitude Understandthefactorsinvolvedin thesocialimpacttheory(strength,immediacyandnumber). Howdo normativeandinformationalinfluenceplaya partin Milgram’sobedienceexperiments? ○ Fornormativeinfluence, participants knew that an acceptable behavior would be obeying the authority figure, wanting to be liked -- so will keep doing what is being asked. ○ Forinformationalinfluence, participants knew that there was an expert in the room and so s/he must know what s/he's doing; thus, the participant keeps on going despite of hesitation or doubt because people tend to conform when the situation is ambiguous or in a crisis and Social Page 4 participant keeps on going despite of hesitation or doubt because people tend to conform when the situation is ambiguous or in a crisis and when there is an expert in the environment From Conformity lecture Distinguishconformity,complianceandobedience. ○ Conformity is the tendency to change beliefs and behaviors that is consistent with the group's standards; however, no one asked you to do something ○ Compliance is the tendency to do what we are asked to do even if we may not want to (formal request) ○ Obedience is the tendency to do what we are asked to do because an authority asked (kind of conformity) CompareandcontrasttheSherifautokineticeffectstudyandtheAschlineexperiment. ○ Ambiguous situation -- tend to adjust answer and go along with the group when asked individually (public compliance --> private acceptance) ○ Asch line -- public compliance without private acceptance Understandandbe ableto recognizeexamplesofthedifferentcompliancetechniques(footin thedoor,doorin theface,that’snotall,pique,low ball) ○ Door-in-the-face is when a person sets a point of comparison and induces guilt to another person or an audience which is typically done by using a big request followed by a small request ○ Foot-in-the-door is when a person starts with a small request followed by a bigger request. This technique works because the person that was given the request has invested into the request and so s/he has to be consistent or else dissonance could occur. However, there is also the case that dissonance might not happen but because of self-perception theory where the person then reflects on his/her previous behavior and associate that with how s/he feels to the next request ○ Low ball is when a reasonable request is given but incompletely presented ○ That's-not-all is used in infomercialswhich usually offers something but in order to persuade people to go for it, other "deals" are included ○ Pique is used to "grab someone's attention" which means that a social script would be broken. It disrupts automacity Whatdo we knowaboutsituationalfactorsthatalterthefindingsfromtheoriginalMilgramstudy(knowthesegenerally;you do notneedtoknow everyfactor). ○ Situational factors changes the outcomes in a way that when the authoritative figure is not in the same room or not available, the person's obedience dramatically decreases Arepeoplegoodat understandingwhethertheywouldconformor notin a givensituation?Use evidencetosupportyourclaim. ○ No, especially when the situation is ambiguous, people would use informational influence and conform. In addition, people conform if the group size is 2 or more and there is unanimity. (NURSE STUDY) GROUPS-- DONE FromChapter12 (Gilovich,Keltner,ChenandNisbett – accessat http://wwnorton.com/ebooklite/socpsy4_chs1012/welcome.asp.) Bold Terms: Social facilitation ○ When a person's performance is affected by the mere presence of others that aids them to do better Dominantresponse ○ Is the unconscious and quick response that we usually go for in a situation Social loafing ○ The diffusion of responsibility within an individual as the group size increases Groupthink ○ Faulty thinking by members of highly cohesive group subverted by social pressures to reach consensus Riskyshift ○ The tendency for groups to make riskier decisions than what individuals would Grouppolarization ○ Whatever way the group is thinking or leaning toward to, discussion tends to make it lean further into that direction Power ○ The freedom to act and ability to control one's own outcomes and others Social Page 5 Approach/Inhibitiontheoryof power ○ A theory maintaining that high-powerindividuals are inclined to go after their goals and make quick judgments, whereas low-power individuals are more likely to constrain their behavior and pay careful attention to others Deindividuation ○ A reduced sense of individual identity accompanied by diminishedself-regulation that can come over people when they are in a large group Selfawarenesstheory ○ A theory maintaining that when people focus their attention inward on themselves, they become concerned with self-evaluation and how their current behavior conforms to their internal standards and values Spotlighteffect ○ A mentality in which an individual thinks that everyone else is paying attention to them more than they actually are (standing out ; appearance or behavior) Somethingstothinkabout:DONE Whatdo we knowaboutgroupthinkacrosscultures?Whatdo we knowaboutriskyshiftacrosscultures? ○ Groupthink is great in Eastern cultures, usually no debate occurs ○ Risky shift -- in US college students tend to make more risky decisions; other countries tend to be more cautious Howdo theriskyshiftandgrouppolarizationrelate? ○ Since risky shift is the tendency for groups to make riskier decisions than what individuals normally would, group polarization facilitates this shift which makes the discussion lean toward the direction of the group's decision Compareandcontrastthepersuasiveargumentsaccountandthesocial comparisonaccountoftheriskyshift. ○ Persuasive arguments account -- ○ Social comparison account -- we want to be seen as an individual, if people thought the same as you do, you would want to do better than them to stand out Whataretheaffectiveconsequencesof highpower? Whatarethecognitiveconsequencesof diminishedpower? Whatarethebehavior consequencesof highandlowpower? ○ 2 core elements of approach/inhibition theory of power o Affectiveconsequences whichthenleadto behaviorconsequences □ High power -- less empathy o Behaviorconsequences □ High power -- less careful and systematic ; acting in inappropriate ways □ Low power -- more vigilant ○ Diminishedpower o Less flexible in their thoughts o Does poorly From Groups lecture Howdoestaskdependencyrelateto social facilitationversussocialinhibition? ○ Depending on how well they know the task, the individual's dominant response when it comes to performance would be enhanced (social facilitation) if task is easy and well-learned compared to something that is new to him/her (social inhibition) Understandthe3 reasonswhythepresenceof an audienceaffectsperformance(arousal,evaluation,anddistraction). Whydoessocialloafingoccurandwhatcouldyoudo toreduceloafing? ○ Social loafing occurs because the individual assumes that his/her responsibility can be done by other members of the group (especially as the group size increases) o Reducing size of the group o Making people more accountable by judging / evaluating their individual contributions o Increase responsibility & identification of responsibility Whendoessocialcompensation,as opposedtoloafing,occur? ○ Social compensation is when an individual does not trust the members of the group and thus exert more effort onto the work compared to loafing in which the individual's effort diminishes Whatis socialidentity?Whatis social identitytheory? ○ A person's sense of who they are based on their group memberships. Social identity theory states that the in-group will always discriminate against the out-group to enhance their self-image Social Page 6 ○ Social identity theory states that the in-group will always discriminate against the out-group to enhance their self-image From Groups: Effects of Social Identity lecture Howdo social identitiesserveas a situation? Howdo thestudiesby Hastorfandby Snibbedemonstratethis? ○ We see the situation through our social identity (Princeton v Dartmouth) Understandtheworkby Shmaderandwhatit saysaboutsocialidentityandstereotypethreat. ○ Stereotype threat is a situational predicament in which people are or feel themselves to be at risk of confirming stereotypes about their social group o Pressure due to the negative connotation attached to the social group From Groups: Stigmatized and Majority Social Identities lecture Whatare3 differenttypesof stigmadefinedby Goffman? ○ Abominations of the body o Scars, disabilities ○ Blemishes of individual character o Morality ○ Tribal o Race, nation, religion Understandhowattributionplaysintostigmatization. Withthisunderstandthestudyby DeJong. ○ Context matters (why obese kid is ranked least to play with b/c can lay blame) Whydon’tthestigmatizedsufferfromlowerselfesteem? ○ Through having a negative feedback to one's group membership. Basically trying to separate the "self" from the group which can lead to shrugging off the feedback as an individual problem instead of a group problem ○ Ingroup comparisons o Downward as opposed to upward social comparison □ Comparing the "self" within the ingroup as "better" instead of doing it with an outgroup ○ Selectivity of values o Devalue dimensions on which your group fares poorly which can result to limiting one's potential Whatdo thedatafromKnowlesandPengsuggestabouttheideathatWhiteidentityis notinert? Social Page 7
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