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by: Lei Raiza Zervoulakos


Lei Raiza Zervoulakos
Loyola Marymount University
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Exam 1 Study Guide for Adam Fingerhut's Social Psychology Class
Social Psychology
Adam Fingerhut
Study Guide
Psychology, social, research methods, perception, Attribution Biases, self
50 ?




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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lei Raiza Zervoulakos on Thursday August 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to at Loyola Marymount University taught by Adam Fingerhut in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Loyola Marymount University.

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Date Created: 08/04/16
Exam 1 Study Guide Sunday, January 24, 2:07 PM INTRODUCTION From Chapter 1 Bold Terms:  Social psychology  Social psychology is the study of how people's thoughts, feelings and behavior are influenced by the real or imagined presence of other people  Construal  The way in which people perceive, understand and interpret the world Some things to think about:  What distinguishes social psychology from personality psychology and sociology? ○ Social psychology focuses on the environment of the individual and how this affects the individual's thought processes and behavior rather than just focusing on the individual itself and its personality or disposition. In addition, social psychology focuses on the typical and normal behavior rather than disorders or extreme behaviors. On the other hand, sociology studies a group of people and how they interact with others.  How do the schools of behaviorism and Gestalt psychology relate to the field of social psychology? ○ Gestalt psychology can be tied to the field of social psychology through the means of construal. We focus on the subjective side than the objective side of things. We try to maintain and hold onto our meaningful perceptions of the world. METHODOLOGY From Chapter 2 Bold Terms:  Observational method ○ Observational method is used to measure people's behavior through observing them  Correlational method ○ Correlational method is used to study a relationship between two variables and determine the strength and direction of this relationship. This does not, however, infer causality  Correlation coefficient ○ Correlation coefficient ranges from -1 to 1 and provides us information on the strength and direction of the relationship between the two variables being measured  Random selection ○ Random selection is when everyone in the population has an equal chance of being selected as a participant  Experimental method ○ Experimental method is when there is a manipulation of variable and random assignment involved. This method can infer causality  Independent variable ○ An independent variable is a variable that is being manipulated in an experiment. This is the variable of interest  Dependent variable ○ A dependent variable is the measurement of the influence of the independent variable  Random assignment Random assignment is when everyone gets an equal chance to be assigned in the conditions of an experiment. This prevents bias and ensures that individual differences are ○ accounted for and evenly distributed  Internal validity ○ Internal validity is when the independent variable is the only variable that could explain the results. This means that all potential extraneous variables are controlled and only the independent variable is the only one that differs  External validity ○ External validity is when the results of a study can be generalized to the population and other situations  Mundane realism ○ Mundane realism is when the experimental situation is similar to situations people are LIKELY to encounter outside the laboratory setting  Psychological (or experimental ) realism ○ Psychological or experimental realism is when the psychological processes in the setting triggers similar psychological processes that occur in everyday life. They experience the experiment as intended  Field experiment ○ A field experiment is when the researcher observes a person in a natural setting instead of a laboratory setting Some things to think about:  Compare and contrast the observational, correlational, and experimental methods. What are advantages and disadvantages of each? Observational method is advantageous because the researcher gets to see the participant in a natural setting; however, it is difficult to pinpoint the underlying cause of the ○ behavior. ○ Correlational method is advantageous because it can assess two or more variables and their relationship, and is useful for predicting these relationships. However, correlational methods do not mean causation. ○ Experimental method is advantageous because it can infer causality through the manipulation of variables and random assignment. However, a disadvantage can be if the results cannot be generalized to the population or situation. Experimental methods must be internally and externally valid.  Compare and contrast external and internal validity. ○ External validity is the ability to generalize the results to other people or situations, while internal validity is the ability to conclude that the results were due to the manipulation of the independent variable and not due to an extraneous variable. Social Page 1 From Research Methods lecture  Understand the steps in the scientific method ○ Hypothesis --> Design & Data --> Analyze Data --> Publish & Replication --> Theory (Build Theory) --> Review of Literature  What is operationalization and why is it important? ○ Operationalization is the precise definition of the conceptual variable. This is important so that people reading or following the study would know exactly what and how the conceptual variable/s is/are being measured.  What kind of claims can be made from a correlational study? From an experiment? ○ Predictions, strength and directionality of the relationship between the variables can be claimed from a correlational study. On the other hand, causality can be inferred from doing an experiment.  Understand mediation and moderation ○ Mediation is when there is a middle variable which explains the link between variable A and variable B. This means that variable A leads to variable C, which then leads to variable B. On the other hand, moderation is a variable which alters the link between variable A and variable B. This means that another variable other than A can lead to variable B and that it can only happen in certain situations.  Understand factorial designs. Be able to identify main effects and interactions ○ Factorial designs consists of 2 or more independent variables where variables are completely crossed. ○ Main effects are the effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable averaging across the levels of any other independent variables. ○ Interaction effect is when the differences on one factor depend on the level you are on another factor. Interaction is between factors and not levels. SOCIAL COGNITION From Chapter 3: Bold Terms:  Social cognition ○ Study of how people process social information  Automatic thinking ○ Automatic thinking is one of the two mental processes which does not require any effort, is unintentional and tend to be intuitive  Schemas ○ Mental structures that people use to organize their knowledge about the social world around themes or subjects which influences what information people notice, think about and remember  Accessibility ○ Extent where schemas and concepts are at the forefront of the mind; thus, likely to be used when making judgments about the social world  Priming ○ A process where a previous experience has the potential to increase the accessibility of schemas  Judgmental heuristics ○ Judgmental heuristics are a mental shortcut which allows us to make a decision or judgment quickly with the use of availability heuristic, representativeness heuristic and anchor and adjustment  Availability heuristic ○ Availability heuristic is when a person uses a mental shortcut which is available to his/her mind such as something recent that just happened  Representativeness heuristic ○ A mental shortcut where a person classifies something according to how similar it is to a typical case  This can be through law of small numbers, neglecting base rate and the conjunction fallacy  Base rate information ○ Base rate information is when we ignore what the numbers or statistics that is given to us and use the traits instead (stereotype) to make a decision or judgment  Controlled thinking ○ Controlled thinking is one of the two mental processes where it is intentional, requires effort and involves awareness, and can be reported in words or language  Counterfactual thinking ○ Mentally changing some aspect of the past as a way of imagining what might have been  Thought suppression ○ When we try push our thoughts out of our minds Some things to think about:  How are priming and accessibility related to one another? ○ Priming increases the ability to access schemas  Understand how self-fulfilling prophecies occur (this is relevant for our discussion later on of social perception). ○ Self-fulfilling prophecies occur when people have an expectation of someone which unconsciously affects their behavior toward the person and then influences the person to act a certain way which affirms their expectation of the person From Social Cognition – Controlled and Automatic lecture  Compare and contrast controlled and automatic cognition. ○ Controlled cognition is where a person is aware of the mental process and does things intentionally. On the other hand, automatic cognition does not require any effort and is intuitive, which means it doesn’t interfere with any processes.  How do the studies on conscious introspective thinking and self regulation demonstrate the imperfection of controlled cognition? ○ The imperfection of this is that we are not aware which one is coming from our own decisions, judgments, etc., and which ones are coming from our social environment that Social Page 2 ○ The imperfection of this is that we are not aware which one is coming from our own decisions, judgments, etc., and which ones are coming from our social environment that we just adopted.  Compare and contrast naïve realism with subjective construal. ○ Naïve realism is when we think we know what is actually going on when that is not really the reality. On the other hand, subjective construal is the process of constructing the experience and interpreting it into something as what we see as "reality". We do not acknowledge the situation, which is invisible in the equation in naïve realism.  Understand what a situation is and why situations are so powerful in influencing thought and behavior. ○ Situation is defined as being contextual, and it is the physical and social environment where our thoughts, feelings and behaviors can be affected From Social Cognition – Judgment and Decision Making lecture  What does the Monty Hall problem suggest about the way people make decisions? ○ The Monty Hall suggests that regardless of how many options are there, the probability will not be 50-50, which is what people usually think.  Compare and contrast Expected Utility Theory and Prospect Theory. ○ Expected Utility Theory is an account where we are to choose rationally, and even if the situations presented to us are the same, we end up treating both of them differently. When we can use logic, we do not use it and go with our gut or if we use it, we use it incorrectly. On the other hand, Prospect Theory emphasizes that losses loom larger than gains which means that we focus more on the negatives than the positives. We prefer gains and a risk to lose nothing.  Why, according to Prospect Theory, is the zero point meaningful and why is the slope steeper when it comes to negatives? Why do losses loom larger than gains? ○ It is because the change from zero to a negative is a qualitative change, and so the psychological impact would be a lot worse than changing from a negative to a higher negative.  What does it mean that people are risk averse when it comes to gains, but risk seeking when it comes to losses? ○ People who risk averse when it comes to gains mean that they try to avoid it when they know that they might lose something despite of having the possibility of gaining, but when there is to gain and nothing to lose, we tend to take it. On the other hand, risk seeking when it comes to losses mean that when we are offered something that has the possibility of increasing what we had or losing it, we still tend to risk it (gamble)  Understand the different heuristics (availability, representativeness, anchor and adjust). Availability heuristic ○ ○ Availability heuristic is when a person uses a mental shortcut which is available to his/her mind such as something recent th at just happened ○ Representativeness heuristic ○ A mental shortcut where a person classifies something according to how similar it is to a typical case  This can be through law of small numbers, neglecting base rate and the conjunction fallacy ○ Anchor & Adjustment ○ We adjust our attributions insufficiently based on the anchor given to us when we do not know the answer  How do the law of small numbers, neglecting base rates, and the conjunction fallacy all demonstrate the representativeness heuristic? ○ Representative bias is when we make judgments under circumstances of probability; thus, law of small numbers, neglecting base rates and the conjunction fallacy undermines or underestimates the power of probability or numbers in situations where we are uncertain of the answer  What is hindsight bias? How is hindsight bias an example of anchor and adjustment? ○ Hindsight bias is when we are given the answer, we think that we knew the answer all along despite of it being not. This is an example of anchor and adjustment because based on the definition of the anchor and adjustment heuristic, we adjust our attributions or our answer based on the anchor given to us when we are unsure of the answer.  How might our cultural upbringing affect our judgments? ○ Cultural upbringing affects a person's judgment in a sense of whether s/he was brought up in an Easterner or Westerner culture. Easterner's like Asian countries tend to have a collectivist judgment which acknowledges more on the group than the self, while the Westerner's like America and European countries tend to have an individualistic judgment where they acknowledge more toward their selves than the group. Thus, there will be a difference in perception if one was not brought up in that culture. SOCIAL PERCEPTION From Chapter 4 Bold Terms:  Nonverbal communication  Nonverbal communication refers to how people communicate intentionally or unintentionally without the use of words. This may occur through facial expressions, tone of voice, body language, etc.  Display rules  A cultural based rule on which nonverbal behavior are appropriate to display ○ American culture discourage emotional displays in men  Implicit personality theory  A type of schema which tends to group certain personality traits together  Attribution theory  An explanation or description we come up with about the causes of one's own behavior or other people's behavior  Internal attribution  An inference made that a person is behaving the way they are because of something internal or within them such as it is their character, personality, or attitude  External attribution  An inference made that a person is behaving the way they are because of the situational constraints they are in  Co-variation model  The co-variation model is a theory which states that in forming attributions, we examine instances of the behavior from different situations and different times. It assumes that we make attributions in a rational and logical way.  Consensus information  Consensus information refers to how other people behave toward the same stimulus Social Page 3  Consensus information refers to how other people behave toward the same stimulus  Distinctiveness information  How a person responds to other stimuli  Consistency information  Behavior between a person and a stimulus are the same across time and circumstances  Correspondence bias  Also known as the fundamental attribution error, where people tend to underestimate external influences when explaining other people's behavior  Actor/Observer difference  In line with the fundamental attribution error, where a person makes a different attributional claim when an observer than an actor. As an actor, the person knows the causal influences of the behavior, even though s/he was not aware of the behavior. However, s/he makes an internal attribution as an observer, completely disregarding external causes  Self serving attributions  Self serving attributions are explanations for one's successes that gives credit to internal attributions or dispositional factors, while blaming external situational factors for one's failures  Belief in a just world  A defensive attribution where people assume that bad things happen to bad people (they deserve it or it was coming to them type of thinking), and that good things happen to good people Some things to think about:  Are some nonverbal expressions universal? If so, which ones? Why might there be universal expressions? ○ Yes, there are nonverbal expressions that are universal such as anger, happiness, sadness, surprise, fear and disgust. These are universal expressions because it helped us evolutionarily to survive. Coming off of the evolutionary concept, nonverbal expressions or language thus is primitive.  How does culture affect our implicit theories about personality? How do Easterners and Westerner’s theories differ? ○ It differs based on whether you are an easterner or westerner. It will tend to be collectivist if the culture was centered around easterners, and individualistic if it is centered around westerners. Easterners = collective ; Westerners = individualistic  Distinguish among consensus, distinctiveness, and consistency. See Figure 4.3. When are we likely to make an external versus internal attribution? ○ We make an external attributionwhen consensus distinctiveness, andconsistency arehigh . On the other hand, we make ainternal attributionwhen consistencyis high, and consensus and distinctivenessare low. ○ Consensus is when other people tend to behave in similar stimulus. Distinctiveness is how the person responds to other stimuli. Consistency is when the person responds to a stimuli similarly across time and situations  Understand the Jones and Harris study (the Castro study) and what it reveals about the correspondence bias. Why do these results show a bias? ○ People still tend to make attributions based on disposition regardless of an ambiguous situation.  What are the cultural biases in the FAE? ○ Individualistic are more prone to error than collectivistic cultures because individualistic based individuals define themselves through one's own actions, thoughts and feelings rather than collectivistic cultures. From Social Perception: Nonverbal Behavior lecture  Understand the research on self-fulfilling prophecies. Why does this phenomenon occur? ○ Self-fulfilling prophecies occur when people have an expectation of someone which unconsciously affects their behavior toward the person and then influences the person to act a certain way which affirms their expectation of the person. For example, the How to Become a Batman podcast where because of our low expectations toward blind people, they tend to limit themselves on what they can actually or potentially end up being able to do.  What are thin slices of behavior? What do they suggest about the power of nonverbal communication? ○ Thin slices of behavior us when observe partial interaction and be able to accurately draw conclusions in the emotions and attitudes of the people interacting (first impression) From Social Perception: Attribution lecture  What kind of assumptions do I suggest we make about the link between behavior and disposition? We disregard situation in the equation and automatically make attributions that a person's behavior is because of their disposition. ○  What is the co-variation model? What are its limitations? ○ It is a model which tells us what we should do, but it is not what we actually do because when we make attributions it is quick and automatic. Thus, following this model would be cognitively taxing.  What is the correspondence inference theory? What are its limitations? Compare and contrast this theory with the co-variation model. ○ Correspondence inference theory suggests that we make attributions based on a single behavior. That behavior comes from both dispositional and situational factors. We make attributions either from using situational constraints or counter-normative behavior which results to either discounting or augmenting. However, despite of these two, we still tend to make attributions based on disposition instead of taking into account situational factors.  Distinguish augmenting from discounting. ○ Augmenting ○ Augmenting is when we see an unexpected behavior that tends to deviate from social norms ○ Discounting ○ Discounting is when we see expected and socially desirable behaviors but cannot make a dispositional inference  What is the Fundamental Attribution Error (correspondence bias)? Why do we commit the FAE? ○ Fundamental attribution error is where people tend to underestimate external influences when explaining other people's behavior. We commit this attribution error because most of the time we overlook situational constraints due to their invisibility to us, we have inaccurate theories of situational influence, salience (we are aware of how situations are influencing us more than we are aware of our own behavior) ○ Actor-observer effect -- "I know I was late because of an emergency, but you are late because you are irresponsible"  What is salience? How does it contribute to the FAE? ○ Salience is when we are more aware of the situational factors more than our awareness of our behavior. Salience contributes to the fundamental attribution error through the actor/observer difference or our tendency to underestimate causal factors when it comes to explaining other people's behavior. Social Page 4 ○ actor/observer difference or our tendency to underestimate causal factors when it comes to explaining other people's behavior. ○ Salience = attention-getting THE SELF From Chapter 5:  Independent self ○ Seen in Western cultures, where a person defines one's self in terms of one's own internal thoughts, feelings and actions.  Interdependent self ○ Seen in Eastern cultures, where a person defines one's self in terms of one's relationships to other people and recognizing that one's behavior is often determined by other's thoughts, feelings and actions.  Self awareness theory ○ When people focus on themselves, they evaluate and compare their behaviors with their internal standards and values  Self perception theory (we will return to this in our discussion of attitudes) ○ When our attitudes and feelings are uncertain or ambiguous, we infer these states through observing our behavior and the situation/s where it occurs  Intrinsic motivation ○ Internal desire or enjoyment not due to pressure or rewards  Extrinsic motivation ○ Motivated by rewards  Overjustification effect ○ This occurs when an intrinsic motivation becomes replaced by extrinsic motivation. This then leads to people thinking that they were compelled to do so by external factors or rewards instead of initially having the desire or enjoyment for something. (Underestimating the extent that their behavior was caused by an intrinsic reasons.  Two-factor theory of emotion ○ First experience physical arousal then label the cause for it or an explanation  Misattribution of arousal ○ This is when we make a mistake in identifying what really made us feel a certain way  Social comparison theory When we learn about our own abilities and attitudes by comparing ourselves with other people ○  Upward social comparisons ○ Comparing ourselves to people who are better than us ○ Can be dispiriting = inferiority  Downward social comparisons ○ Comparing ourselves to people who are worse than we are Some things to think about:  Understand how we might use introspection, observations of our own behavior, and other people to know ourselves. ○ Introspection is the process we use when we look inward and examine ourselves through reflecting on our thoughts, feelings and motives (self-reflection in a way ; pro-con list)  What does Nisbett and Wilson’s work (p 112) tell us about introspection? Remember that we talked about similar studies in our discussion of the flaws of controlled cognition. ○ Introspection may not lead us to how we truly feel or the causes of our feelings and behaviors, but we still like to think that we actually know. The explanation of feelings and behaviors go beyond what we can reasonably know  Understand the research by Schachter and Singer on the two factor theory of emotion (p 117-119) ○ People who were exposed at the bridge mistakenly labeled their arousal as attraction rather than adrenaline or fear which supports the two factor theory of emotion where first we have to experience some sort of physical arousal and then label or provide an explanation for that arousal  What does the text mean when it discusses the executive function of the self? ○ Regulating our behavior and choices in optimal ways  What is self-handicapping? What are the two major ways that people self-handicap? ○ Self-handicapping is when we create obstacles and excuses for ourselves so that when we fail or do poorly, one can avoid blaming him or her self From Self: Self Knowledge lecture:  Understand the principle of associative learning and the principle of spreading activation and how they relate to schemas generally and self schemas particularly. ○ Principle of associative learning is when an idea is strongly tied to another idea due to its consistency when presented that it just goes together automatically. On the other hand, the principle of spreading activation is when an idea gets activated, all the other ideas associated with it gets activated as well. This relates to schema in a sense that schemas are our ways of organizing and systematizing knowledge. As for self-schemas, this relates in a way of organizing and processing self-related information.  Understand the research by Hazel Markus and what it tells us about the function of self schemas. ○ Self-schemas guide our behavior and processing of self-related information contained in an individual's social experience such as being able to generalize, give specific facts and specific events. These guides our behavior, and concepts in one's self-schema will be active whenever a self-concept is activated. This is also more resistant to persuasion.  Explain the pros and cons of self schemas. ○ It enables us to create or complete patterns, and through assimilation (knowing our roles in situations). However, both of these can also be a con for self-schemas such as we tend to over assimilate especially regarding stereotypes. We inappropriately label a person without being aware that we have done so Social Page 5 Exam 2 Study Guide Thursday, February 25,5:31 PM THESELF FromSelf:SelfEsteemlecture:(DONE)  Whydo peoplewithhighself-esteemfeelbetterafterfailure? o People with high self esteem respond in a way that will let them feel better more quickly  Is selfesteemalwaysa goodthing? Whyor whynot?Provideevidence. ○ Self-esteem is a good thing because it helps you overcome setbacks. However, when your self-esteem is threatened, it becomes a bad thing because you will do whatever it takes in order to feel better.  Whatarethetwokindsof consequencesthatcomewithsocialcomparison? ○ Upward social comparison result into feeling inferior, while downward social comparison result into comparing ourselves with someone worse than us in order for us to feel good about ourselves or boost our ego  Understandtheconceptof baskingin reflectedglory. ○ Basking in reflected glory occurs when a person associates themselves with known successful others in a way that their success becomes the individual's own accomplishment o "Would I want my friend or a stranger to succeed" topic  Whatis theselfevaluationmaintenancetheory?Whatdoesit suggestaboutthekindof feedbackwe wantrelativetothosearoundus? ○ This refers to the discrepanciesbetween two people in a relationship. If there is an imbalance, we try to adapt to it based on the other person's feeling toward it o "Fingerhut loves PB and his husband doesn't so now he doesn't eat PB as much"  Compareandcontrastselfenhancementmotiveswithselfverificationmotives. ○ Self-enhancement refers to the attitude of "tell me that I'm great no matter what the truth is" ; it pushes for positivityand wanting to be liked by others (kiss my ass) ○ Self-verification refers to the attitude of "tell me what I think about myself" ; it pushes for consistencyand wanting to be knownby others ATTITUDESANDATTITUDECHANGE FromChapter6 (DONE) Bold Terms:  Cognitivedissonance  Inconsistency or conflict between attitude and behavior  Postdecisiondissonance  A form of regret or worry that one might have not made the right decision or didn't make the best choice  Externaljustification  A reason or explanation that explains your dissonant behavior such as getting a reward  Internal justification  Reducing the dissonance by changing something in yourself (attitude/behavior)  BenFranklineffect  Asking someone you do not like or disagree with for a simple favor and thus creating some sort of connection from that rather than asking for a huge favor Some things to think about:  Understandthe3 approachestoreducingdissonancepresentedin Figure6.1 ○ Changing attitude ○ Changing behavior ○ Rationalizing --> interpret o Justification  Howdo lowballing(whichwe discusswhenwe talkaboutcompliance)anddissonancego together? ○ Lowballing refers to a type of compliance technique where an individual begins with a reasonable request but it is incomplete. This ties with dissonance because if we commit to the request and then get a follow-up and a negative feeling arises, we reduce it by changing our attitude through self-perception. Our behavior (committing to the request) is used as an inference to what we will be doing next. There has to be consistency.  ExplaintheBenFranklineffectusingselfperceptiontheory. Social Page 1  ExplaintheBenFranklineffectusingselfperceptiontheory. ○ Since you asked a person for a simple favor such as borrowing a book that you wanted to read, next time that you ask for a favor or so, the person who lent you the book would be assessing his or her previous behaviors such as letting you borrow the book must mean that s/he had positive attitude toward you and will do the favor you ask. FromChapter7 (DONE) Bold Terms:  Explicitattitude  Attitudes that we consciously endorse and can easily report ○ "What is your opinion on affirmative action"  Implicitattitude  Involuntary, uncontrollable and unconscious evaluations  Central routeto persuasion  Case in which people elaborate on a persuasive communication, listening carefully to and thinking about the arguments which occurs when people have both the ability and motivation to listen carefully to a communication  More persuaded when facts are logically compelling  Peripheral routeto persuasion  Case in which people do not pay attention and listen carefully to the argument and get swayed by peripheral cues  Attitudeinoculation  Making people immune to being persuaded through the exposure in small doses of arguments against their position allowing them to build upon those oppositional arguments enabling them to have a strong foundation on their belief or attitude toward something  Reactancetheory  People do not like to feel that their freedom to do or think whatever they want is being threatened ○ The stronger the prohibition is, the more likely the increase in interest in the prohibited activity o Don't touch the wet paint--> Touch the wet paint  Attitudeaccessibility  Refers to the strength of the association between an object and an evaluation of it ○ When accessibility is high, your attitude comes to mind whenever you see or think about the attitude object  Theoryof plannedbehavior  Idea that people's intentions are the best predictors of their deliberate behaviors, which are determined by their attitudes toward specific behaviors, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control ○ This is done only when people have timeto contemplate how they are going to behave Some things to think about:  Howmightcognitivedissonanceleadtoattitudechange? ○ In cognitive dissonance, a negative feeling arises when there is a conflict between attitude and behavior; thus, one way to reduce this negative feeling is by changing our attitude  Whatis theYaleAttitudeChangeapproachandwhatarethedifferentcomponentsin thismodel?  Whatis theelaborationlikelihoodmodelof persuasionandhowarethecentralandperipheralroutestopersuasionrelated? ○ Central routes -- paying attention to the message ○ Peripheral routes -- paying attention to the speaker rather than the message  Whatis therelationshipbetweenfeararousingcommunicationsandattitudechange? ○ Fear arousing communications do not relay the actual message but only attends to the emotional aspect of it; thus, may not be successful in creating an attitude change  Whatdoesthestudyby LaPiere(p 184)suggestaboutthelinkbetweenattitudesandbehaviors? o It leads us in some way to an attitude accessibility-- it is an on the spot decision so it does not give us a clear idea whether our behavior tells us what our attitude is or not  Understandthetheoryof plannedbehavior(figure7.8).  Idea that people's intentions are the best predictors of their deliberate behaviors, which are determined by their attitudes toward specific behaviors, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control o This is done only when people havetimeto contemplate how they are going to behave Social Page 2 FromAttitudeslecture (DONE)  Compareandcontrastthedifferentmodelsof attitudeformationandchange(expectancyvalue,learningtheory,consistencytheories,selfperception theory). ○ Expectancyvalue-- like Kelley's co-variation model, it is a model of what we should do and not what we actually do. This is the weighing of pros and cons through the use of values and then making a decision based on the outcome of it ○ Learningtheory--We form our attitudes or change our attitudes based on observation or study of behavior either through reinforcement/punishment (operant conditioning), associations (classical conditioning), and observation (Bobo dolls; mimicking)] ○ Consistencytheories-- Either through cognitive consistency (interpersonal) where we try not to be hypocritical and take the path of least resistance (there must be balance), while cognitive dissonance (intrapersonal and not about relationships) is where there is conflict between attitude and behavior and a negative arousal that want to be gotten rid of ○ Self-perceptiontheory-- We infer our attitudes by observing our behavior or previous behavior (behavior -> attitude)  Compareandcontrastbalancetheoryandcognitivedissonancetheory. ○ Consistencytheories o Cognitive consistency □ interpersonal □ where we try not to be hypocritical and take the path of least resistance (there must be balance)  Self-evaluation maintenance theory Cognitive dissonance o □ intrapersonal and not about relationships □ where there is conflict between attitude and behavior  a negative arousal that want to be gotten rid of  Whatarethevariouswayswe canreducenegativearousalwhenwe experiencedissonance? ○ Change behaviors ○ Change attitudes Rationalize --> reinterpret ○  Understandthestudyandthefindingsof FestingerandCarlsmith. Howdoesthisstudydemonstratecognitivedissonanceandtheinsufficient justificationeffect? ○ When there is insufficient justification effect, people were more likely to experience more dissonance especially if they lack external justification; thus, they try to reduce the dissonance  Howdo themessage,thecommunicator,thetarget,andthesituationaffectpersuasion? ○ These are outside forces that influence attitude change o Message is the strength of an argument o Communicator is when the "who" matters o Situation is based on whether the person is resistant against persuasion attempt, if the argument is weak and if a person hashad the chance to solidify one's belief or attitude o Target is when there is involvement or it is in the personality of an individual  Whatis mereexposure? ○ Mere exposure effect, also known as repetition, refers to the peripheral cues where everything but the content itself becomesattended  Distinguishforewarning,distractionandinoculation. ○ Forewarning -- resistance against persuasion attempt ○ Distraction -- an individual gets more easily persuaded especially if the argument is weak ○ Inoculation -- if a person fails to persuade an individual, it becomes harder for the next person to persuade the individual such that the individual becomes much more or creates more solidification about the belief or attitude CONFORMITY FromChapter8 (DONE) Bold Terms:  Conformity Social Page 3  Conformity ○ Tendency to change beliefs and behaviors consistent with the group standards ○ No one asked you to do something  Informationalsocial influence ○ Information influence is the desire to be right and so we tend to look at other people who might be more or well-informed aboutsomething and use it as our basis in making a decision and thus can lead to private acceptance  Privateacceptance ○ Conforming to other people's behavior out of genuine belief that what they are doing or saying is right  Publiccompliance ○ Conforming publicly without necessarily believing in what the group is saying or doing  Social norms ○ Rules for acceptable behaviors, values and beliefs  Normativesocialinfluence ○ Social influence is the desire to be liked and so we tend to look at other people and act or behave like they do in order to not be the "outcast"  Social impacttheory ○ The idea that conforming to social influence depends on the group's importance, its immediacyand the number of people in the group o Strength o Immediacy o Number ○ Conformity will increase as strength and immediacy increase  Minorityinfluence ○ Case where a minority of group members can influence the behaviors or beliefs of the majority ○ The key is consistency. Minority views must express the same view over time and different members of the minority must agree with one another  Injunctivenorms ○ A type of social norm where people think what other people would approve or disapprove of ○ Motivates behavior by promising rewards for normative behavior and punishment for non-normative behavior  Descriptivenorms ○ A type of social norm where people think of how others actually behave in a given situation regardless of whether the behavior is approved or not by others ○ Motivates behavior by informing people about what is effective or adaptive behavior Some things to think about:  Whatarethefactorsthatpredictwhenindividualswill conformbecauseof informationalsocialinfluence?(AlsoseeConformitylecture– whatfactors increasethelikelihoodthatonewillconform?) ○ Fromthelecture: o Group size o Unanimity o Group commitment ○ Fromthebook: o Ambiguity of the situation o Crisis o When other people are experts  Understandtheconsequencesof resistingnormativesocialinfluence(p 210). ○ Social disapproval o Get ignored or comments regarding the resistant behavior or attitude  Understandthefactorsinvolvedin thesocialimpacttheory(strength,immediacyandnumber).  Howdo normativeandinformationalinfluenceplaya partin Milgram’sobedienceexperiments? ○ Fornormativeinfluence, participants knew that an acceptable behavior would be obeying the authority figure, wanting to be liked -- so will keep doing what is being asked. ○ Forinformationalinfluence, participants knew that there was an expert in the room and so s/he must know what s/he's doing; thus, the participant keeps on going despite of hesitation or doubt because people tend to conform when the situation is ambiguous or in a crisis and Social Page 4 participant keeps on going despite of hesitation or doubt because people tend to conform when the situation is ambiguous or in a crisis and when there is an expert in the environment From Conformity lecture  Distinguishconformity,complianceandobedience. ○ Conformity is the tendency to change beliefs and behaviors that is consistent with the group's standards; however, no one asked you to do something ○ Compliance is the tendency to do what we are asked to do even if we may not want to (formal request) ○ Obedience is the tendency to do what we are asked to do because an authority asked (kind of conformity)  CompareandcontrasttheSherifautokineticeffectstudyandtheAschlineexperiment. ○ Ambiguous situation -- tend to adjust answer and go along with the group when asked individually (public compliance --> private acceptance) ○ Asch line -- public compliance without private acceptance  Understandandbe ableto recognizeexamplesofthedifferentcompliancetechniques(footin thedoor,doorin theface,that’snotall,pique,low ball) ○ Door-in-the-face is when a person sets a point of comparison and induces guilt to another person or an audience which is typically done by using a big request followed by a small request ○ Foot-in-the-door is when a person starts with a small request followed by a bigger request. This technique works because the person that was given the request has invested into the request and so s/he has to be consistent or else dissonance could occur. However, there is also the case that dissonance might not happen but because of self-perception theory where the person then reflects on his/her previous behavior and associate that with how s/he feels to the next request ○ Low ball is when a reasonable request is given but incompletely presented ○ That's-not-all is used in infomercialswhich usually offers something but in order to persuade people to go for it, other "deals" are included ○ Pique is used to "grab someone's attention" which means that a social script would be broken. It disrupts automacity  Whatdo we knowaboutsituationalfactorsthatalterthefindingsfromtheoriginalMilgramstudy(knowthesegenerally;you do notneedtoknow everyfactor). ○ Situational factors changes the outcomes in a way that when the authoritative figure is not in the same room or not available, the person's obedience dramatically decreases  Arepeoplegoodat understandingwhethertheywouldconformor notin a givensituation?Use evidencetosupportyourclaim. ○ No, especially when the situation is ambiguous, people would use informational influence and conform. In addition, people conform if the group size is 2 or more and there is unanimity. (NURSE STUDY) GROUPS-- DONE FromChapter12 (Gilovich,Keltner,ChenandNisbett – accessat Bold Terms:  Social facilitation ○ When a person's performance is affected by the mere presence of others that aids them to do better  Dominantresponse ○ Is the unconscious and quick response that we usually go for in a situation  Social loafing ○ The diffusion of responsibility within an individual as the group size increases  Groupthink ○ Faulty thinking by members of highly cohesive group subverted by social pressures to reach consensus  Riskyshift ○ The tendency for groups to make riskier decisions than what individuals would  Grouppolarization ○ Whatever way the group is thinking or leaning toward to, discussion tends to make it lean further into that direction  Power ○ The freedom to act and ability to control one's own outcomes and others Social Page 5  Approach/Inhibitiontheoryof power ○ A theory maintaining that high-powerindividuals are inclined to go after their goals and make quick judgments, whereas low-power individuals are more likely to constrain their behavior and pay careful attention to others  Deindividuation ○ A reduced sense of individual identity accompanied by diminishedself-regulation that can come over people when they are in a large group  Selfawarenesstheory ○ A theory maintaining that when people focus their attention inward on themselves, they become concerned with self-evaluation and how their current behavior conforms to their internal standards and values  Spotlighteffect ○ A mentality in which an individual thinks that everyone else is paying attention to them more than they actually are (standing out ; appearance or behavior) Somethingstothinkabout:DONE  Whatdo we knowaboutgroupthinkacrosscultures?Whatdo we knowaboutriskyshiftacrosscultures? ○ Groupthink is great in Eastern cultures, usually no debate occurs ○ Risky shift -- in US college students tend to make more risky decisions; other countries tend to be more cautious  Howdo theriskyshiftandgrouppolarizationrelate? ○ Since risky shift is the tendency for groups to make riskier decisions than what individuals normally would, group polarization facilitates this shift which makes the discussion lean toward the direction of the group's decision  Compareandcontrastthepersuasiveargumentsaccountandthesocial comparisonaccountoftheriskyshift. ○ Persuasive arguments account -- ○ Social comparison account -- we want to be seen as an individual, if people thought the same as you do, you would want to do better than them to stand out  Whataretheaffectiveconsequencesof highpower? Whatarethecognitiveconsequencesof diminishedpower? Whatarethebehavior consequencesof highandlowpower? ○ 2 core elements of approach/inhibition theory of power o Affectiveconsequences whichthenleadto behaviorconsequences □ High power -- less empathy o Behaviorconsequences □ High power -- less careful and systematic ; acting in inappropriate ways □ Low power -- more vigilant ○ Diminishedpower o Less flexible in their thoughts o Does poorly From Groups lecture  Howdoestaskdependencyrelateto social facilitationversussocialinhibition? ○ Depending on how well they know the task, the individual's dominant response when it comes to performance would be enhanced (social facilitation) if task is easy and well-learned compared to something that is new to him/her (social inhibition)  Understandthe3 reasonswhythepresenceof an audienceaffectsperformance(arousal,evaluation,anddistraction).  Whydoessocialloafingoccurandwhatcouldyoudo toreduceloafing? ○ Social loafing occurs because the individual assumes that his/her responsibility can be done by other members of the group (especially as the group size increases) o Reducing size of the group o Making people more accountable by judging / evaluating their individual contributions o Increase responsibility & identification of responsibility  Whendoessocialcompensation,as opposedtoloafing,occur? ○ Social compensation is when an individual does not trust the members of the group and thus exert more effort onto the work compared to loafing in which the individual's effort diminishes  Whatis socialidentity?Whatis social identitytheory? ○ A person's sense of who they are based on their group memberships. Social identity theory states that the in-group will always discriminate against the out-group to enhance their self-image Social Page 6 ○ Social identity theory states that the in-group will always discriminate against the out-group to enhance their self-image From Groups: Effects of Social Identity lecture  Howdo social identitiesserveas a situation? Howdo thestudiesby Hastorfandby Snibbedemonstratethis? ○ We see the situation through our social identity (Princeton v Dartmouth)  Understandtheworkby Shmaderandwhatit saysaboutsocialidentityandstereotypethreat. ○ Stereotype threat is a situational predicament in which people are or feel themselves to be at risk of confirming stereotypes about their social group o Pressure due to the negative connotation attached to the social group From Groups: Stigmatized and Majority Social Identities lecture  Whatare3 differenttypesof stigmadefinedby Goffman? ○ Abominations of the body o Scars, disabilities ○ Blemishes of individual character o Morality ○ Tribal o Race, nation, religion  Understandhowattributionplaysintostigmatization. Withthisunderstandthestudyby DeJong. ○ Context matters (why obese kid is ranked least to play with b/c can lay blame)  Whydon’tthestigmatizedsufferfromlowerselfesteem? ○ Through having a negative feedback to one's group membership. Basically trying to separate the "self" from the group which can lead to shrugging off the feedback as an individual problem instead of a group problem ○ Ingroup comparisons o Downward as opposed to upward social comparison □ Comparing the "self" within the ingroup as "better" instead of doing it with an outgroup ○ Selectivity of values o Devalue dimensions on which your group fares poorly which can result to limiting one's potential  Whatdo thedatafromKnowlesandPengsuggestabouttheideathatWhiteidentityis notinert? Social Page 7


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