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Exam 1 Study guide

by: Rebbecca Taing

Exam 1 Study guide BIOL1362

Marketplace > University of Houston > Science > BIOL1362 > Exam 1 Study guide
Rebbecca Taing
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Chapters 24-29, 19, 11
BIOL 1362
Ann Oliver Cheek
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rebbecca Taing on Thursday August 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL1362 at University of Houston taught by Ann Oliver Cheek in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see BIOL 1362 in Science at University of Houston.


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Date Created: 08/04/16
Exam 1 study guide Sunday, February 14, 2016 12:55 PM Exam 1 Preparation Guide Chapters24 – 27, 19, and 11 Concepts Biodiversity– Chapters24 - 27  List characteristicssharedby Archaea& Bacteria,but not Eukarya -no nuclear envelope or mem bound organelles -one circularchromosome  List characteristicssharedby Archaea& Eukarya, but not Bacteria -no peptidoglycan cell wall -multipleRNA polymerase -start aa- Met -no ribo assemblysensitivityto antibiotics  List characteristicsunique to eachdomain -membrlipids:unbranched hc tail- Bacteria& Eukarya somebranched- Archaea -introns: rare- bacteria some- Archaea many- Eukarya -histones:0- bacteria 0/1- archaea 1- eukarya  Namethe 5 kingdoms within DomainBacteriaand be able to draw a phylogenetic tree showing relationships amongthe 5 kingdoms -three fingers -proteobacteria-pro is first -middlefinger- dick gives you chlamydia,includespirochetes -c is three for cyanobacteria,outlier is gram + bacteria  Know the kingdom for eachspecies of bacteria listedin lecture  Know characteristicthat differentiates gram-positiveand gram-negativebacteria and which kingdoms belong to whichcategory -whetherit takes the stain or not -all gram - except gram +  Namethe 4 supergroupswithin DomainEukarya and be able to draw a phylogenetic tree showing relationships amongthe supergroups -Excavata- 3: 2+1 -SAR clade: stramenophiles- 2 Alveolates- 3: 2+1 Rhiarians-2 -Archaeplastida- 4:1+1+2 Green algae: 2&3 -Unikonta- 6: 2+ (4: 2+2) Amoebozoans:2 Opisthokonts:4  Know the supergroupto which eachsingle-celledeukaryote listed in lecture belongs -all but land plants, fungi and animals -SAR: diatoms,dinoflagellates  Explain what the branching pattern on a phylogenetic tree indicates about evolutionary relationships -branch point indicatesa commonancestor  Comparephylogenetic trees to see if they represent the same or different relationships between groups  Use a phylogenetic tree to identify whichgroups descend from a more recent or more ancient  Use a phylogenetic tree to identify whichgroups descend from a more recent or more ancient commonancestor -old-->new -right-->left  Define the ancestralcharacteristicsthat unite the Archaeplastida -cell wall -spermflagellated  Define the sharedderived traits that unite the plant kingdom 1. Sporangia- multicellularorgans producedesiccationresistantsp 2. Gametangia- makes 1 kind of gamete 3. Apical meristem-cell divisionoccurring@ stems 4. Embryo develops protectedin femaleparent to prevent desiccation  Draw the cycle of alternation of generations – name each generation, indicateploidy (1n or 2n) and type of cell divisionthat produces the single cells that develop into the next generation  Namethe 7 phyla within Kingdom Plantae and be able to matchthe name of plants listedin lecture to the correct phylum  Draw a phylogenetic tree showing relationships amongthe 7 plant phyla  Draw a phylogenetic tree showing relationships amongtheseanimal phyla: Porifera,Cnidaria, Chordata,Mollusca,Annelida, Nematoda,Athropoda -14 branches -1, 3, 6, last 4: 2+2  Be able to indicate on the phylogenetic tree whichgroups are part of the Bilateria,Deuterostomia, Lophotrochozoa,and Ecdysozoa -bilateria:chordata,(mollusca,annelida,)(nematoda, athropoda) -bilateria:chordata,(mollusca,annelida,)(nematoda, athropoda) -Deuterostomia:chordata -Lophotrochozoa:mollusca,annelida -ecdysozoa:nematoda,arthropoda  List ancestralcharacteristicscommonto all animals and choanoflagellates, distinguishanimals from choanoflagellatesby sharedderived characteristicof animals -all: genes encoding rib RNA, chaperoneproteins,tubulin -animals:collagen, gastrulationminus porifera  List and map shared derived characteristicsof Eumetazoa,Bilateria,Deuterostomia,and the protostomesonto a phylogenetic tree -eumetazoa-collagen -bilateria-bilateral symmetry -deterostomia-2nd opening becomes mouth -protostomes- 1stopening becomesmouth  List the 4 protostomephyla discussedin lecture -mollusca -annelida -nematoda -arthropoda  List shared derivedcharacteristicsof Lophotrochozoaand list 2 phyla that belong to this group 1. Development:spiral cleavage pattern of embryonic cells 2. Genes: nox genes (reg level of body shapes),genes importantin cell resp -mollusca -annelida  List shared derivedcharacteristicsof Ecdysozoaand 2 phyla that belong to this group -ecydysis:shed exoskeleton to grow -nematoda -arthropoda  List the 4 classesof arthropodsand be able to matchthe name of arthropodslisted in class(and in the Life video) to the correctclass -chelicerata -myrapoda -crustacea -insecta Darwin and Natural Selection: Chapter19  DescribeLyell’s ideas about geologic processesand inferences about Earth’s age -processesstill operate @ same rate as past -earth 6000+ yrs  Compare& contrast Lamarck’s ideas vs Darwin’s idea regarding mechanismsof change in living organisms Lamark: use/disuse,arnold schwarzenagermusclesto son  Darwin: descent w/ mod, survivalof the fittest=sex  Define descent with modification -all living sp decended from one another, descent w/ mod  List and recognizeexamples of descent with modificationin living organisms,both within and between species, andfossilorganisms  Define 2 conditionsnecessaryfor natural selectionand give examplesthat satisfyeach condition -selectionpressure  Evaluate conditionsunder whichnatural selectioncouldoccur  Understandthat natural selectionacts on individuals,but causeschanges in populations  Compareand contrastnatural selectionand artificialselection: conditionsnecessary,selection pressure,result Chapters11: Heredity  Define Mendel’s Law of segregation  Define Mendel’s Law of segregation -traitssep when gametes form  Define Mendel’s Law of independent assortment -traitsmix together  Monohybrid cross– use Punnett square to detail possiblegenotype of gametes and progeny and indicateprogeny phenotypes  Dihybridcross – use Punnett square to show possiblegenotypes of gametes and progeny and indicateprogeny phenotype  Identify dominant or recessivemodes of inheritancefrom the notation (example: A is the dominant allele, a is the recessiveallele)  Analyze a pedigreeto determinewhether a trait is dominant or recessive  Use informationin a pedigree to determinegenotype and calculatethe probabilityof a dominant or recessivetrait being inherited by a son or daughter  Use a Punnett squareto figure out possiblegamete genotype and progeny genotypes for autosomal traits  Use genotype and phenotype of parents to figure out genotype and phenotype of offspring (and vice versa)  Use correctnotation for dominant, recessive,co-dominant,wild-type,mutant, sex-linked -dominant-main P -recessive-hidden p -co-dominent-AB blood type -wildtype- pheno as it occurs in nature + -mutant- changes characteristicof wild type - -sex linked- trait associatedw/ a gene that is carried by only male or femaleparent  Define gene, locus,and allele. Know how many alleles an individualdiploidorganism can have for each locus. -gene- unique seq of DNA nucleotidesthat code a protein -allele- specific codefor version of a character -locus-locationof gene -2 alleles: 1 mom,1 dad  Explain why the number of alleles per gene in an individualcan be different from the number of alleles per gene in a population -b/c two individscan have the same allele so you don’t count them twice Key Study Method: Solve practiceproblems:Chapter 11 ConceptCheck questions: 11.1 Q’s 1 – 3; 11.2 Q’s 1 – 3; and Test Your Understanding: Q1-4, 6-12,16-18, 20 Vocabulary Phylogenetic tree- representing a hypothesisof evolutionaryrelationships amongorganisms Archaea- extremophiles,methanogens Bacteria- all have cell wall Eukarya- mostsingle cell Cyanobacteria-unicellularphotosyn Excavata- feeding groove, O2 less mito, heterotroph,parasite Stramenopile- photosynplastid, marine Alveolate- dinoflagellate Plastid- organelle w/ multi mem & own DNA Diatom-SAR clade Dinoflagellate-2 flagella Giardia- infectedfeces,intestines parasite Trypanosoma- sleepingsickness Plasmodium- malariaparasite Autotroph-producer Autotroph-producer Heterotroph- consumer Saprotroph- absorb nutrients from envmt Archaeplastida-landplants Ancestral characteristic-trait used to group A&D that have samecharacteristic Sharedderived trait- trait of D not gotten from A Apical meristem-cell divisionoccurring@ stems Sporangia- multicellular organs that producedesiccationresistantspores Gametangia- holds egg and sperm Sporophyte- sperm Gametophyte-egg Sporopollenin-spore coating resistantto desiccation Unikonta- animals Metazoa- multicellularanimals Eumetazoa-collagen, all but porifera Bilateria- bilateralsymmetry,deut, lopho,ecdy Lophotrochozoa-protostome,spiral cleavage of embryonic cells Edysozoa-protostome,shedexoskel to grow Gastrulation-make gi tract Mycorrhizae- symbioticrelation btwn plants & fungus Adaptation- inher trait that enhances S&R in current local envmt Natural selection- individs w/certaintraits live & pass trait to offspring Artificialselection-breeding Evolution- change over time Homology- diff sp have sim trait due to commonancestor Analogy- sim in fxn & appearance in structuresof different organisms Biogeography- study of living acrossearth & time Hutton- physicalearth gradual & stillgoing on Lyell- processes@ samerate today as past Lamarck- use/disuse,muscles Cuvier- sp go extinct due to catastrophes Extant- stillliving Allele- specific versionthat codes a gene Blending hypothesis-mix of parents Particulatehypothesis-only get certainparticles of eachparent Character-her trait that varies btwn individs Trait- variant of character P generation- parent F1 generation- offspringof p F2 generation- offspringof F1 Law of segregation- traitssep when gametes form Law of independent assortment- diff allelesassorttogether Genotype- genes Phenotype- physical Dominantallele-overpoweringtrait Recessiveallele- hides Heterozygous-mix Homozygous-pure Punnett square- way to predict geno and pheno Monohybrid cross-1 trait Dihybridcross- 2 traits


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