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Study Guide Exam 2

by: Emily Brandenburg

Study Guide Exam 2 10083

Marketplace > Ohio University > Sociology > 10083 > Study Guide Exam 2
Emily Brandenburg
Introduction to Sociology
Roberta Roberson

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Introduction to Sociology
Roberta Roberson
Study Guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Brandenburg on Monday March 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 10083 at Ohio University taught by Roberta Roberson in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 328 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at Ohio University.


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Date Created: 03/23/15
Study Guide Sociology Exam 2 x Socialization the lifelong social experience by which we become fully human and develop our human potential and learn culture 0 To learn culture means to learn what s right and wrong positive and negative sanctions language and symbols w The Social Self George Herbert Mead 0 Stages of Personal Development I Self develops only with social experience I We imagine ourselves in another s shoes quotI am who I think you think I am I By taking the role of the other we become selfaware 0 Infants have no self but are acquiring a self 0 Toddlers imitation stage 0 Internalized the feelings of significant others 0 Ages 47 play stage 0 Play a variety of social roles 0 quottaking the role of the other 0 Seeing ourselves as others see us and this prepares us for life later on 0 Age 8 game stage 0 Structured activities with rules sports 0 The Generalized Other I Acquiring and internalizing the cultural norms and values of our society which we then use as a reference in evaluating ourselves x Society s Socialization Agents 0 Family I Primary agent of socialization I Imparts the ways of society I What iswhat is not important appropriate moral beautiful correct 0 The child learns I The meaning of objects Bible poison police officer s badge I Relative worth of different groups 0 Schools I Prep for adult roles I Teach appropriate skills traits and attitudes I Impersonal I Emphasis on order and control x Media helps us to define sociopolitical reality x Anticipatory socialization learning that helps a person achieve a desired position x Ideological Social Control 0 Controls our ways of thinking feeling 0 Control what we know and don t know 0 Individuals impose controls upon themselves most effective 0 What we re told is what we know and that shapes our ideas and behavior x Direct Social Control 0 Control of physical behavior 0 Historically I Forced sterilization of women poor women of color mentally disabled I Tuskeegee syphilis studies African American men weren t told they had syphilis and were not given the cure when it was found I Forced institutionalization of women 0 Recently I Drugs to control children people in mental institutions the elderly in nursing homes NOT ALL SOCIAL CONTROL IS BAD x Social Foundations of Deviance o Deviance varies according to cultural norms I Prostitution beekeeping 0 People become deviant as others define them that way I Talking to yourself 0 The definition and application of norms reflect power and inequality I Public speech mayoral candidate vs homeless person o Deviance is a relative term I No one is always and everywhere deviant I Deviance is socially created I Norms change what s deviant changes CONTEXT MATTERS x Deviance from Order Model 0 Deviance is functional I Integral part of healthy societies I Affirms values and norms I Definessustains notions of morality I Clarifies moral boundaries I Brings people together x Deviance from Conflict Model 0 Whowhat is labeled deviant depends on who holds power Deviants tend to be powerless Norms especially laws reflect interests of the richpowerful Power can avoid label quotdeviantquot The belief that norms and laws are natural and good masks their political character I Legalization of pot x Specific Theories 0 Biological Theory Caesare Lambroso I Criminals common physical characteristics I Problems same features throughout population 0 PsychologicalApproach I Deviance unsuccessful socialization I Solutions change individuals mind 0 Problems with these 0000 I Focus on individual I Deviance is gene based for biological theories I Ignores social construction of deviance w Cultural Transmission Theory aka Differential association Edwin Sutherland Sl 0 One learns to be a criminal 0 Culture transmitted within group 0 Group norms and values run contrary to society 0 If you want to understand a behavior step into the environment and examine it from the inside w Strain Theory aka differential opportunities Robert Merton functionalist Institutional Means Accept Reject Cultural Goals Accept Conformity Innovation Reject Ritualism Retreatism Those who seek new goals through new means rebellious gt Conformity suit tie briefcase do what you re supposed to gt Innovation armed robbery do what you can to get by gt Ritualism dead end job don t care about money just the job gt Retreatism shootingup drugs given up on society s views 0 Weaknessesstrengths o W deosn t explain the deviance of the nonpoor o W assumes success wealth o S locates povertycriminality in the social structure NOT the individual w Culture of Poverty Edward Banfield o Wider scale than cultural transmission Poor 9 values 9 deviance Poverty norms values contrary to society Poor socialization differently Severely criticized approach I Assume that people are socialized differently I Research NOT SO I Ignores that nonpoor do deviance w Labeling Theory SI amp Conflict Howard S Becker amp Edwin Lemert o The explanation of deviant behavior that stresses the importance of society in defining what is illegal and in assigning deviant status to 0000 particular individuals which in turn dominates their identities and behaviors All quotdoquot deviance Rule breaking not deviant Needlabel Speaks to issues of power Powerful can avoid criminal label x Primary and Secondary Deviance 0 Primary Deviance The original illegal act proceeding the successful application of the deviant label An act committed by someone where Self not seen as deviant Not viewed by others as deviant 0 Secondary Deviance Deviant behavior that is a consequence of the successful application of the deviant label It is behavior results from the labeling process Label of a deviant is attached Others see you as deviant You see yourself as deviant You act the deviant Thomas Theorem x Forces Transforming the Economy 0 Technology Robots ATM voicemail software word processing computer assisted design medical diagnoses payroll inventory control 0 Globalization Expanding markets worldwide 0 Capital Flight Investment choices that move money from one place to another Offshoring Outsourcing medical care bc it s cheaper o Shift to service and information jobs I Agriculture 9 Manufacturing 9 service and collection storage and dissemination of information o Contingent Employment I Permanent lifetime 9 temporary contract parttime o No expectation for lifetime jobs anymore 0 Other trends aka quotdoing more with less I More overtime I Part time I Experience workers let go and replaced with lower wage new people I Replacing workers with temps no benefits I Older worker let go 9 rehired through work agencies for less money x System Blame vs Person Blame 0 Doing person blame I Frees system from blame justice economy education don t look at the big picture I Established order protected from criticism I Systems of inequality go unexamined and unquestioned 0 Doing system blame I Social problems have systemic AND individual origins I Equates people to robots which we aren t I Absolves the individual from responsibility for hisher actions 0 Why put more focus on system blame I Person blame is the prevailing notion I Sociology deals with the social determinants of behavior NOT the individual x Consequences of the concentration in media ownership 0 Poor 9 government criminal justice system 0 Criminals or anyone who has had a criminal record jail jobs 0 Mentally or developmentally impaired institutionalization 0 Political dissidents MLK Jr monitoring gays lesbians transgender bisexuals housing civil rights 0 Please note in as much as we experience social control to varying degrees we can also exercise social control as well x Social and Personal Consequences of Economic Transformation 0 00000000 Millions of workers and families affected each year Job and benefits insecurity quotreplacementquot jobs usually less money fewer perks Decline of middle class mfg jobless Loss of status selfesteem Divorce rate increases Increases likelihood alcohol spouse and child abuse Health issues Scapegoating blame people for the problems and don t take into account the system A dollars and cents approach to the economy is not enough Economics issues need to be understood in their social context x Changes in Demographics 0 Immigration I New immigrants history of being seen as a threat I Fears increase during hard times I Negative impact on low wage earnerspoorly skilled workers I In the long run good investment for society I Generally quotillegalsquot here looking for work I No work 9 they go home 0 Aging population I Growing population I Inadequate income from pension I High cost of healthcare x Social Differentiation o Categorizing by some personal attribute 0 NOT ranked I Seated by hometown x Social Stratification decidedly MACRO o Ranking in a hierarchy 0 Superior or inferior o Refers to structured social inequality x Four Principles of Social Stratification o 1 SS is a trait of society not simply a reflection of individual differences I Tied to privilege I Life chances chances throughout one s life to experience the good things of life 0 2 SS persists over generations I Parents pass positions to children I Social Mobility change in one s position in the social hierarchy o 3 SS is universal but variable I It s everywhere I WHAT and HOW much vary I Caste vs class system 0 4 SS involves beliefs I That legitimate inequality w Order Model Davis and Moore 1945 o Stratification is functional 0 Incentive and rewards 0 Positions differ in importance o If important more rewards o Unequal rewards right people in rightjobs w Conflict Model Melvin Tumin 1953 critique of Davis and Moore 0 How do we assess importance of any occupation 0 Do rewards reflect the contributions to society I Oprah Winfrey 0 We are born into inequality consequences for people 0 False consciousness I System as is should be Are the most important jobs the most highly rewarded Deficiencies Theories of Stratification x Biological Inferiority poverty social policy and Social Darwinism 0 Mental Inferiority based on IQ testing 0 Problem IQ testing not a legit measure I Overlooks contribution of social class I Personblame approach 0 Poor people are poor because there is something wrong with them x Cultural Deficiency 0 Poor different norms and values Socialized differently Personblame approach Research shows this is a myth Note most people are temporarily poor I Eg widow divorce remarriage 0 Solution to poverty change the opportunity structures in society 0000 Structural Theories x Institutional Discrimination o Unequal treatment structured into society s institutions I Eg Politypoll tax Educationschool funding Economyglass ceiling FamilyDOL x Political Economy of Society Capitalism is not a neutral system 0 Issue is with the primacy of maximizing profit I Pay lt value of labor profit I Profit 9 Investment more wealth SSmakesSS I Profit enhanced by a surplus of labor 9 depresses wages I Replace workers with robotsmove offshore


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