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CLAS 280 - Midterm Review

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CLAS 280 - Midterm Review CLAS 280

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These notes cover what was on the midterm for Professor Habinek's course at USC.
Classical Mythology
Thomas Habinek
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Chandler Grade on Friday August 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CLAS 280 at University of Southern California taught by Thomas Habinek in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Classical Mythology in Classics at University of Southern California.


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Date Created: 08/05/16
CLAS 280 - Midterm Review Terms and Names from Lectures matching - 20 pts. identification - 16 pts. essay questions (2 questions) - 32 pts. each 1. Talk about at least 2 events during the essay, refer to them and analyze how they relate to your argument 2. Full 5 paragraph essays (Students should also be familiar with the major characters from the readings, not all of whom are listed here.) 1. mythos = a myth or mythology. a. (in literature) a traditional or recurrent narrative theme or plot structure. b. a set of beliefs or assumptions about something, underlying system of beliefs or characteristics of a particular cultural group c. "the rhetoric and mythos of science create the comforting image of linear progression toward truth" d. literally an authoritative utterance 2. diachronic = examining a group of socially relevant material (literature, history, mythology, etc.) across the historical time frame and through various points in time, study of a myth over time looking at the issue of change within the myth 3. synchronic = looking at a mythology at one point in time and condensing it into that one moment while disregarding the historical background, looking at the myth itself, rather than the change over time 4. alēthēs = what should not be forgotten (a - lethe), i.e. what should be remembered to form the Pan-Hellenic identity and unite the Greek people, the truth, not necessarily what happened, but what we need to remember 5. pan-Hellenism = (from 'pan': 'all' and 'Hellas': 'Greece') is a modern name for the unity of the Greeks. The Greek poleis (cities with the surrounding countryside) were completely independent from each other. 6. timai = a gift/slice of the cosmos for you to rule over (your turf), generally given to heroes after their accomplishments. the honor or recognition which the hero expects to receive in proportion to his "worth" (arete). The word time may be used in a fairly abstract sense, like English "honor;" it may also be used (sometimes in the plural, timai) for the gifts or prizes which are the tokens of honor--for example, the share of booty from a captured city given to each warrior who helped to take that city. The quarrel between Achilles and Agamemnon in Book I of the Iliad starts when Agamemnon threatens to take Briseis, a captive woman who was given to Achilles when he sacked her town. For Achilles this is an intolerable loss of time. - “turf” the stuff that you have special responsibility for and is uniquely yours - significant in regards to specific gods - part of Zeus and his order, putting everything in a row - not sure what the timai of human beings is - Disconcerting if you don’t fit into a category (end up like Typhoeus) 7. aetion = story designed to explain some feature of the contemporary world 8. Pandora = First woman, formed out of clay by the gods. Delivered to Epimetheus (brother of Prometheus) for a bride. When she opened her jar all evil things came out, only hope stayed inside 9. pithos = large ceramic storage container or jar, model for female reproduction 10.ages of man = Hesiod’s Five Ages, in Works and Days, include: a. Golden Age - rule of Cronus, humans live freely among gods, did not have to work for food, peace and harmony. Humans lived to very old age and died eventually with youthful appearance and peacefully. b. Silver Age - rule of Zeus, men lived under dominion of mothers, only short time as adults, and spent that time in strife with one another. Men refused to worship gods and Zeus destroyed them, becoming “blessed spirits” of the underworld. c. Bronze Age - hard, tough, war was man’s purpose and passion. Zeus created humans out of ash tree, their armor/homes/tools were bronze, and undone by their own violent ways. (Zeus flooded earth). d. Heroic Age - *one age that doesn’t correspond with any metal, and only age that improves upon age it follows.* The heroes of this Age fought at Thebes and Troy, died and went to Elysium (Greek heaven). e. Iron Age - where Hesiod fiinds himself. Humans live in toil, misery, children dishonoring parents, family feuds, xenia lost. Might makes might, bad men use lies to be thought good, and humans no longer feel shame or indignation at wrongdoing; gods will have completely forsaken humanity. 11.Tithonus = the lover of Eos, Titan of the dawn, who was known in Roman mythology as Aurora. Tithonus was a Trojan by birth, the son of King Laomedon of Troy. He was turned into a Cicada because Eos forgot to give him eternal youth 12.Persephone = Bride of the underworld. Daughter of Demeter - people who go to underworld are often given tablets that have directions for what you’re supposed to do once you get to underworld, they have prayers on them that tell you to say Perspehone, which lets her know that they should be initiated into the “happy portion” of the underworld, allows you to pass peacefully, called “kore” 13.Hades = god of the underworld, harvest/vegeation goddess , took Persephone to be his wife, oldest son of Cronus and Rhea, Last son that was regurgitated by his father, defeated his father with brothers Zeus and Poseidon, Claimed rulership over the underworld, often portrayed with his 3- headed dog, Cereberus 14.Rhea = Titaness daughter of Earth Goddess Gaia and Sky God Uranus, sister and wife to Cronus, “mother of the Gods”, Mother of the olympians, 3rd generation, one of the Titans. She and Cronus were the parents of the Olympians 15.Herakles = a. Like most authentic heroes, Heracles had a god as one of his parents, being the son of Zeus and a mortal woman named Alcmene. Zeus's wife Hera was jealous of Heracles, and when he was still an infant she sent two snakes to kill him in his crib. Heracles was found prattling delighted baby talk, a strangled serpent in each hand. b. When he had come of age and already proved himself an unerring marksman with bow and arrow, a champion wrestler and the possessor of superhuman strength, Heracles was driven mad by the goddess Hera. In a frenzy, he killed his own children. To atone for this crime, he was sentenced to perform a series of tasks, or "Labors", for his cousin Eurystheus, the king of Mycenae. c. To make amends for a crime, Heracles was compelled to perform a series of heroic tasks, or Labors. Amongst these were slaying the many-headed Hydra, retrieving the Golden Apples of the Hesperides and bringing the hellhound Cerberus up from the Underworld. Heracles was also one of the Argonauts. 16.Eleusinian Mysteries = secret, exclusive initiations held every year for cult of Demeter and persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece. The mysteries represent myth of abduction of Persephone from mother Demeter by Hades in cycle of three phases: descent, search, ascent (reunion with her mother). 17.korē = type of free-standing ancient Greek sculpture of Archaic period of depicting female figures, always of a young age, especially Persephone. 18.virilocal exogamy (related to Persephone, Zeus arranges her marriage with Hades, so she moves away to live with Hades) a. virilocal = patrilocal, social system in which married couple resides with/near husband’s parents b. exogamy = a social arrangement where marriage is allowed only outside a social group, biological or cultural. Biological exogamy is marriage of non blood-related beings, regulated by forms of incest law. Cultural exogamy is marrying outside a specific cultural group; the opposite being endogamy, marriage within a social group. 19.Catalogue of Women = Five books long, a fragmentary Greek epic poem that was attributed to Hesiod during antiquity. The "women" of the title were in fact heroines, many of whom lay with gods, bearing the heroes of Greek mythology to both divine and mortal paramours. a. In contrast with the focus upon narrative in the Homeric Iliad and Odyssey, the Catalogue was structured around a vast system of genealogies stemming from these unions and, in M.L. West's appraisal, covered "the whole of the heroic age." [1Through the course of the poem's five books, these family trees were embellished with stories involving many of their members, and so the poem amounted to a compendium of heroic mythology in much the same way that the Hesiodic Theogony presents a systematic account of the Greek pantheon built upon divine genealogies. 20.hero-cult = the primary means of creating group identity within the polis by 8th century BCE. Originally, hero worship was ancestor worship, but by the classical period these two traditions had become differentiated. Usually a particular hero is associated with particular communities (Theseus: Athens) 21.scapegoat = In ancient Athens, two ugly men were chosen as scapegoats during festival of Thargelia. After dining at a feast, the pair were led through streets and beaten with branches. Then escorted out of town or driven out with stones. Ritual intended to protect Athens from harm, believed that this would bring about purification. 22.Protesilaus = son of Iphicles, grandson of eponymous Phylacos, leader of the Phylaceans. Also one of suitors of Helen, was the first to land ashore Troy, and immediately slain by Hector. Brought back temporarily from Hades because of sad widow Laodamia. 23.paradigm = a typical example or pattern of something; a model. 24.Judgment of Paris = contest between the three most beautiful goddesses of Olympos: Aphrodite, Hera, and Athena, for prize of a golden apple addressed to “the fairest.” (“Kalliste”) 25. Priam = braves the Greek camp to ask Achilles to give back Hector’s body. Another parallel: Embassy to Achilles, old man beseeching (Priam instead of Phoenix). Priam evokes parallel between him and Hector and Achilles and his father Peleus. Achilles gives back body after receiving Priam well. 26.funeral of Hektor = Andromache laments Hector, celebration of kleos and go’os. 27.Hekuba = the queen of Troy, wife of Priam and mother of children including Hector, Paris, Cassandra, and Troilus. 28.Andromache = wife of Hektor 29.Akhilles = was a Greek hero of the Trojan War and the central character and greatest warrior of Homer's Iliad. His mother was the nymph Thetis, and his father, Peleus, was the king of the Myrmidons. Iliad 9, Achilles has withdrawn from battle, and an embassy is sent to him to get him back into the fight. Many speakers try different strategies. Final speaker is A’s former tutor, Phoenix. Tells The story of Meleager and the Calydonian Boar. Don’t be like Meleager, he says, and wait too long to help Greece without any reward. Iliad 24, Achilles has lost lots of friends and finally Patroclus, which finally brings him back into battle. Fights and kills Hector 1-on-1, but 1-on-1 sets a character up (narratologically) to be the next death. Priam braves the Greek camp to ask Achilles to give back Hector’s body. 30. Helen = of Troy, also known as Helen of Sparta, was the daughter of Zeus and Leda, and was a sister of Castor, Pollux, and Clytemnestra. In Greek myths, she was considered the most beautiful woman in the world. By marriage she was Queen of Laconia, a province within Homeric Greece, the wife of King Menelaus. Her abduction by Paris, Prince of Troy, brought about the Trojan War. Menelaus says “We’re worn out, let’s eat and go to bed,” but Helen think otherwise, put an anodyne in the wine to make everyone forget for a while. Everyone drinks, and then Helen says, “Let’s start up the mythos again.” 31.Poseidon = (god of the sea) In the Odyssey: Odysseus = smart in his travels, but is a wanderer - Poseidon gives him storm, holds onto wood plank 32.Athena = worshiped as the goddess of wisdom, handicrafts, and warfare. She is often allegorized into a personification of wisdom. Zeus (sex with Metis) → Athena Resolution of problem of succession for Zeus in her androgyny Helped Odysseus get home in the story 33.Telemachos = son of Penelope & Odyssyeus 34.laos = your own people odysseus’ crew (killed them accidentally). Killed all the suitors. 35.Agamemnon = king of Mycenae and brother of Menelaus, commander in chief of the Greek expedition against Troy. On his return home from Troy, he was murdered by his wife Clytemnestra and her lover Aegisthus; his murder was avenged by his son Orestes and daughter Electra. Agamemnon says to Odysseus - warns him not to give too much to Penelope, but she’s wise & clear-headed. 36.Klytemnestra = was the wife of Agamemnon, ruler of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Mycenae or Argos. In the Oresteia by Aeschylus, she murdered Agamemnon – said by Euripides to be her second husband – and the Trojan princess Cassandra, whom he had taken as war prize following the sack of Troy; however, in Homer's Odyssey, her role in Agamemnon's death is unclear and her character is significantly more subdued. 37.kleos = “to call out” Helen says “one day we’ll be celebrated, figures of song/literature”is the Greek word often translated to "renown", or "glory". It is related to the word "to hear" and carries the implied meaning of "what others hear about you". A Greek hero earns kleos through accomplishing great deeds, often through his own death. 38. goos = Celebration undermined by lament 39.Kalypso = Book V - Odysseus cries on Kalypso Island, unable to get home Odysseus is not fitting story of “the hero” Athena asks permission from Zeus to help Ody A sends Hermes (messenger god) to Odysseus to help him home Book V - Athena, “I say that Ody would not grow old or die” so he’d be a god contest between immortality & mortality (staying w/ Kalypso or Penelope) not beauty contest 40.Phaiakians = hosts to Odysseus on his last stop before home, great navigators, good example of xenia 41.Kyklopes = sons of Gaia and Ouranos, practice the opposite of the heroic codes of conduct 42.Polyphemos = son of Poseidon, cyclops blinded by Odysseus 43.Helios = Titan, god of the sun 44.Seirenes (Sirens) = beautiful creatures who sang to lure men into crashing their ships -Odysseus puts beeswax in his men’s ears, has men tie him up to resist sirens 45.xenia = guest-host relationship, hospitality 46.genealogy = family chart of Greek gods 47.Aristonothos krater = krater depicting Polyphemos blinding scene and sea battle scene Is a big vase found by archeologists, on one side of the vase is odysseus blinding Polyphemus, other side of the vase depicts a sea battle between Greeks and Etruscans. Seems to suggest conflict between Greeks and foreigners like Odysseus vs Cyclops. 48.Herakles 49.Teiresias = blind seer Odysseus consults in the underworld, tells him how to get home 50.mētis = cunning and wisdom, (seen in Penelope) 51.Eurykleia = Odysseus’s wet nurse, recognizes scar while bathing him 52.polytropos = many twists and turns (adjective to describe Odysseus) 53.nostos = homecoming 54.Antinoos = the most arrogant suitor 55.atē = fury and rage beyond what’s expected 56.vendetta = blood feud (city states end this) 57.Aeschylus = Greek tragedian 58.Sophocles = Greek tragedian 59.Euripides = Greek tragedian 60.Kleisthenes = 509 BC, democratic Athens 61.liturgy = privilege extended to wealthy people to train and sponsor at theatre festivals 62.festival of Dionysus = theatre/drinking festival 63.chorus = anonymous collective 64.isonomia = equality before the law 65.Theseus = hero sent to be eaten alive by Minotaur in Minos, survives because Ariadne tells him how to get out of the labyrinth, “founder of Athens”. Married an Amazonian, then abandons her. Therefore it’s a paradigm for Medea. 66.Amazons = mythical female warriors on the edge of civilization 67.Hippolyta = Amazonian queen, wife of Theseus 68.Perikles' citizenship law = both mother and father must be citizens in order to be a citizen of Athens 69.Golden Fleece = Medea helps Jason steal it from her father 70.sophos = wisdom, cunning, witchcraft, alchemy 71.deinos = terrible, awesome- Sophocles says humans are the most deinos thing 72.Aegeus = king of Athens 73.Bromios = another name for Dionysus 74.bacchant = priest, priestess, or follower of Dionysus 75.Semele = mortal mother of Dionysus 76.thyrsus = staff of giant fennel with a pinecone on the end 77.satyr = part man, part goat 78.maenad = female follower of Dionysus 79.thiasos = band of followers (Bacchan entourage) 80.kottabos = game where you throw wine at people you like Good Flashcards: mythology-midterm Topics and Themes The following questions invite you to assemble ideas and information from different sources, i.e. the lectures and discussions, the readings, and your own reflection. As you think about them, try to remember specific incidents or images or passages from the reading that will help you to make your general point. And remember, there will be choices on the actual midterm, so you needn't study everything with equal intensity. 1. What are some of the main uses to which mythology is put in the material we have studied thus far? - used as an explanatory variable by using real world applications - hero code: the enemy of my enemy is my friend a. aetions for explaining sociopolitical structure b. mythic paradigm - shows people what to do and what not to do based on older mythological stories (Telemachus and Orestes) c. organize the community and culture (pan-Hellenism) d. Entertainment and inculcation (Theater and democracy arise at the same time - the integration of a community regardless of class, etc.) 2. What have you learned so far about the relationship between Greek mythology and the myths of other ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern societies? a. instead of conquering a certain place in the east “we will let you believe in your as long as you accept that they are Greek” ● Dionysus was probably adopted from an earlier Eastern deity 3. How is Greek mythology of the archaic period associated with religious or cult practices? a. The myths that people should remember, or try to forget. The scatter thoughts of the myths were unified by Hesiod in his works. b. Persephone the queen of the underworld. The mystery cult; people involved would be told something to tell Persephone when they died to be a part of the “frat” and go to the good places in the Underworld during their afterlife - Eleusinian Mysteries 4. In your own words, briefly describe the succession myth as presented by Hesiod in the Theogony. a. There were five ages, the gold age, the silver age, age of heroes, bronze age, and age of humans → the gold age was comprised of the primordial deities and the Olympians, who then took over and ruled the heavens, followed by the silver age of clueless human beings who didn’t work for anything and didn’t die, which led to the age of heroes, where demigods did great things, and this led to the bronze age of human beings who were not super enlightened, and then the current era of human beings who will only be destroyed when Nemesis and Shame leave their society. b. The first major succession was Cronos overtaking Uranos by force i. Uranos had been mating with Gaia, Cronos with Rhea c. parallel succession where Zeus overthrows kronos by force i. Zeus had been mating with Hera d. sets up a pattern of violent succession e. Succession problem eventually resolves itself because zeus eats Metis and Athena is born as an androgynous figure (has power over traditionally masculine domains but cannot succeed Zeus as she is biologically a female) 5. What is the relationship between human beings and gods as presented by Hesiod? ● Humans are a weaker derivative of humans, do not generally pose a threat to the Gods. Certain gifted human beings such as demigods or chosen mortals can eventually become gods or influence the gods such as Herakles, Paris, Odysseus, Aeneas, etc. ● Prometheus and fire 6. What is the relationship between men and women, or between male and female principles, as presented by Hesiod? a. Pandora’s jar - women are sent down as a scourge/punishment on men, because Prometheus gave humans fire and now they can fend for themselves. b. This made women the problem of male society, as Pandora essentially is the model for all women (the Eve of Greek mythology) and created all of the burdens that men have to deal with now. 7. What does Hesiod seem to regard as the main characteristics of the Olympian order--both among the gods and among mortals? a. 12 main gods - having their own turf, highest power to Gods. Humans have to make sacrifices to Gods i. Power, succession, turf (timae) - concerned with power (keeping and getting it) ii. Ex. Zeus produces Athena - the perfect child - warrior as a girl so no succession threat iii. Apollo and Artemis: Apollo is forever a teenager while Artemis is forever a virgin, therefore they can’t produce any successors/threats to Zeus 8. What are some shared features of the different Homeric Hymns you were asked to read? a. They all use glorifying poetic language. b. All stories/poems establishing certain current facts of contemporary reality - Eleusinian Mysteries, geographical features, Eros (desire), love, marriage, death, afterlife, etc. (Etiological myths) c. Use of repetitive phrases “Slim-ankled Persephone” 9. What aspects of heterosexual marriage are explored in the Hymn to Demeter? Does the hymn's treatment of marriage resemble or differ from the presentation of marriage in the Odyssey? a. Female sexuality and the “shame” associated with the concept (Persephone has to deny her voluntary involvement with Hades from Demeter) b. Men and women both get something from the marriage (youth and fertility (Persephone, women) vs. status and influence (Hades, men) c. The Odyssey explores the constancy of marriage through the relationship of Odysseus and Penelope, it contrasts it with the story of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra d. In the Hymn, it is clear that marriage is arranged according to the father’s (Zeus’) wishes 10. What are the characteristics of hero-cult? To what extent are they reflected in presentation of heroes in the Iliad and especially the Odyssey? The Iliad and the Odyssey explore the hero-cults of Troy. People celebrate the hero’s kleos in these epic poems and mourn their losses (goos) 11. How does Odysseus' account of his journeys to the Phaiakians (Phaeacians) enhance or detract from his image as hero? a. Enhances his image by portraying him as a man who approaches various situations in different ways - with the civilized Phaiakians, he is the epitome of the polite gentleman, but against Polyphemus (the cyclops) he is clever and brutal 12. Who is the real hero of the Odyssey: Odysseus or Penelope? a. Penelope!!! i. The unsung hero. Fends off the suitors. Hero in her loyalty and metis and her dedication to upholding the traditions of ancient Greek society (xenia, etc.) ii. Shroud; Penelope continued to weave and unweave the shroud, forever waiting for Odysseus to come home. iii. Held down the fort iv. Book 19: Odysseus is a beggar. Cloak/ Broach. Cretan. 13. What is the significance of Telemachus' visit to Menelaus and Helen in the Odyssey? a. Telemachus goes to visit Helen in Sparta, he is welcomed by xenia. You must welcome your guest or else something will go wrong, must welcome him before asking him questions. b. This visit is the first time Telemachus hears about Odysseus’ achievements. Helen tells him the story of Odysseus being a beggar, and reminiscing about his glory days. 14. What does he learn from them? What do we learn as readers/ listeners? a. Telemachus is not familiar with his father, so this is the first time he is becoming familiar about his father’s adventures/deeds b. He learns that his father did not just leave, he is off fighting adventures. Odysseus is very clever, a master in disguise that uses his intelligence to accomplish great things. 15. What happens in the final book of the Odyssey? a. The town revolts against odysseus and Athena must intervene (deus ex machina) and make them swear oaths to forgive and forget (basis of the polis) 16. How does it enhance or alter our understanding of the epic poem as a whole? a. He can have a nostos and everything can be totally back to normal with his family, unlike Menelaus and Helen, who instead weep every night. b. Reformulation of what his heroism is. c. Ex. previously, he tells the Cyclops that he was defying the principle of Xenia - instead of offering him food he ate his men as food. But later Odysseus kills the suitors, which at the point is required and supported by Athena to create a new Ithica. d. Alternatively, it informs us as to how this epic functions as an aetion for the polis 17. How does the myth of Theseus help us to understand Euripides' Medea? a. The myth of Theseus has a similar setup, with a hero who resolves to commit a deed, and then taking the help of a young woman (who ends up tricking her family), abandoning the young woman (Ariadne), marrying someone more “proper” (Phaedra) and then bringing all sorts of trouble upon himself, usually ending up with some family member dying in a very brutal, savage way (Hippolytus). b. In Medea, Jason does sort of a similar thing by having Medea trick her family, kill her brother, and help him achieve the Golden Fleece, then casting her aside to marry the princess of Corinth and ending up with all of his family members dead (a similar series of events). c. The framework of the myth of Theseus is a familiar fallback lens with which we can view Euripides’ Medea. 18. How does the Medea of Euripides' play resemble or differ from earlier epic heroes? a. Medea invokes the heroic code of friends and enemies, she also uses her cleverness, rhetoric talent and even sorcery to be able to get her own way b. However, her ends are quite vengeful and evil, which is usually not the trademark of a hero, who use their talents and journeys to discover more about themselves and grow as people, and help society rather from detracting from it. c. Kleos - but in a different context that previous heroes, this one’s more brutal. No sympathy for her character. 18. Explain in your own terms the significance of the chorus' remark (Medea, p. 170): "Jason, reasonable words make reasonable arguments and I could believe them; but truth lies in deeds and, I'm sorry to say, you left Medea." a. The logic in Jason’s argument is completely valid, but he is forgetting the emotional aspect, which plays into the way that Medea is reacting to the situation. Her emotions form the more powerful motivations for her actions, and have equal, if not more import than the logical justifications for his actions. b. Though his actions are logical for his own self needs, they are not justified because his actions affect Medea. c. Athenian citizenship law (Pericles) - restricts Athenian citizenship to men born of two Athenian parents, and not only one, reflects the way in which rationalization is all good and fine, but things that are rationalized away will always come back and make an emotional argument (just like Medea and her ‘illegitimate’ children) 19. Who are the chorus in the Medea, and what is their relationship to the main characters? a. The women of Corinth, who, despite their loyalties to the royal family of Corinth, side with Medea against Jason and Glauce due to the validity of her emotional argument as opposed to Jason’s justifications b. From Sparknotes: Composed of the women of Corinth, the chorus chiefly serves as a commentator to the action, although it occasionally engages directly in the dialogue. The chorus members fully sympathize with Medea's plight, excepting her eventual decision to murder her own children. 20. Consider the appearance of Dionysos at the end of Euripides' Bacchae. Does his behavior resemble or differ from that of other gods who encounter humans in other readings this semester? What do these instances of human-divine interaction tell us about the Greeks' attitudes toward the divine? a. Dionysus actually appears in his true form at the end of the play – he explains the fate of Kadmos and Agave. The explanation has no human justice, rather an insistence that the God Dionysus needs to be taken seriously - signifying that Greeks believed that all Gods are to be respected whether or not one personally associates in the God’s ways/teachings b. This reveals to us that the Greeks feared the responses of the gods on human beings, as they can be offended with even the slightest misdeeds, and therefore have the license to intervene in any number of violent ways, if only to teach a lesson. c. Thus, this seems to serve as a tale to be kind to anyone you come across, because you never know when they’ll turn out to be a god. 21. What are some of the key characteristics of the god Dionysos as presented in lecture? To what extent do they figure in Euripides' Bacchae? a. Gender and age fluidity b. Multiple perspectives and breaking down boundaries - Greek tragedy combines Apollonian forces (play has a certain structure) and Dionysian forces (within that structure, there might be chaos) c. Krater - mixing bowl - mixing the highs and lows of life/cultures d. Maenads and homosexuality is often present in Dionysos’ depictions e. In Bacchae, it is clear how strong his following is, as they rip apart Pentheus at the God’s beckoning f. Mother, too, is overcome with Bacchas and rips her own son apart g. dualities i. man/woman (long hair), child/adult (no beard, long beard), greek/barbarian (wildness, the fact that he was born in thrace which is northeast of greece but he’s related to the founder of thebes, important god for thebes), human/animal, democratic/elite (he’s associated with drama and also symposium) 22. Many of the works read so far this term consider the relationship between human beings and the divine. To what extent does Euripides' Bacchae also consider the relationship between human beings and the natural world? a. Apollonian and Dionysian forces: culture vs. nature, two ways of understanding the individual (not necessarily two mutually exclusive, competing identities – people are part of the ecology, but embedded in a social continuity at the same time) b. Nature is always there in the background, it can be pushed back into hiding but will always resurface, whether for the good or destruction of humanity. c. The female followers of Dionysus are always placed in a setting of natural beauty when they’re worshipping Dionysus, it speaks to his wildness and connection with nature d. There is a spiritual aspect to nature, it is the closest they can get to the gods 23. How many different artistic media have been presented thus far in class? What does the range of media tell us about the significance of mythology for the Greeks? a. The many forms of art that have been depicted include literature, film, sculpture, music, and paintings. This reveals that mythology was a large component of Greek society, and served as a framework around which they constructed their lives, hence the many different forms of artwork. 24. In what ways is tragedy a product of democratic culture in Athens? In your view, does either the Medea or the Bacchae assist in the project of educating citizens of a democracy? Why or why not? Political systems tend not to survive unless there is a cultural framework around a society that enables its people to act a certain way and support the system: a. Theater: In Athens, a public festival where multiple events are occurring at the same time (performed on a ritual calendar, by citizens selected by lottery to perform, equal opportunity, but competition is still present, three theatrical groups are selected and compete for first, second, and third place, voted by the audience) i. these events were particularly democratic because they were open to all people as opposed to symposia which were strictly for elites b. Liturgy: Wealthy families assigned to pay for the upkeep of the city of Athens c. Rhapsodes: Traveling bards who perform epic poetry for the wealthy elites d. Chorus: representative of the common people of Athens on stage, who give a background voice to the dramatization of the lives and households of the elite in everyday language e. Ontological language: sweeping general categorization of people based on their opinions? f. certain messages in the plays were democratic such as orestes being put on trial in front of athena and other judges g. anyone can audition for the plays, they are not necessarily professional actors h. Medea does speak towards democracy because in a way, the chorus serves as a jury of people judhging the actions of Jason and Medea 25. What are some ways in which the Odyssey speak to the political and social concerns of Greek audiences at the time of its composition? a. Emergence of city states, Greeks getting involved with neighboring societies b. Transfer from family/blood feuds to state state-sanctioned warfare, just a little more civilized c. Society has issues with the boundaries of membership, and is trying to understand how to establish isonomia (equality) in society d. Athen’s citizenship law (451 BC) by Perakles – i.e. father AND mother have to be citizens for child to be a citizen. Before that, only father’s nationality mattered i. Which fathers were marrying non-Athenian mothers? Usually well-to-do, wealthy people – so this was a way to weaken the force of wealthy/aristocrats, and the alliances they made with outside people to be richer, more affluent, etc. A Pro-democratic move. e. Ostracism: In Athenian democracy, once a year they could vote and get someone to leave Athens for 10 years. This someone was usually someone with a lot of power in society, or monetary power/influence, etc. In myths, Heroes often see this fate. Medea: usually you don’t feel empathy for a woman character up until this point. She is an entity, able to take the people in and out of the play by the heart; Jason had reasoning behind why he dumped her. But, being a foreigner, if you marry, your kids will be illegitimate or citizenship rights in Athens. So reasoning something away doesn't clear anything up. So Medea kills her children. Hesiod: Theogony-> succession (538ff- Creation of Humans) Catalogue of Woman -> age of heros Works & days -> how we act today ● Succession ● Pandora - starts with woman and their power to have children and how terrifying that is to men Homeric Hymns: explain “cult-like” behavior (cult is any small religion) Demeter -> Eleusinian Mysteries Seasons Sexuality Marriage (virilocal exogamy) Aphrodite Apollo -> Delos Delphi Hermes -> Lyre Syrinx HERO:- Demigod - great dead (deinos) - honored after death in hero cult - associated with founding specific communities nostos hero code (strive for kleos) help friends/ harm enemies Paradigms: model situations for situations you are in - Telemachus when looking for Odysseus, sees a lot of model marriages which relate to penelope and odysseus Lamentation (goos) vs celebration (kleos) - Goos is at the end of the Illiad when all of the woman are mourning their losses Hero and laos: hero has the obligation to take care of the laos (common people)


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