Loyola Marymount University
Popular in Social Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
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Date Created: 08/05/16
Exam 2 Study Guide Thursday, February 25,5:31 PM THESELF FromSelf:SelfEsteemlecture:(DONE) Whydo peoplewithhighself-esteemfeelbetterafterfailure? o People with high self esteem respond in a way that will let them feel better more quickly Is selfesteemalwaysa goodthing? Whyor whynot?Provideevidence. ○ Self-esteem is a good thing because it helps you overcome setbacks. However, when your self-esteem is threatened, it becomes a bad thing because you will do whatever it takes in order to feel better. Whatarethetwokindsof consequencesthatcomewithsocialcomparison? ○ Upward social comparison result into feeling inferior, while downward social comparison result into comparing ourselves with someone worse than us in order for us to feel good about ourselves or boost our ego Understandtheconceptof baskingin reflectedglory. ○ Basking in reflected glory occurs when a person associates themselves with known successful others in a way that their success becomes the individual's own accomplishment o "Would I want my friend or a stranger to succeed" topic Whatis theselfevaluationmaintenancetheory?Whatdoesit suggestaboutthekindof feedbackwe wantrelativetothosearoundus? ○ This refers to the discrepanciesbetween two people in a relationship. If there is an imbalance, we try to adapt to it based on the other person's feeling toward it o "Fingerhut loves PB and his husband doesn't so now he doesn't eat PB as much" Compareandcontrastselfenhancementmotiveswithselfverificationmotives. ○ Self-enhancement refers to the attitude of "tell me that I'm great no matter what the truth is" ; it pushes for positivityand wanting to be liked by others (kiss my ass) ○ Self-verification refers to the attitude of "tell me what I think about myself" ; it pushes for consistencyand wanting to be knownby others ATTITUDESANDATTITUDECHANGE FromChapter6 (DONE) Bold Terms: Cognitivedissonance Inconsistency or conflict between attitude and behavior Postdecisiondissonance A form of regret or worry that one might have not made the right decision or didn't make the best choice Externaljustification A reason or explanation that explains your dissonant behavior such as getting a reward Internal justification Reducing the dissonance by changing something in yourself (attitude/behavior) BenFranklineffect Asking someone you do not like or disagree with for a simple favor and thus creating some sort of connection from that rather than asking for a huge favor Some things to think about: Understandthe3 approachestoreducingdissonancepresentedin Figure6.1 ○ Changing attitude ○ Changing behavior ○ Rationalizing --> interpret o Justification Howdo lowballing(whichwe discusswhenwe talkaboutcompliance)anddissonancego together? ○ Lowballing refers to a type of compliance technique where an individual begins with a reasonable request but it is incomplete. This ties with dissonance because if we commit to the request and then get a follow-up and a negative feeling arises, we reduce it by changing our attitude through self-perception. Our behavior (committing to the request) is used as an inference to what we will be doing next. There has to be consistency. ExplaintheBenFranklineffectusingselfperceptiontheory. Social Page 1 ExplaintheBenFranklineffectusingselfperceptiontheory. ○ Since you asked a person for a simple favor such as borrowing a book that you wanted to read, next time that you ask for a favor or so, the person who lent you the book would be assessing his or her previous behaviors such as letting you borrow the book must mean that s/he had positive attitude toward you and will do the favor you ask. FromChapter7 (DONE) Bold Terms: Explicitattitude Attitudes that we consciously endorse and can easily report ○ "What is your opinion on affirmative action" Implicitattitude Involuntary, uncontrollable and unconscious evaluations Central routeto persuasion Case in which people elaborate on a persuasive communication, listening carefully to and thinking about the arguments which occurs when people have both the ability and motivation to listen carefully to a communication More persuaded when facts are logically compelling Peripheral routeto persuasion Case in which people do not pay attention and listen carefully to the argument and get swayed by peripheral cues Attitudeinoculation Making people immune to being persuaded through the exposure in small doses of arguments against their position allowing them to build upon those oppositional arguments enabling them to have a strong foundation on their belief or attitude toward something Reactancetheory People do not like to feel that their freedom to do or think whatever they want is being threatened ○ The stronger the prohibition is, the more likely the increase in interest in the prohibited activity o Don't touch the wet paint--> Touch the wet paint Attitudeaccessibility Refers to the strength of the association between an object and an evaluation of it ○ When accessibility is high, your attitude comes to mind whenever you see or think about the attitude object Theoryof plannedbehavior Idea that people's intentions are the best predictors of their deliberate behaviors, which are determined by their attitudes toward specific behaviors, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control ○ This is done only when people have timeto contemplate how they are going to behave Some things to think about: Howmightcognitivedissonanceleadtoattitudechange? ○ In cognitive dissonance, a negative feeling arises when there is a conflict between attitude and behavior; thus, one way to reduce this negative feeling is by changing our attitude Whatis theYaleAttitudeChangeapproachandwhatarethedifferentcomponentsin thismodel? Whatis theelaborationlikelihoodmodelof persuasionandhowarethecentralandperipheralroutestopersuasionrelated? ○ Central routes -- paying attention to the message ○ Peripheral routes -- paying attention to the speaker rather than the message Whatis therelationshipbetweenfeararousingcommunicationsandattitudechange? ○ Fear arousing communications do not relay the actual message but only attends to the emotional aspect of it; thus, may not be successful in creating an attitude change Whatdoesthestudyby LaPiere(p 184)suggestaboutthelinkbetweenattitudesandbehaviors? o It leads us in some way to an attitude accessibility-- it is an on the spot decision so it does not give us a clear idea whether our behavior tells us what our attitude is or not Understandthetheoryof plannedbehavior(figure7.8). Idea that people's intentions are the best predictors of their deliberate behaviors, which are determined by their attitudes toward specific behaviors, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control o This is done only when people havetimeto contemplate how they are going to behave Social Page 2 FromAttitudeslecture (DONE) Compareandcontrastthedifferentmodelsof attitudeformationandchange(expectancyvalue,learningtheory,consistencytheories,selfperception theory). ○ Expectancyvalue-- like Kelley's co-variation model, it is a model of what we should do and not what we actually do. This is the weighing of pros and cons through the use of values and then making a decision based on the outcome of it ○ Learningtheory--We form our attitudes or change our attitudes based on observation or study of behavior either through reinforcement/punishment (operant conditioning), associations (classical conditioning), and observation (Bobo dolls; mimicking)] ○ Consistencytheories-- Either through cognitive consistency (interpersonal) where we try not to be hypocritical and take the path of least resistance (there must be balance), while cognitive dissonance (intrapersonal and not about relationships) is where there is conflict between attitude and behavior and a negative arousal that want to be gotten rid of ○ Self-perceptiontheory-- We infer our attitudes by observing our behavior or previous behavior (behavior -> attitude) Compareandcontrastbalancetheoryandcognitivedissonancetheory. ○ Consistencytheories o Cognitive consistency □ interpersonal □ where we try not to be hypocritical and take the path of least resistance (there must be balance) Self-evaluation maintenance theory Cognitive dissonance o □ intrapersonal and not about relationships □ where there is conflict between attitude and behavior a negative arousal that want to be gotten rid of Whatarethevariouswayswe canreducenegativearousalwhenwe experiencedissonance? ○ Change behaviors ○ Change attitudes Rationalize --> reinterpret ○ Understandthestudyandthefindingsof FestingerandCarlsmith. Howdoesthisstudydemonstratecognitivedissonanceandtheinsufficient justificationeffect? ○ When there is insufficient justification effect, people were more likely to experience more dissonance especially if they lack external justification; thus, they try to reduce the dissonance Howdo themessage,thecommunicator,thetarget,andthesituationaffectpersuasion? ○ These are outside forces that influence attitude change o Message is the strength of an argument o Communicator is when the "who" matters o Situation is based on whether the person is resistant against persuasion attempt, if the argument is weak and if a person hashad the chance to solidify one's belief or attitude o Target is when there is involvement or it is in the personality of an individual Whatis mereexposure? ○ Mere exposure effect, also known as repetition, refers to the peripheral cues where everything but the content itself becomesattended Distinguishforewarning,distractionandinoculation. ○ Forewarning -- resistance against persuasion attempt ○ Distraction -- an individual gets more easily persuaded especially if the argument is weak ○ Inoculation -- if a person fails to persuade an individual, it becomes harder for the next person to persuade the individual such that the individual becomes much more or creates more solidification about the belief or attitude CONFORMITY FromChapter8 (DONE) Bold Terms: Conformity Social Page 3 Conformity ○ Tendency to change beliefs and behaviors consistent with the group standards ○ No one asked you to do something Informationalsocial influence ○ Information influence is the desire to be right and so we tend to look at other people who might be more or well-informed aboutsomething and use it as our basis in making a decision and thus can lead to private acceptance Privateacceptance ○ Conforming to other people's behavior out of genuine belief that what they are doing or saying is right Publiccompliance ○ Conforming publicly without necessarily believing in what the group is saying or doing Social norms ○ Rules for acceptable behaviors, values and beliefs Normativesocialinfluence ○ Social influence is the desire to be liked and so we tend to look at other people and act or behave like they do in order to not be the "outcast" Social impacttheory ○ The idea that conforming to social influence depends on the group's importance, its immediacyand the number of people in the group o Strength o Immediacy o Number ○ Conformity will increase as strength and immediacy increase Minorityinfluence ○ Case where a minority of group members can influence the behaviors or beliefs of the majority ○ The key is consistency. Minority views must express the same view over time and different members of the minority must agree with one another Injunctivenorms ○ A type of social norm where people think what other people would approve or disapprove of ○ Motivates behavior by promising rewards for normative behavior and punishment for non-normative behavior Descriptivenorms ○ A type of social norm where people think of how others actually behave in a given situation regardless of whether the behavior is approved or not by others ○ Motivates behavior by informing people about what is effective or adaptive behavior Some things to think about: Whatarethefactorsthatpredictwhenindividualswill conformbecauseof informationalsocialinfluence?(AlsoseeConformitylecture– whatfactors increasethelikelihoodthatonewillconform?) ○ Fromthelecture: o Group size o Unanimity o Group commitment ○ Fromthebook: o Ambiguity of the situation o Crisis o When other people are experts Understandtheconsequencesof resistingnormativesocialinfluence(p 210). ○ Social disapproval o Get ignored or comments regarding the resistant behavior or attitude Understandthefactorsinvolvedin thesocialimpacttheory(strength,immediacyandnumber). Howdo normativeandinformationalinfluenceplaya partin Milgram’sobedienceexperiments? ○ Fornormativeinfluence, participants knew that an acceptable behavior would be obeying the authority figure, wanting to be liked -- so will keep doing what is being asked. ○ Forinformationalinfluence, participants knew that there was an expert in the room and so s/he must know what s/he's doing; thus, the participant keeps on going despite of hesitation or doubt because people tend to conform when the situation is ambiguous or in a crisis and Social Page 4 participant keeps on going despite of hesitation or doubt because people tend to conform when the situation is ambiguous or in a crisis and when there is an expert in the environment From Conformity lecture Distinguishconformity,complianceandobedience. ○ Conformity is the tendency to change beliefs and behaviors that is consistent with the group's standards; however, no one asked you to do something ○ Compliance is the tendency to do what we are asked to do even if we may not want to (formal request) ○ Obedience is the tendency to do what we are asked to do because an authority asked (kind of conformity) CompareandcontrasttheSherifautokineticeffectstudyandtheAschlineexperiment. ○ Ambiguous situation -- tend to adjust answer and go along with the group when asked individually (public compliance --> private acceptance) ○ Asch line -- public compliance without private acceptance Understandandbe ableto recognizeexamplesofthedifferentcompliancetechniques(footin thedoor,doorin theface,that’snotall,pique,low ball) ○ Door-in-the-face is when a person sets a point of comparison and induces guilt to another person or an audience which is typically done by using a big request followed by a small request ○ Foot-in-the-door is when a person starts with a small request followed by a bigger request. This technique works because the person that was given the request has invested into the request and so s/he has to be consistent or else dissonance could occur. However, there is also the case that dissonance might not happen but because of self-perception theory where the person then reflects on his/her previous behavior and associate that with how s/he feels to the next request ○ Low ball is when a reasonable request is given but incompletely presented ○ That's-not-all is used in infomercialswhich usually offers something but in order to persuade people to go for it, other "deals" are included ○ Pique is used to "grab someone's attention" which means that a social script would be broken. It disrupts automacity Whatdo we knowaboutsituationalfactorsthatalterthefindingsfromtheoriginalMilgramstudy(knowthesegenerally;you do notneedtoknow everyfactor). ○ Situational factors changes the outcomes in a way that when the authoritative figure is not in the same room or not available, the person's obedience dramatically decreases Arepeoplegoodat understandingwhethertheywouldconformor notin a givensituation?Use evidencetosupportyourclaim. ○ No, especially when the situation is ambiguous, people would use informational influence and conform. In addition, people conform if the group size is 2 or more and there is unanimity. (NURSE STUDY) GROUPS-- DONE FromChapter12 (Gilovich,Keltner,ChenandNisbett – accessat http://wwnorton.com/ebooklite/socpsy4_chs1012/welcome.asp.) Bold Terms: Social facilitation ○ When a person's performance is affected by the mere presence of others that aids them to do better Dominantresponse ○ Is the unconscious and quick response that we usually go for in a situation Social loafing ○ The diffusion of responsibility within an individual as the group size increases Groupthink ○ Faulty thinking by members of highly cohesive group subverted by social pressures to reach consensus Riskyshift ○ The tendency for groups to make riskier decisions than what individuals would Grouppolarization ○ Whatever way the group is thinking or leaning toward to, discussion tends to make it lean further into that direction Power ○ The freedom to act and ability to control one's own outcomes and others Social Page 5 Approach/Inhibitiontheoryof power ○ A theory maintaining that high-powerindividuals are inclined to go after their goals and make quick judgments, whereas low-power individuals are more likely to constrain their behavior and pay careful attention to others Deindividuation ○ A reduced sense of individual identity accompanied by diminishedself-regulation that can come over people when they are in a large group Selfawarenesstheory ○ A theory maintaining that when people focus their attention inward on themselves, they become concerned with self-evaluation and how their current behavior conforms to their internal standards and values Spotlighteffect ○ A mentality in which an individual thinks that everyone else is paying attention to them more than they actually are (standing out ; appearance or behavior) Somethingstothinkabout:DONE Whatdo we knowaboutgroupthinkacrosscultures?Whatdo we knowaboutriskyshiftacrosscultures? ○ Groupthink is great in Eastern cultures, usually no debate occurs ○ Risky shift -- in US college students tend to make more risky decisions; other countries tend to be more cautious Howdo theriskyshiftandgrouppolarizationrelate? ○ Since risky shift is the tendency for groups to make riskier decisions than what individuals normally would, group polarization facilitates this shift which makes the discussion lean toward the direction of the group's decision Compareandcontrastthepersuasiveargumentsaccountandthesocial comparisonaccountoftheriskyshift. ○ Persuasive arguments account -- ○ Social comparison account -- we want to be seen as an individual, if people thought the same as you do, you would want to do better than them to stand out Whataretheaffectiveconsequencesof highpower? Whatarethecognitiveconsequencesof diminishedpower? Whatarethebehavior consequencesof highandlowpower? ○ 2 core elements of approach/inhibition theory of power o Affectiveconsequences whichthenleadto behaviorconsequences □ High power -- less empathy o Behaviorconsequences □ High power -- less careful and systematic ; acting in inappropriate ways □ Low power -- more vigilant ○ Diminishedpower o Less flexible in their thoughts o Does poorly From Groups lecture Howdoestaskdependencyrelateto social facilitationversussocialinhibition? ○ Depending on how well they know the task, the individual's dominant response when it comes to performance would be enhanced (social facilitation) if task is easy and well-learned compared to something that is new to him/her (social inhibition) Understandthe3 reasonswhythepresenceof an audienceaffectsperformance(arousal,evaluation,anddistraction). Whydoessocialloafingoccurandwhatcouldyoudo toreduceloafing? ○ Social loafing occurs because the individual assumes that his/her responsibility can be done by other members of the group (especially as the group size increases) o Reducing size of the group o Making people more accountable by judging / evaluating their individual contributions o Increase responsibility & identification of responsibility Whendoessocialcompensation,as opposedtoloafing,occur? ○ Social compensation is when an individual does not trust the members of the group and thus exert more effort onto the work compared to loafing in which the individual's effort diminishes Whatis socialidentity?Whatis social identitytheory? ○ A person's sense of who they are based on their group memberships. Social identity theory states that the in-group will always discriminate against the out-group to enhance their self-image Social Page 6 ○ Social identity theory states that the in-group will always discriminate against the out-group to enhance their self-image From Groups: Effects of Social Identity lecture Howdo social identitiesserveas a situation? Howdo thestudiesby Hastorfandby Snibbedemonstratethis? ○ We see the situation through our social identity (Princeton v Dartmouth) Understandtheworkby Shmaderandwhatit saysaboutsocialidentityandstereotypethreat. ○ Stereotype threat is a situational predicament in which people are or feel themselves to be at risk of confirming stereotypes about their social group o Pressure due to the negative connotation attached to the social group From Groups: Stigmatized and Majority Social Identities lecture Whatare3 differenttypesof stigmadefinedby Goffman? ○ Abominations of the body o Scars, disabilities ○ Blemishes of individual character o Morality ○ Tribal o Race, nation, religion Understandhowattributionplaysintostigmatization. Withthisunderstandthestudyby DeJong. ○ Context matters (why obese kid is ranked least to play with b/c can lay blame) Whydon’tthestigmatizedsufferfromlowerselfesteem? ○ Through having a negative feedback to one's group membership. Basically trying to separate the "self" from the group which can lead to shrugging off the feedback as an individual problem instead of a group problem ○ Ingroup comparisons o Downward as opposed to upward social comparison □ Comparing the "self" within the ingroup as "better" instead of doing it with an outgroup ○ Selectivity of values o Devalue dimensions on which your group fares poorly which can result to limiting one's potential Whatdo thedatafromKnowlesandPengsuggestabouttheideathatWhiteidentityis notinert? Social Page 7
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