pol 203 study guide
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tyler Strauss on Monday March 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to POL203 at a university taught by Dr. McGuinn in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 101 views.
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Date Created: 03/23/15
POL203 MIDTERM REVIEW 0 Classical realists such as Thomas Hobbes Reinhold Niebuhr and Hans Morgenthau attributed egoism and power politics primarily to human nature 0 States like human beings had an innate desire to dominate others which led them to fight wars 0 Fear and chaos driven inherently by aggressive human nature leads to Security Dilemma I With security comes insecurity idea of spiraling towards war 0 David Singer was the first person to state that when analyzing any issue there are levels at which you would engage a complex problem levels of analysis MAJ OR METHODOLOGICAL ISSUE 0 EX Syria Global level international level looking at Syria from other countries POV Regional level the issues in the Middle East Subregional level neighborhoodSyria and surrounding powers National level focus specifically on Syria its govt internal opposition Subnational level focus on granule levels of detail investigating at human landscape and the specificities of the system ex Alwaite minority and Sunni Majority 0 Kenneth Waltzl associated with neorealism 0 In Man of State and War he lays out 3 causes of war I Individual level war in its origins are found in human nature I State level principle driver of armed con ict is about the state or nationalism nationstates I State system level balance of power breaks down and fails Theory is to be far removed from realities 0 Not about getting into granularities of specifics but a higher level of abstraction O Believes in the power of the national states and balances of power 00000 O I Individual units are depicted according to the manner of their power arrangement in their area I International market place shapes the behavior of the firms companies countries Thucydides the benefits of power are there for you to take if you do not then you must accept it Machiavelli not concerned with how men do live merely to describe it his intention is rather on the basis on knowledge of how men do live to teach princes how they ought to rule and even how they should live 0 Considered one of the first realists O Able to look at political reality without passion and analyze it on his own terms 0 Machiavellian refers to excessively manipulative power maneuvers I Not about what is right or wrong about getting what you want and manipulating ends to make it that way EH Carr Twenty Years Crisisl advocating realism that focuses on power and interest as opposed to a view of the world that Wilson and idealists focused on social contracts 0 Utopian liberalism international law international organization interdependence cooperation peace Hans Morgenthau International politics is governed by objective universal laws based on national interests defined in terms of power 0 Traditional realism power politics security aggression con ict war 0 Represents the old way of thinking I Gives scientific way to thinking about international politics but without numbers or algorithms political realism I Classic realist states seek power states as key units of action state are rational profit maximizing actors TS Elliotl events mysteries that seem obvious at the time are really a hall of mirrors 0 True theory may become clouded by other social sciences and history if too much time is taken trying to understand theory Stanley Hoffman First defined IR as the attempt to study systematically the patterns of con ict and cooperation among mutually alien actors systematic study in social scientific way Francesco Guicciardinil do not be fooled by the language of democracy or freedom human beings are interested in their own interests and they want what they want from whoever they believe can give it to them Carl von Clausewitz power makes people do what they do and makes the world the way it is 0 Con ict is a political thing ie countries go to war for political reasons Lenin theory of revolution and imperialism 0 Capital is the great driver of imperialism 0 About the struggle and competition between capitalists and socialists O Emphasis is still on power 0 Kissingerl there is a balance of power 0 Balance of power is the crude concentration of power 39 Out of competition among nations or individuals inevitable anarchy does not arrive 39 Good things accrue from bad motives ie Capitalism 39 Out of apprehensions anxieties of individual nation states can come something desirable notably a balance of power 0 Alliances are formed to obtain that balance 0 Hired by Nixon on vision to create international system on balance and Detente between US and Soviet Union 0 Kissinger and Metternichl say liberal things about cooperation 0 When there is no concert of power it becomes a balance of power 0 Bismarckl Realpolitik or power policies exercise of power by states toward each other 0 Unified Germany using power politics 0 The Army should become a state within a state but should be merged in the state through service 0 About liberalizing workers and social welfare programs 0 Immanuel Kantl associated with liberalism known for his notion of perpetual peace 0 John Locke important to liberalism because of his social contract theory people have the ability to cooperate with each other are endowed with reason and are able to advance into socially advantageous contracts 0 Leo Strauss liberalism in terms of liberty and freedom in uential among Neo Conservatives 0 Liberalism is defined by social evolution 0 People are smart and capable of innovations with individuals and societies 0 About cooperation and liberation among those who are restrained and have no idea of their potential 0 Both Strauss and Oaskeshott were defined with conservatism and believed in an older style of liberalism which is different from modern liberalism 0 Oaskeshottl must fight for democracy so can create a system that deals with aggression 0 Isaiah Berlin aligned with conservatives but old fashioned liberal at heart 0 What is best way to deal with being at odds with each other 0 Pluralism individual aspirations and betterment causing friction and handling competitive instincts impulses must be contained with system 0 Without democracy life is perpetual chaos and anarchy 0 Ludwig von Mises Hayek and Milton Friedman believed that peace would be achieved through rediscovery of Adam Smith and free market policies 0 Represented Austrian School Liberalism Laissez faire economic form of faith 0 Monnet lpre WWII liberal idea need a new idea of Europe as a federation a unit states of Europe MORGENTHAU AND HIS 6 PRINCIPLES OF REALISM I Realism assumes world is composed of opposing interest and con ict among them is inevitable 1 Politics is governed by objective laws that have their roots in human nature a We can put ourselves in the position of a lawmaker and examine reasons and objectives because laws are in line with human nature 2 Interest defined in terms of power a Unlike economics the driving force for self interest is power We don t have to wonder about motives because they are apparent 3 Interest defined as power is an objective category which is universally valid but whose meaning can change a Occasionally public interest will change b It is virtually impossible for a lawmaker to sacrifice all self interest for public interest 4 Universal moral principle cannot be applies to actions of states in the abstract the circumstances of time and place must be considered a The survival of the state will always have priority over morality 5 The moral laws that govern the universe are destined for the morals of any nation a God is not within any certain country there is no higher authority b This belief led to endless war and chaos 6 The difference between political realism and other schools is profound a Political realism is the most effective tool of study in IR b Realism maintains the autonomy of the political sphere and while recognizing the different facts of human nature economic man exist judges that the political man interested only in the power is appropriate facet for study of politics c Legalist moralist standards are appropriate for other spheres not to politics CANNOT UNDERSTAND IR IN ISOLATIONI International relations cannot be conducted without an awareness of power relationships CORE PROBLEM OF Ile How can a group such as two or more countries serve its collective interests when doing so requires its members to forgo their individual interests 0 Collective goods problem how to provide something that benefits all members of a group regardless of what each member contributes to it 0 Possible answers to core problem Dominance reciprocity and identity 0 Dominancel establishing a power hierarchy in which all those at the top control those below 0 Reciprocityl rewarding behavior that contributes to the group and punishing behavior that pursues selfinterest at the expense of the group O Identity members of an identity community care about the interests of others in that community enough to sacrifice their own interests to benefit others REALISM I explains IR in terms of power Realpolitik or power policies exercise of power by states toward each other Fundamentally concerned with power rather than morality or material interests Sees human nature in pessimistic terms then scale that up to how the world works I aggressive fearful people living in anarchy is the fate of humanity Key actors in IR is the state Foundation is principle of dominance 0 Political power is more dominant than all else 0 Ideologies do not matter much nor does religion of other cultural factors IR can best be explained by choices of states operating as autonomous actors rationally pursuing its own interests in an international system of sovereign states without central authority Tend to see military force as the most important element of national power in the short term whereas other elements are important to the extend that they fungible into military power 0 Fungible one element of power can be converted into another Contend that no central authority to provide order exists to enforce rules and ensure compliance with norms of conduct See the security dilemma as unsolvable whereas liberals think it can be solved through developments of institutions Emphasizes the uidity of nations 0 Deepens the security dilemma 0 Based on national interests and can shift as national interests change slow incremental change 0 Not simple or costless to break an alliance one s reputation may suffer and future alliances may be harder to establish Classical realists emphasize statecraft 0 Power strategies plans to develop and deploy power capabilities to achieve their goals 0 Key aspect of strategy choosing kinds of capabilities to develop given limited resources in order to maximize international in uence Assume that those who wield power while engaging in statecraft behave as rational actors in their efforts to in uence others use caution and hard power 0 Exercise of power attempts to advance the national interest interest of the state itself 0 They define national interest as maximizing material power debatable assumption Tend to be pessimistic about cooperative solutions to collective goods problem Laws of power politics are relatively timeless and unchanging Skeptical of peacepromote trade argument 0 One state s reliance on another creates more tension in short term because states are nervous that another important actors has an important source of leverage over them I Worry about reliance on other states for strategic materials needed for military purposes Regimes do not negate the effects of power they codify and normalize existing power relations in accordance with the dominance principle Social theory states want more power BUTTERFIELDS SECURITY DILEMMA AND ATTITUDES ABOUT REALIST POLITICS 0 Ultimate source is fear 0 Derived from ultimate sin of humanity 0 Required uncertainty over others intentions 0 Unintentional in origins O Produces tragic results best way to look at world politics because tragedy is meant to end badly yet leaders do it any way 0 Exacerbated by psychological fears Fundamental cause of human con ict NEOREALISM or Structural realism explains patterns of international events in terms of the system structure the international distribution of power rather than the internal makeup of individual states 0 1990s adaptation of realism move away from traditional to more emphasis on science and structure 0 All that matters is the relative distribution of power 0 More scientifically rigorous in comparison to traditional realism 0 Kenneth Waltzl cause of war NEOCLASSICAL REALISTSI sought to restore some of the lost aspects of traditional realism to neorealism LIBERALISMI idea of reason human beings endowed with capability of understanding things therefore solving things tend to be secularly minded and see a contradiction between democracy and theology 0 Emphasizes international law morality and international organizations rather than power alone as key in uences on international events 0 Human nature is basically good 0 International system is one based on community of states that have the potential to work together to overcome mutual problems 0 Blind spot in identifying religion and theologies 0 Key actor in IR is the state and institutions 0 The best way for peace is democracy 0 See the rules of IR as slowing incrementally evolving through time and becoming more and more peaceful O Resulting from gradual buildup of international organizations and mutual cooperation reciprocity and secondary changes from changes in norm and public opinion identity 0 Tries to explain how peace and cooperation are possible 0 Immanuel Kant proposed 3 answers I Based on principle of reciprocity states that could develop from organizations and rule to facilitate cooperation 0 EX Create of a world federation like the UN 39 Operating at a lower level of analysis peace depends on internal character of govts 0 Democracies do not fight each other basis of democratic peace theory I Trade promotes peace trade increases wealth cooperation and global well being all while making con ict less likely in the long term because govts will not want to disrupt any process that adds to the wealth of their estate 0 Treat rational actors as capable of foregoing shortterm individual interests to further the longterm wellbeing of the community to which they belong and hence indirectly their own wellbeing alternatives to powerbased realist theories 0 International institutions operate by reciprocal contributions and concessions among formally equal members states come to expect this O Kant argues that states although autonomous could join a worldwide federation like today s UN and respect its principles even at the cost of foregoing certain short term individual gains short term concerns to long term considerations International cooperation is a more rational option for states than resorting to war 0 War and violence appear as irrational deviations that result from defective reasoning and that harm the collective long term interest so warring states Regimes help solve collective goods problem by increasing transparency because everyone knows what everyone else is doing cheating is riskier Survival or regimes rest on their embedding in permanent institutions UN NATO etc 0 Kant laid out terms for collective security proposed a federation of world s states that would unite and punish any other state that committed aggression I Safeguarded collective interests of all states Kant also argued that lasting peace would depends on states becoming republics checks and balances in govt would act as a brake on the use of military force Peace among democracies gives firsthand support to the long standing liberal claim that because it is rooted in domestic level of analysis it contradicts realisms claim that the most important explanations are at the interstate level While liberal scholars extol the virtue of democracy domestic institutions can make process of international cooperation more complex 0 To deduce whether a country or region is doing well check the viability of its institutions 0 Big institution European Union test case that merges nationalities into a common purpose Social theories states interest groups individual want and prosperity NEOLIBERALISMI integration functionalism complex interdependence 1970s adaptation of liberalism Realists are missing the interdependency among nations and are too simplistic but they do agree on several assumptions there are ties that bind countries together States are unitary actors rationally pursuing their self interests in a system of anarchy States achieve cooperation fairly easily because it is in their best interests to do so and they can learn to use institutions to ease the pursuit of mutual gains and the reduction of possibilities for cheating or taking advantage of another state Try to show that the neorealists pessimism about international cooperation is not valid states can create mutual rules expectations and institutions to promote behavior that enhances cooperation 0 Despite the absence of central authority rules and norms are enforced ANTICOMMUNIST LIBERALISMI should do good in liberal things domestically and internationally REALISTLIBERALISMI argue we have to be liberal advocates of democracy Best way to deal with bad human motives is through democracy STRUCTURALISTS or MARXISTSI branch of socialism the more powerful classes oppress and exploit the less powerful by denying them their fair share of the surplus they create class struggle See realists and liberals as one in the same Both IR and domestic policies arise from unequal relationships between economic classes directly contrasts realisms stance with separation between domestic and internal policies Includes Communism and other approaches 0 Karl Marx emphasized labor as the source of economic surplus 0 Marxists believe that the surplus created by labor should be recaptured by workers through political struggle Traditionally they consider peasants backwards ignorant individualistic and politically passive as compared to better educated and class conscious proletariatl peasants have been an important class in revolutions in the past century Marx s theories of class struggle are oriented toward domestic society in industrializing countries of his times not toward poor countries or IR 0 Traditional Marxists looked to advanced industrialized countries for revolution and socialism which grows out of capitalism 0 In their view third world would have to develop through its own stages of accumulation from feudalism to capitalism before taking revolutionary step to socialism Lenin s theory of imperialism European capitalism were investing in colonies where they could earn big profits and then using part of these to buy off the work class at home Leon Trotsky a Russian Revolutionary believed that after 1917 revolution Russia would never be able to build socialism alone and should make its top priority spreading the revolution to other countries to build a worldwide alliance Stalinl wanted to build socialism in one country SECURITY DILEMMAI One actor seeking security induces insecurity amongst its neighbors 0 Between two ethnic groups that used to live together peacefully but have an unhappy history of living together from time to time the security dilemma emerges when central authority gradually or suddenly breaks down 0 Bound up between tensions of anarchy and order 0 Difference between politics within a domestic vs a global level is the absence of authority 0 Assumption that the thing about world politics is anarchyl the absence of order no central authority to enforce rules 0 Anarchic world system induces a sense of fear 0 Order is the opposite of anarchy I implies there is some form of authority 0 Three ways to come about order coercion consensus and balance 0 Coercion hegemonies provide some order ie reducing anarchy deterring aggression promoting free trade and providing a hard currency 0 Consensus develop organizations and rules to facilitate cooperation O Balance balance of power vs concert of power I Balance crude concentration of force 0 Good things can accrue from bad motives capitalism which is the driving force of inquisitiveness and greed but out of engines of want and need comes something that is desirable O Creates a market place that produces wealth 0 Alliances are formed to obtain balance I Concert crude concentration of force a sense of harmony based on shared understanding 0 Realists argue for concert of power EXAMPLE OF A SECURITY DILEMMAI ex Syria 0 Relatively peaceful until recently when the erosion of old powers due to loss of key leaders leads to a movement towards chaos stuck between past and future 0 Alawite s joined army and powerful political parties and later ruled the govt after central regime fell apart 0 The Alawite minority have dominated held power but are fearful that the Sunni majority want to take revenge and will seize power 0 They are finding ways to mow people down and instill fear to keep system from disintegrating EXAMPLE OF A SECURITY DILEMMAI ex Iran versus Israel con ict 0 Israel is concerned Iran will secretly weaponize and divided over whether the Iranians will actually use them fear spiral aspect 0 Therefore Israel has defined a redline if Iran continues beyond certain point nuclear weapons then things are meant to happen and Israel will act O For Israeli red line mean to deter Iranians and create security 0 For US wants to follow time table and see themselves as only country able to control region slow speed to act could cause Israel to preemptively attack TRADITIONALISTS VS BEHAVIORALISTS GREAT METHODOLOGICAL DEBATE I Traditionalists best way to explain world politics is to take the classical approach 0 Relies on understanding of the past to make intelligible decisions about the future historical and normative approach 0 Understanding norms and values judgment historical knowledge theorist inside the subject I Behavioralists more interested in explaining things in more rigorous ways 0 Explaining hypothesis collection of data scientific knowledge theorist outside the subject 0 Methodology of Social Science idea of theory building turn of mind about positivism 0 Trying to be precise and develop useful theories abstractions generalizations 0 Concepts a hunch that one thing causes another 0 Variables checking on formulation of concepts and of testing possible linkages between them through observable phenomenal something thought to be in uenced I Independent variable presume cause the antecedent I Dependent variable the presumed effect the consequent O Hypothesis to organize the study proposes a relationship between two or more variables data needs to be collected in a transparent way I No verification means no proof 0 Theory a picture mentally formed of a bounded realm or domain activity Waltzl simple elegant statement generalizing truths POSTPOSITIVISMI frustration and dissolution with knowing recognition of our limits in knowing things in the absolute sense I Want a return to study of words emotions discourses
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