Exam Reviews: Tests 1-4
Exam Reviews: Tests 1-4 REL 1350
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This 69 page Study Guide was uploaded by Moe Le on Saturday August 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to REL 1350 at Baylor University taught by Dr. Elise Edwards in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views.
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Questions: First 4 ecumenical councils and know what happened at each council o Augustine is later in church periods where they are discussing doctrines of the church; after Christological debates then debates about Trinity o Christological debates > Trinity debates > Doctrines of the Church Timeline about people and dates Edict of Milan provided religious tolerance ushered under Constantine 1. Council of Nicaea in 325 Against Arianism #1 Christology debate Athanasius against Arianism Constantine (emperor, after Edict of Milan) calls first ecumenical council o Divisions amongst Christianity is harmful Result of council against Arianism = Nicene Creed o Greek word used in Nicene creed, debated: Homoousis – Jesus is “of the same substance” o Like from like o Debates whether it should be homoiousios – Jesus is “like” the Father; controversy because it is saying the Father is greater 2. Council of Constantinople: meet again because debate in Nicene Creed – 381 Debates about the trinity come after Christology Nothing in the first creed about the Holy Spirit NicenoConstantinople: Nicene creed modified = Nicene Creed of 381 Drop Arianism and add more about the Holy Spirit 3. Council of Ephesus in Asia Minor (Greek speaking part of Roman empire/still having debates of Christology) – 431 What happens at Ephesus? o They talk about Mary being the bearer of God o Theotokos – whether Mary was bearer of God/humanity/Christ Why can we call the mary the mother of God? Because she gave birth to Jesus, who is also God Debates about Christology – who is Jesus? Fully human/divine? o Donatism was condemned at Ephesus o Nestorianism – belief that two separate persons within Jesus/divine person and human person 4. Council of Chalcedon in 451 Doctrine of Two Natures: Jesus has two natures & 1 person – becomes Christological formula that we still use to this day; Chacedonian Christology After the Diocletian persecution, Emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan (313) which led to religious tolerance of all religions, especially Christianity. ologies: Soteriology – Doctrine of Salvation Debates about grace/sin Heresy: Pelagianism Ecclesiology – Doctrine about the church Sacraments Heresy: Donatism Christology – Doctrine about the person/nature of Jesus Heresy: Arianism, Docetism, Nestorianism Eschatology – teachings about the end Theological anthropology – Adam and Eve/Doctrine of Creation; within the Doctrine of Creation, but theoretically it is: views within theology about humanity and human culture; condition of humanity Where you get a lot of the doctrines about sin Docetism: Jesus didn’t have a real body Saying the body is evil/corrupt Jesus suffering pain is not ok for some people; God is incapable of experiencing pain Form of Gnosticism: They believe that God didn’t create the material goods Gnostics ARE Docetists What Ignatius of Antioch said: o He hated it o It takes away the core of the Gospel Donatism: The effectiveness of a sacrament depended on the moral standing of the person administering it Considered a heresy at the Council of Ephesus in 431 Iraneus of Lyons also argues against Gnosticism Recapitulation theory – atonement o Jesus is the new Adam and Mary is the new Eve Defending the idea of tradition – anything outside of Jesus’ teaching is wrong **make notes about the writers/people within the Reader** Creed (credo) – statement of belief Most creeds start out “I believe” Tertullian quote: ***need to know*** what does that mean/who said it? Didn’t believe Christians should believe in philosophy Athens/Jerusalem “What has Athens to do with Jerusalem? What has the academy to do with the church?” Philosophy – Platonic academy Not Justin Martyr because Justin Martyr believed more in reason and faith and reason should go together – use of the word “logos” Justin Martyr vs Tertullian **Quotes to know what you’re talking about** quote by Tertullian about Rule of Faith; used that to discuss eschatology Athanasius etc = early Church fathers Fixing the canon: Athanasius relation to fixing the canon What does fixing the canon mean? What were the criteria used for deciding which books go into the Bible? (discussed in the Council of Nicaea) Marcionism canon Marcionism (heresy): Christianity is more about love than law; relationship with law Included Pauline epistles and the gospel of Luke What did he exclude? o Other gospels o Revelation o What big CHUNK did he leave out? The Old Testament He accelerated the rest of the Canonization of the other books because Marcion excluded it; since he didn’t think it was important, other people thought it was Christological titles Titles for Jesus Ishua Jesus of Nazareth Emmanuel Jesus the CHRIST YHWH Messiah – “the anointed one” o Anointed – chosen 3 levels of Interpretation: “body, soul and spirit” – from Origen of Alexandria Spiritual – one that unites you with God Literal Ethical Accomodationist: type of interpretation God stoops to our level to explain to us things that we don’t understand Special vs. general revelation Arius (Jesus is a creature) vs. Athanasius (Jesus is divine) Christian Heritage Exam 1 *** Key Concepts: Incarnation Christ Fulfillment of OT prophecy o Christianity is continuous with Judaism – Christianity brings Judaism to its true fulfillment o Originally derived but not limited to following Judaism rituals Sin People and Institutions: Jesus the Christ (Jesus of Nazareth) o The significance of His life to Christianity (prep question) o Crucifixion/significance of the Passover Mary o Theotokos being referred to as the Mother of God because she bore Jesus and He is God Ethics and Events: Jesus’ baptism and public ministry Kingdom of God (basilea, reign of God) Cultural and Material Production: Gospels Parable Ichthus/ichthys (fish symbol, IX(theta)Y(sigma) o Why would they use a fish? Because it’s easy to draw Representation of Jesus Ichthus spell out “fish” Who Is Jesus? Doctrine and Beliefs: Christological titles (find in textbook) o Messiah: “the anointed one” Anointed – chosen one o Lord (Kurios) o Savior o Son of God o Son of Man: emphasizes humanity and humility; in life with prophets o God o Word of God (logos) Christology – titles for Jesus Christ Ethics and Events: Last supper Passover – Jesus as the crucified lamb Passion Jesus’ crucifixion and resurrection Cultural and Material Production: Cross or crucifix as symbol of Christianity Christologies and Heresies Doctrine and Beliefs: Christology – doctrine discussing the nature of Jesus Christ Soteriology – doctrine about salvation Heresy – false teaching, opposition to orthodoxy Recapitulation (by Ireneaus of Lyons) o Believed that Jesus was the new Adam, and Mary was the new Eve – Jesus served as atonement and both Jesus and Mary were obedient, contrary to Adam and Eve Docetism – belief that God does not exist in human form (form of Docetism) o Christ did not have a real or natural body during time on Earth – only apparent o This view was promoted by Gnostics – Gnostics ARE docetists Gnostics: salvation is attained only through secret knowledge Spirit is good, matter is impure evil The physical world was created by a demiurge: lower god Salvation comes only be escaping the physical Arianism – belief that Jesus was a creature o Son is a creature, who like all other creatures derive from the will of God (Jesus is the first creature) o “Son” is a metaphor or honorific term; Father and Son do not share the same status o Status of Son is a consequence of the will of Father Role of Tradition – anything outside of Jesus’ teachings is wrong o By Ireneaus of Lyons o Interpretation of Scripture that has been faithfully handed down o Understanding Scripture Regula fidei – “rule of faith” preserved by the apostolic church ad found its expression in the canonical books of Scripture o “rule” is a measurement/standard during this time period o Standard of faith o Key ideas that are present within Christianity o Key teachings passed down from the apostles o What the creeds try to captur Ethics and Events: Council of Nicaea in 325 o Against Arianism = Christological debate o Athanasius against Arianism o Result of this council: Nicene Creed ~~~~~~~~~~ Marcionism Doctrine and Beliefs: Marcionism – the belief that Christianity should be more about love rather than creating a relationship with the law o Marcion only included the gospel of Luke and the Pauline Epistles in his canon o He left out the OT o His neglect for the other books of the Bible accelerated the canonization of other books into canonization o Teachings of the OT were incompatible with NT o OT describes a different God than NT. OT God created the world and was obsessed with law Didn’t believe in the continuity between OT and NT Criteria for the canon – early church decided which limits in the NT to lie down o Canon – rule, fixed point, standard o Fixing of the NT canon was to see what was important/accepted in Scripture – criteria included: Apostolic connections/origins The general acceptance of the text in Christian communities The extent to which the texts were used in liturgy o Athanasius was related to fixing the canon o Debated at the Council of Nicaea in 325 Relationship between OT and NT o For Christians both the OT and NT are authoritative/canonical o Marcionism – wanted to cut out half the books in OT o Why do Christians need the OT? The beginning/basis Fulfillment of Jesus Covenants start in the OT Cannot understand NT without the OT o Old and New: Testament = covenant Status of deuteronomical/apocryphal works o Apocrypha – works that are not included in the canon o Catholics have the deuteroapocryphal works o Status is debated; Catholics think that are canonical (2 canon) vs. protestants believe they are apocryphal (reference materials – separate) Cultural and Material Production: Canon Septuagint (LXX) – Greek Bible Vulgate (Latin) – Latin Bible Doctrine of God Doctrines and Beliefs: Faith in God, Trinity, Godhead = Father, Son, and Holy Spirit Analogies for God 1. God as Trinity 2. God as Father 3. God as Spirit 4. A personal God (relationship of trust, love, dependency) 5. God as Almighty (omnipotent, omniscient) 6. God as Creator Logos/Word – used by Justin Martyr Logos spermatikos – “seed bearing word” why you can use philosophy; God is planting these seeds for the word before the incarnation Chacedonian Christology – 2 natures, 1 person Christian Ethics and Effects: other document First council of Nicaea (1) – Christological titles Council of Constantinople (2) – define Trinity First council of Ephesus (3) – Mary is the bearer of God Council of Chalcedon (4) – Jesus has 2 natures: divine and human and 1 person Cultural and Material Production: Apologies (documents) o Apology – to stand up, defense of Christian faith o Through rational justification of Christian beliefs and doctrines Doctrine: teaching of the church accepted as true concerning a particular subject Orthodoxy: standard accepted, traditional, correct teaching + practices Councils and Creeds Doctrines and beliefs: Trinity Homoousis (“one in being” or “of the same substance”) – Jesus is of “the same substance” o Debated during the Council of Nicaea and confirmed that Jesus and the Father are of the same substance PostNicene debates o Homoousis (same substance) vs. Homoiousios (similar) o NicenoConstantinopilitan Creed (381) Revision of the 325 creed Emphasis on the Holy Spirit Apostle’s Creed: universal declaration of belief Nicene Creed: response to Arianism (condemns the doubting Christ as a creature) Ethics and Events: Ecumenical councils – 4 of them First Council of Nicaea (325) Christology Council of Constantinople (381) – Trinity/PostNicene creed aka Niceno Constantinople creed ~~~~~~~~~~ Faith and Doctrine What is faith? (pg. 5962) Faith is neither intellectual acceptance nor blind trust opposed to evidence. Practices and Pieties: Theological anthropology: views within theology about humanity and human culture; condition of humanity Creation Distinction of God and created world Sin The Fall (Augustine) Imago dei: symbolic relationship between God and humans Creation Accounts: 1. Relationship between God and everyone else 2. God intentionally creates the world 3. Creation reflects characteristics of God and creation 4. Biblical accounts emphasize the goodness of creation Practices and Pieties: Ways of reading creation narratives o Creation accounts are composed in a prescientific way o Type of thinking we supplement (add) w/other knowledge once we know more Biblical interpretations o Literal: face value; taking things in at place value o Allegorical/poetic: nonliteral, metaphorical, focus on spiritual and ethical meaning o Accomodationist: God accommodates humanity’s capacity to understand nonliteral, stooping to our level like a mother to child Revelation: God’s communication to humanity in terms we can understand Soteriology – discussions about “salvation” Doctrines and Beliefs: Sin: separation from God Grace: God’s gift to bring about salvation o Augustine POV: God’s generous and unlimited/unmerited attention to humanity through which we may be healed, forgiven and restored o Pelagius POV: ability by God to choose to avoid sin, external enlightenment (grace is from Scripture, Jesus, etc) The “fall” – Ireneaus argues that it is going on the wrong path; metaphor o Human nature is not what God intended it to be; fallen from original pristine state Pelagianism o Belief that perfect human life is attainable; human beings can choose to be good o Moral perfection is possible – that’s God’s standard for us o Disagrees that we are born with defect Concupiscence o The love of/desire to do the wrong things which turns humanity away from God o Original sin Work of Jesus Christ (94107) o Atonement = process of overcoming human alienation from God; end effect of redemption Atonement o Models of atonement o Christ the Harold of Hell – restoration o Christ the Victor – defeat of sin and death o Christ the Sacrifice – death of Jesus as the perfect sacrifice o Christ the Lover – atonement is love Salvation o Augustine POV: Through Jesus, God gives us salvation (which we don’t deserve) and withholds eternal damnation o Pelagius POV: Humanity is justified on the basis of merit Ethics and Events: First Council of Ephesus (431) Cultural and Material production: Cross as symbol On the City of God Confessions Ecclesiology – forfeiting salvation; Doctrine of the Church Donatism is under ecclesiology Doctrine and Beliefs: Ecclesiology Donatism – banned at the Council of Ephesus (3 )d o The heresy that believed the effectiveness of a sacraments depends on the moral character of a person Apostasy – “falling away from the regula fidei” o Teaches something that goes against standard of the church o Renouncing your faith o Like the fathers who renounced their faith but then they come back Donatists were mad; can’t give up faith and then come back Donatists were influenced by Cyprian o Like the mixed body of sinners Schism – “breaking away” o Donatists were the first one to break away o Cyprian would say: “There’s no salvation outside the church”/ particularism People and Institutions The Church as: o One, holy, catholic, apostolic (four marks of the Church) o Body of Christ o Visible and invisible o Pure saints body or mixed body of sinners (Augustine) o Alternative society (Anabaptist) Practices and Pieties: Sacraments Distinct means of grace/experiencing God’s saving power o 7 sacraments in Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy Baptism Confirmation Eucharist Penance Anointing of the sick Marriage Ordination Ordinances o Same thing as sacraments in Protestant o Describing the same thing except mean something different o Baptism and Eucharist only o Baptists use this a lot Different names for the Eucharist Cultural production: The Didache – instruction manual o Teaching of the 12 apostles o Church handbook of ethics and liturgy o Earliest instructions from the Apostles o How to be the church; how to do the ritual o Instruction on baptism, fasting and prayer Eschatology and Other Religions Doctrine and Beliefs: General resurrection Heaven o Hope > expectation; something to look forward to o Present dwelling place of Jesus o Ultimate end of the believer (return to native land) o State of supreme happiness o Paradise; restoration of good, elimination from sin o Not a physical geographical location; despite being depicted in special terms Hell o NT “Gehenna” Greek for latke of fire; punishment o Modern though: eternally sparated from God, consequence of person’s will Particularism o Exemplified by Cyprian – just for those who believe in Christ Inclusivism o Many Christians will affirm that there is some truth in other religious and philosophical world views, especially in moral and ethical living Revelation (special vs. general) – body of truth about God and the process of disclosing it o Special revelation: supernatural o General revelation: knowledge of God that can be obtained through nature Eschatology: last things, addresses things about the after life Early Church Fathers 1. Ignatius of Antioch (emphasized episcopate and warned against Docetism) Bishop of Antioch – one of the “Apostolic Fathers” Warned against Docetism o Belief that God did not exist in human form Emphasized the importance of the Eucharist Defending the structure (episcopate) of Bishops – wanted people to follow the bishop” “Follow the bishops as Jesus Christ followed the father” Intense desire to be martyred Arius vs. Athanasius 2. Arius of Alexandria: Jesus is a creature Schismatic priest – priest that broke away Creator of Arianism Claimed that Jesus was not eternal and created by God o Therefore, claiming that Jesus is subordinate to God Council of Nicaea declared Arianism a heresy Arius vs. Athanasius 3. Athanasius of Alexandria: Jesus is divine On the Incarnation of the Word where he defended the divinity of Jesus and the Christology of Incarnation First Christian leader to list the 27 books in the NT canon o Basically – related to fixing the canon Defended the definitions of the Trinitarian orthodoxy decided at Nicaea o Developed a doctrine of the Trinity (Cappadocian Compromise) Defended the divinity of Jesus o No creature has the power to redeem another creature o Argued that Arius said that Jesus Christ was a creature, therefore, a creature cannot redeem humanity o Whatever Jesus is, he saves Against Arius based on Scripture o Only God can save o Jesus Christ saves o Jesus is God 4. Ireneaus of Lyons (famous for recapitulation) Christian theologian and bishop Defended Christian orthodoxy against Gnosticism Emphasized these three things: o Rule of Faith (regula fidei) – preserved by apostolic church and found in canonical books of Scripture in creeds o Tradition – handed down or handed over o Apostolic witnesses – true church is apostolic: established with foundation through apostles Apostolic Father Recapitulation theory – themes of incarnation and atonement in Christian faith o Believed that Jesus was the new Adam and Mary was the new Eve o Jesus served as atonement and both Jesus and Mary were obedient, contrary to Adam and Eve Economy of salvation o Distinct yet intertwined roles of the Trinity 5. Origen of Alexandria – “origen of interpretation of scripture” School of Alexandria Developed the 3 fold meaning of scripture: body, spirit and soul o Literal: bodily Origen believes that scripture that is read literally is impossible o Moral/Ethical: soul o Spiritual: spirit – one that unites you with God Origen suggests that we all read scripture spiritually 6. Eusebius Making an argument for certain books in the bible Early church historian 7. Jerome He is known for translating the Vulgate (Latin Bible) Vulgate is the Latin translation of the Septuagint (Greek Bible) Tertullian vs. Justin Martyr 8. Tertullian of Carthage – “Father of Latin Christianity” “For what does Athens have to do with Jerusalem? What does the academy have to do with the church?” Did not believe that Christians should believe in philosophy – Scripture is enough to define Christian faith Mentor to Cyprian of Carthage Converted to Christianity from Paganism First to use the Trinity way of describing the Father, Son and Holy Spirit Helped develop orthodoxy of the church Viewed pagan culture to be different from Christianity 9. Justin Martyr – “logos” Roman philosopher/defended faith against Paganism/convert Attempted to make Christianity and Greek culture go together o Christianity was the true philosophy Believed that faith and logic should go together (logos/Word) “First apology” – traces of Christian truths are found in great pagan writers Logos spermatikos – seed bearing word o God had prepared the way for revelation in Christ through hints of truth in classical philosophy 10. Cyprian of Carthage (mentee of Tertullian) “No man shall attain salvation except in the church” Particularism: just for those who believed in Christ – particularly for those who believe in Christ 11. Cappadocian Fathers The Cappadocian Compromise: compromise about the Trinity o 3 persons, 1 nature o 2 different formulas for the Trinity 2 natures, 1 person = about Jesus as decided at the Council of Chalcedon 1 nature, 3 persons = the 3 persons, one of those is Jesus, who has 2 natures Basil of Caesarea o Discussing creeds – “begotten” o Gregory of Nyssa is Basil’s broooo Gregory of Nyssa – brother to Basil o Fish hook illustration about the Trinity Gregory of Nazianzus 12. Clement of Alexandria Believed that philosophy prepared the way for the Gospel God gave philosophy to the Greeks like God gave the law to the Jews = Christ is the fulfillment of both 13. Augustine of Hippo Focused on: o The sovereignty of God o The depravity of sin from Adam and Eve o Predestination of believers o Help of God’s grace for salvation Humans are born innately bad Emphasized concupiscence: love to do the wrong thing that turns humanity from God 3 doctrines of influence Doctrine of Church Sacraments Doctrine of Grace Doctrine of Trinity Humans are born with a defect o Innately bad 14. Pelagius – believed that God gave humans free will // denied depravity passed down from Adam and Eve To attain salvation, one must live a perfect life Emphasized good works rather than God’s grace Emphasized the ability to choose good and evil “Everyone gets what they deserve” Salvation in Christ is salvation through imitating the example of God Heresy condemned at the Council of Ephesus in 431 15. Jesus the Christ The significance of His life to Christianity The crucifixion/significance of the Passover o Passover: symbolic slain lamb 16. Mary Theotokos – mother of God; debated at the Council of Ephesus Heresies Arianism The belief that Jesus was a creature Coined by Arius of Alexandria Was rebutted by Athanasius Docetism (form of Gnosticism) The belief that Jesus did not exist in human form Did not have a natural body View was promoted by Gnostics Spirit is good = matter is impure and evil The physical world was created by a demiurge – lower god (Gnosticism) Ignatius of Antioch warned against Docetism o Said that it takes away the core of the Gospel Marcionism The belief that Christianity should be more about love Believed that the God of the NT is the God of the world compared to the OT God who was obsessed with law Marcion included the Pauline epistles and the Gospel of Luke in his canon o This sped up the canonization of other books Pelagianism Belief that the perfect human life is attainable Human beings can choose to be good Moral perfection is possible – God’s standard for us! Donatism The effectiveness of a sacrament depended on the moral standing of the person administering it o Considered a heresy at the Council of Ephesus in 431 Led to apostasy and schisms Donatist “pure body” vs. Augustine “mixed body” Donatist – “pure body” The church should be led by pure and morally right leaders Augustine – “mixed body” Church should consist of both saints and sinners Soteriology – Doctrine of Salvation Degrees about grace/sin Christology – Doctrine about the person/nature of Jesus Heresies: Arianism (Jesus as a creature), Docetism (the effectiveness of a sacrament depended on the moral standing on the person administering it) Eschatology – Doctrine of the End Heaven – redeemed community reunited with God o Hope > expectation; something to look forward to o Present dwelling place of Jesus o Ultimate end of the believer o New Jerusalem o Not a physical geographical location Hell o Gehenna – Greek for “lake of fire” Particularism o For only those who are of the church (coined by Cyprian) Inclusivism o Belief that other religions and modern thought have some meaning and truth Revelation o Special – supernatural o General – knowledge of God that can be obtained through nature Ecclesiology – Doctrine about the Church Sacraments o 7 sacraments in orthodox/catholic church Baptism Communion Confirmation Ordination Matrimony Anointing of the Sick Penance Ordinances: Baptism and Communion Heresy: Donatism (apostate leaders were not allowed to administer sacraments) o Banned at council of Ephesus Didache – instruction manual from the Apostles Theological anthropology – Doctrine of Creation: views within theology about humanity and human culture Condition of humanity Adam and Eve Doctrines about sin and the fall Councils **precursor – Edict of Milan issued by Constantine that established religious tolerance Council of Nicaea (325) Against Arianism (Jesus was a creature) Athanasius against Arianism Constantine (Edict of Milan) calls first ecumenical council Result of council against Arianism = Nicene Creed o The use of homoiousis raised controversy o Homoousis used instead = Jesus is “of the same substance” o Like from like o Jesus is like the Father, not subordinate Council of Constantine (381) NicenoConstantine Creed – revised it to Homoousis that says Jesus is of the same substance rather than “similar substance” Debates about the Trinity Added stuff about the Holy Spirit Drop Arianism and add more about the Holy Spirit – revision of the first Nicene Creed Council of Ephesus in Asia Minor (431) They talk about Mary being the bearer of God Theotokos – whether Mary was the bearer of God o Because she gave birth to Jesus who is God Debates about Christology in this part of the Roman Empire Donatism was condemned – priests had to be in right moral standing Council of Chalcedon (451) Doctrine of Two Natures/Chacedonian Christology – Jesus has 2 natures, 1 person The image of God (imago dei) Expression of authority God has over humanity Human reasoning and rationality of God as creator Human capacity to relate to God // lack of relationship with God will leave the heart a void Salvation as described by Paul: (soteriology) 1. Salvation itself – present, past, future 2. Adoption into God’s family – inheritance rights 3. Justification – entrance into a right relationship with God 4. Redemption – freed from slavery of law 5. Reconciliation – restoration of a broken relationship Christological titles 1. Messiah – the anointed one a. Anointed – chosen 2. Lord (kurios – Greek for Lord) 3. Savior 4. Son of God 5. Son of Man: emphasizes humanity and humility 6. God 7. Word of God (logos – suggested by Justin Martyr) Jesus as the Atonement Christ as the Harold of Hell – restoration o Christ restored us from hell Christ the Victor – defeat of sin and death o Victory over sin Christ the Sacrifice – death of Jesus as the perfect o Death of Jesus at the Passover is symbolic and perfect Christ the Lover – atonement is love o Atonement is love Criteria for fixing the canon Passed down from the Apostles General acceptance of the text in Christian communities The extent to which the texts were used in liturgy Chacedonian Christology/Doctrine of Two Natures – 2 natures, 1 person Cappadocian Compromise – 3 persons, 1 nature <Faith is neither intellectual acceptance nor blind trust opposed to evidence.> Creation Accounts Relationship between God and everyone else God intentionally creates the world Creation reflects characteristics of God and creation Biblical accounts emphasize the goodness of creation Ways to read creation accounts: (composed in a prescientific way // type of thinking we supplement with other knowledge) Literal – face value Allegorical/poetic – metaphor Accomodationist – God accommodates humanity’s capacity to understand Body, soul, and spirit (Origen of Alexandria) DATES: Great Schism – 1054 The split between the East and West due to: o Filioque – changed the creed, “from the Father and the Son” o Papacy o Linguistic differences o Latin invasion of Constantinople 2 Council of Nicaea – 787 Accepted the use of icons as veneration 2 Council of Constantinople 553 Response to the hypostatic union which means a union of divine and human Response to the split in the Eastern church Edict of Milan – 313 Established Christianity as a religion PEOPLE: Decian First person to persecute Christians Diocletian Made Christians burn their bibles and books, persecutor Galerius Edict of Toleration Constantine Edict of Milan (313) which established acceptance of Christianity Anthony of Egypt Father of Monasticism His life greatly influenced the Eremites (the hermits) His story was written by Athanasius Pachomius Wrote Pachomian Rule First monastic rule Influences the Cenobites John Cassian Compiled the wisdom of the Desert Mother and Fathers Wrote Institutes and Conferences Benedict of Nursa Father of Western Monasticism (which means the desert) St. Benedict Rule – lived out by the Cistercians because the Benedictines were too comfortable with their monastic life o Their vows included: Embracing a religious life Stability Obedience Cyril of Alexandria Moderate monophysite o Monophysite split up the East into two different parts o Monophysite means: Jesus is both human and divine and the natures are inseparable Tried to create a compromise about the nature of Jesus between the two sides in the East Emperor Leo III Against the use of icons John of Damascus Defended the use of icons as veneration Bernard of Clairvaux Founded the Cistercians in Citeaux The Cistercians followed the Rule of St. Benedict verbatim His preaching healed the 2 church schism Anselm of Canterbury – father of scholasticism Proslogion – his devotional work Satisfaction of Atonement Theory (Ransom Theory) – sin is understood as a sin against God God is obliged to act according to the principles of justice Emphasizes God’s righteousness Known for his strong defense of Christianity “Faith seeking understanding” Priority of FAITH over REASON, but faith is also reasonable Arguments for the Existence of God: o Refutes the fool that does not see God o Real entity of God is better than the idea of God o God is “greater than that thing that can be thought” Peter Abelard Moral Influence Theory of Atonement o Focused on the forgiving love of God o Diminished the crucifixion of God Thomas of Aquinas Dominican friar Draw from Aristolean thought Important works: o Summa Theologicae (often referred to as Summa) o Summa contra Gentiles (summary of the Gentiles) Peter Lombard The Four Books of Sentences KEY TERMS: Constantine Christianity Where Christianity is encouraged (because Constantine passed the Edict of Milan which established Christianity as a religion) Christendom – nationalism combined with Christian fervor Asceticism Forms of selfdiscipline used by Christians to deepen their knowledge of and commitment to God Monasticism Movement of monks and nuns Begins from the early church and moves throughout the medieval period th 4 century – monks become new embodiments of Christian ideals Emerged after the toleration of Christianity because the people didn’t want to get too comfortable Eremitism (hermit) Form of monasticism Modeled by Anthony of Egypt Characterized by seclusion or withdrawal from the world Definitive text: Life of Anthony Cenobotism (community) Modeled by Pachomius (desert father) Characterized by religious orders living in community Definitive text: Pachomius rule (structure for Cenobitism) Monastic rule All the monks to follow – the Rule of St. Benedict Christendom European society influenced by Christian identity and influence Monophysite Jesus is both divine and human, the two entities are inseparable Caused the split in the Eastern church Justinian was a major force in persecuting the Christians Monophysite broke apart from the Eastern Orthodox church Byzantine liturgy – “seeing a glimpse of Heaven” Benedictine life Hagia sofia – “heaven on Earth” Led to the Cistercians because of the glamour and comfortability of lifestyle Iconoclasts Against the use of icons // Leo III Iconodules John of Damascus // defended the use of icons as veneration // dules & defend! Filioque “From the Father and the Son” Caused the split in the East and West – schism Added to the Nicene Creed in the Catholic West and caused a division within the church because creeds are supposed to be unifying Benedictine Monasteries – Medieval Monasticism Lived a very comfy life Emphasized worship rather than manual labor Centers of learning Abbey at Cluny founded in France Cistercians – reformation of monasticism Monastery at Citeaux Formed by Bernard of Clairvaux Literal observance of The Rule of St. Benedict Restored manual labor and austerity Mendicant orders/Friars – form of Scholastic Monasticism Mendicants take a vow of release of stability and poverty. 5 Arguments for the Existence of God: MOTCC 1. Motion/change 2. Causation 3. Contingent beings 4. Origin of human values 5. Teleological argument – argument from design Medieval Devotional Practices: 6 7 sacraments Penance and indulgences increase Purgatory Feasts Cult of saints: relics, shrines, feast days, hagiography (document the lives of saints) Pilgrimage The Crusades: Holy war Military campaigns supported by Christian interests to reverse Islamic gains Begins with Pope urban II First Crusade = successful o Gained land and built a kingdom in Jerusalem but only had for 100 years 2 3 crusade: unsuccessful 4 crusade: sack on Constantinople, Western church attacked the East, which contradicted the purpose of coming to their rescue Outcomes of Crusades: Justification for military action Weakened the Eastern empire Slowed advancement of Islamic forces through Western Europe Impacted development of Western historical literature Weakened moral authority of the church FATHERS Anselm of Canterbury – father of scholasticism Anthony of Egypt – father of monasticism Benedict of Nursa – father of western monasticism The Early Church – Patristic (Father) Period People and Institutions: Early Church Fathers/Fathers of the Church Emperors (Roman): o Decsian Persecuted Christians o Diocletian Led to the Donatist controversy (made them burn their books) o Galerius Edict of Toleration – ended the persecution o Constantine Edict of Milan (313) Split the Roman Empire into West and East in 330 Centers of Theological Debate (debates in the East that cause the Schism) o Alexandria (Egypt) o Cappadocia//Antioch (Asia) o North Africa Metropolitan bishops – pg. 132 Ethics and Events: Patristic (fathers) period (100451) o Early church period o Writings of the early church fathers Tertullian, Athanasius, Gregory of Nyssa After the writings of the NT – 110 Edict of Milan (313) Practices and Pieties: Martyrdom Constantine Christianity o Where Christianity is promoted o Christendom – nationalism combined with Christian fever – church + political Different set of values from the secular world Cultural and Material Production: martyrdom accounts CH. 18: Monasticism People and Institutions: Anthony of Egypt – Father of Monasticism o Life of Anthony was a way of life for the Eremites Pachomius – Pachomian Rule o First monastic rule o Tells the Cenobites John Cassian Wrote Institutes and Conferences o Compiled the wisdom of desert Mother and Fathers o Established a monastery in France Benedict of Nursa – Father of WESTERN Monasticism o The St. Benedict Rule – reformed after the Cistercians The vows of St. Benedict: Vow of obedience Vow of religious life Vow of stability Practices and Pieties: Asceticism o Forms of selfdiscipline used by Christians to deepen their knowledge of and commitment to God Monasticism o Movement of monks and nuns o Begins from the early church and moves throughout the medieval period o 4 century – monks become new embodiments of Christian ideals o Emerged after the toleration of Christianity because the people didn’t want to get too comfortable Eremitism (hermit) o Form of monasticism o Modeled by Anthony of Egypt o Characterized by seclusion or withdrawal from the world o Definitive text: Life of Anthony Cenobotism (community) o Modeled by Pachomius (desert father) o Characterized by religious orders living in community o Definitive text: Pachomius rule (structure for Cenobitism) Monastic rule o All the monks to follow – the Rule of St. Benedict Apostolic poverty Cultural and Material Production: Life of Anthony (written by Athanasius) Pachomian rule (Pachomius) Conferences (John Cassian) Rule of St. Benedict (Benedict of Nursa) CH. 19: Byzantine and Medieval Christianity Concepts, Terms, Figures: Christendom – European society defined by Christian identity and influence Church of Constantinople = Eastern Orthodox Church o Eastern Empire o Byzantine Empire Monophysite (one nature of Jesus, human and divine are inseparable – let to the split within the church)/nonChalcedonian o Split in the Eastern church o After the Council of Chalcedon o Monophysite and Neostorian after the break apart from the church o Monophysites were being persecuted by their own church – broke away because they felt like they were a separate church o Justinian was a major force – persecuting the Christians Cyril of Alexandria o Moderate monophysite – tried to articulate a compromise about the nature of Jesus o Trying to articulate a compromise, emphasized two natures (Chalcedonian) – moderate form of Chalcedonian Byzantine liturgy – reflection of Heaven on Earth o Hagia sofia – “heaven on Earth” the beauty is supposed to take you to a glimpse of Heaven o Worship in Constantinople o Medieval period where there is art architecture o Led to the Cistercians because originated in the Benedictines Icon – venerate o Honoring the clothes/remnants of icons o The idea is that you look to it through the actual event o Not worshipping the image itself, you’re using that to focus on the real thing beyond that Iconoclast vs. Iconodule o Iconodules – veneration John of Damascus defended veneration of icons on grounds of incarnation 2 council of Nicaea (787) gave church support of icons in definitive form o Iconoclasts – Leo III argued that veneration of icons was idolatrous Emperor Leo III o Against icons John of Damascus o Defended the use of icons 2 council of Nicaea (787) o Established that the use of icons was ok!!! CH. 20: Medieval Christianity Doctrine and Beliefs: Filioque (latin word: “ex patre filioque”) – “from the Father and the Son” o Double procession of the Holy Spirit o Added to the Nicene Creed in the WEST about whether or not the holy spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son o Issue: creeds are supposed to be unifying, so when half the church changes it, it causes division!! Characteristics of Medieval Christianity o Medieval Devotional Practices: 7 sacraments Penance and indulgences increase Purgatory Feasts Cult of Saints: relics, shrines, feast days, hagiography, pilgrimage Medieval Conflicts: Papacy and political interests o West emphasized the papacy Roman catholic (West) conflicts with Eastern Orthodoxy o Schism between Latin West & Greek East in 1054 o Latin invasion of Constantinople o Linguistic differences o Papal primacy People and Institutions: Benedictine Monasteries – lived a very comfy life o Typically autonomous o Rule of St. Benedict o Monastic life became less ascetic and more focused on worship than manual labor o Vows: stability, embrace religious life, obedience o Centers of LEARNING o Abbey at Cluny founded during phase of renewal in France Citeaux/Cistercians – Monastery at Citeaux – basically went back to being hardcore o Benedictine o Called after Latin name of Citeaux o Ushered in church reform o Restored manual labor and austerity o Literal observance of The Rule of St. Benedict Bernard of Clairvaux – started the Cistercians in Citeaux o Sent to found a new monastery at Clairvaux o His preaching healed a church Schism, inspired by the 2 crusade o Rooted out heresy Mendicant orders/friars o New orders formed in the 12 century after monastic reform: Cistercians Friars/mendicant orders Franciscans Dominicans o Mendicants take a vow of poverty and release stability. Second and third orders o First orders: religious orders for men o Second orders: religious orders for women o Third orders: nonclerical groups that follow a monastic rule or ascetic communities without a rule; they lived in a society rather than monastery – laity Ethics and Events: Great Schism between East and West (1054) & reasons behind it pg. 138 o Filioque, one reason why there was a Great Schism (Nature of Jesus – causes split in the East) o Crusades (WEST trying to come to aid of EAST) – contributed to why they stayed divided o West wanted to assert the purpose of the papacy o Linguistic reasons (two different cultures) Crusades (started in 1095) o Military campaigns supported by Christian interests to reverse Islamic gains o Contributes to the division between the East & West Outcomes of Crusades: Justification for military action Weakened the Eastern empire Slowed advancement of Islamic forces through Western Europe Impacted development of Western historical literature Weakened moral authority of the church Cultural and Material Production: Hagiography – writing about the lives of the saints Practices and Pieties Holy war – crusades o Military campaigns supported by Christian interests to reverse Islamic gains o Began in 1096 with Pope Urban II Called a crusade to come aid to the Eastern Christians after the Schism o First crusade – successful Managed to reclaim territory and secure/establish a kingdom in Jerusalem Lose it after 100 years o 2 and 3 Crusade – try to reclaim the glory of what they accomplished in the first Crusade Bernard of Clairvaux preached about why they are unsuccessful, spiritual holiness, spiritual war 3 holy war – unsuccessful because they didn’t regain territory th o 4 crusade – sack on Constantinople by the Western church attacked the East Sacraments Medieval Christianity Characteristics: Worship practices Medieval monasticism – Benedictine monasteries Scholastic monasticism – Mendicant orders Medieval devotional practices o 7 sacraments o Penance and indulgences increase o Purgatory o Feasts o Cult of saints: relics, shrines, feast days, hagiography (document the lives of saints) o Pilgrimage Scholasticism Doctrine and Beliefs: Theology – the study of Christianity (theos) Satisfaction theory of atonement – coined by Anselm of Canterbury o Sin is understood as a sin against God o God is obliged to act according to the principles of justice Moral influence theory – by Peter Abelard People and Institutions: Universities o Rule of St. Benedict – guidelines about how to live in a community, written by Benedict of Nursa Mendicant orders o Specific groups of monastic life Franciscans Dominicans Augustinians Anselm of Canterbury – Father of Scholasticism o Known for his strong defense of the intellectual founders of Christianity o Proslogion – devotional work o Satisfaction theory of Atonement (ransom theory) – sin is an understood offense against God o God is obliged to act according to the principles of justice o Arguments for the Existence of God “Refutes the fool who says in his heart that there is no God” Real entity is better than idea The reality of God is greater than the idea of God Peter Abelard o Moral influence theory of atonement o Focused on the forgiving love of God o Diminished the crucifixion of Jesus Christ Thomas Aquinas th o Dominican friar – 13 century o Drawn from Aristolean thought o Important works: Summa contra Gentiles (Summary against Gentiles) Summa Theologiae (often called Summa) Practices and Pieties: Scholasticism o Approach to Christian theology o Emphasizes the rational justification and systematic presentation of theology o Focus on use of reason o Skeptical and analytical “Faith seeking understanding” – Anselm of Canterbury o Establishes priority of faith over reason, but also exerts that faith is reasonable Emphases of religious orders o 1 order – religious orders for men o 2 order – religious orders for women rd o 3 order – nonclerical groups that follow a monastic life or ascetic communities without a rule Cultural and Material Production: The Four Books of Sentences by Peter Lombard 5 Arguments for the Existence of God: 1. Motion/change 2. Causation 3. Contingent beings 4. Origin of human values 5. Teleological argument – argument from design 1. Name one way the church set itself apart from the Roman Empire and one way it aligned itself with Roman culture during the first four centuries. Due it the oppression of the early church, “early Christianity could not be a public religion in the Roman empire” (McGrath 125). Therefore, the practices and rituals of the early church had to be discrete to prevent accusation of Christians breaking the Roman law. Despite it’s lack of religious recognition, the early church found ways to set itself apart from the Roman empire in terms of its practices and rituals but also found a way to assimilate and align itself with Roman culture during the first four centuries. One of the ways the early church set itself apart from the Roman Empire was their distinctive funeral rites. McGrath clarifies that, “Romans tended to cremate their dead and place[d] their ashes in carved urns. Christians [however] insisted on burial, seeing this as resting on the precedent of the burial of Christ” (McGrath 126). Another way that the Christian practices differed from that of Roman practices was that the early church fathered on Sunday, rather than on the Jewish Sabbath. But, however, the early church did align itself to Roman culture when they celebrated the baptism of new converts. This baptism celebration, which included prayer and worship, is aligned with the Roman form of “civil religion” (McGrath 124). The civil religion, practiced by the Romans, consisted of “worship of the emperor as an expression of allegiance to the Roman state and empire” (124). Similarly, during the gathering of believers during a baptism ceremony, “bread, wine and water” were brought to the priest in order to worship and show acknowledgment of the “Father, in the name of the Son and Spirit” (McGrath 126). 2. Describe two features of Byzantine liturgy (worship practices). One example of Byzantine liturgy is the outside procession of the laity thr
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