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UNC LFIT Departmental Final Study Guide

by: Betsy Trujillo

UNC LFIT Departmental Final Study Guide LFIT 114

Marketplace > University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill > LFIT > LFIT 114 > UNC LFIT Departmental Final Study Guide
Betsy Trujillo

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About this Document

I took LFIT 114, which is yoga and pilates, but my study guide is not specific to this class since LFIT finals are departmental.
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Betsy Trujillo on Sunday August 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to LFIT 114 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Staff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see LIFETIME FITNESS: YOGA/PILATES in LFIT at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.


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Date Created: 08/07/16
Lesson 1 – Intro Four risk behaviors 1. Lack of exercise 3. Tobacco  2. Poor nutrition 4. XS alcohol   Top three COD (7/10 deaths are due to chronic disease) 1. Cardiovascular disease 2. Cancer 3. Chronic lower respiratory disease (50% of all deaths in US)   Cardiovascular Disease  600,000 deaths per year (1/4 adults)  Risk factors: o Sedentary lifestyle o smoking o hi BP and cholesterol  o obesity  Exercise: lowers BP and LDL and increases HDL   Cancer  Men: 1 in 2 risk; women: 1 in 3 risk  Atherosclerosis – plaque build up in your arteries   Lung cancer accounts for most deaths (27% of all cancer­related deaths)  Risk factors: o Cigarettes = greatest risk factors o Exercise reduces risk of breast, colon, pancreatic, and uterine cancer   Diabetes  7  leading COD  26 million Americans (8.3%)  Blood glucose in unable to enter cells; hyperglycemia  Type I (pop in young people) o Pancreas produce little or no insulin  Type II (90­95% of all diabetes o Pancreas produce insulin but cells are resistant o 85% of all type 2 = overweight/obese o Not taken care of  nerve damage, vision loss, kidney damage o Exercise increases insulin sensitivity and prevents type 2   Arthritis – 50 million Americans  Most common form of disability  Degeneration of cartilage in joints  Rheumatoid arthritis  o Immune system attacks own tissue  pain  Osteoporosis “porous bones” o Bones lack minerals o Elderly + menopause women   Exercise increases strength/flexibility and reduces joint pain  Obesity  BMI ≥ 30 or 30 lbs over recommended weight; overweight = BMI of 25­29.9  Good range is between 18.5 – 24.9  <18.5 = bad! Underweight!  Now chronic   36% of adults are obese; 33% are overweight    Obesity and youth  12.5 million (17%) are obese  18.4% adolescents (12­19 y/o)  18% children (6­11)  12.1% children (2­5)   Cholesterol  High cholesterol  71 million Americans (33.5%)   Healthy total cholesterol is <200  Healthy HDL is ≥ 40  Healthy LDL is < 130  Limit to <300 mg/day   Typical American Diet   Americans consume 240 more calories per day than 40 years ago   48.4% adults meet the minimal recommendations for aerobic activity   24% meet the min. requirements for muscle strengthening activities  20.6% meet the minimum req for aerobic and muscle strengthening activities       Lesson 2 – Health & Fitness Assessment    Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR­Q)  Qualify a person for low­to­moderate­to­high activity levels  Identify individuals who require further medical evaluation  Answer yes ­> talk to doctor    Resting heart rate: 60­100 bpm; Tachycardia: >100 bpm  Stroke, cardiac arrest  Lower heart rate = stronger heart; athletes ~ 40  Radial pulse (preferred) no thumb, 60 secs for both  Carotid pulse (neck)   Blood Pressure     High BP (silent killer)  heart attack, kidney failure  Systolic – measures the pressure in arteries when the heart beats (when heart muscles contract)  Diastolic ­ measures the pressure in the arteries bw heart beats (when the heart muscle relaxes)   Body Measurements   BMI o Normal 18­24.9 o Cant differentiate between fat­free mass and fat mass  Hydrostatic Underwater Weighing o Exercise physiology labs o Fatter people float more in water o Impractical  o Archimedes Principle  Skinfold Assessment o Measures subcutaneous fat  Bioelectrical Impedance o Electrical current is run thru body to estimate body fat and lean body mass o Fat is less efficient conductor than lean tissue o So current flows faster thru fit people    Postural Distortions  Pronation Distortion Syndrome o Flat feet, adducted, internally rotated knees (foot, ankle and knee pain) o Tight muscles that need stretching: calves, inner thigh o Weak muscles that need to be strengthened: outer hip, foot, ankle   Upper Crossed Syndrome  o Rounded shoulders, forward head o Tight: chest, neck o Weak: midback, rotator cuffs  o Fix: Stability ball cobra  Lower Crossed Syndrome o Belt­line is a good indicator o Hyperextended low back  o Tight muscles: hip flexors (front of hip) o Weak muscles: Gluteals and abdominals  o Fix: Floor bridge   Flexibility – sit and reach test  Measure flexibility of hamstrings and low back muscles   Women: 15.8 inches  Men: 15 inches   Calculations  Karvonen: Target heart rate = (HR max – HR rest)( % intensity) + HR rest  Max heart rate = 220 – age  2  Weight (kg) / height (m )   Endurance Tests: Push up (upper body) and sit ups (lower body)    Cardiorespiratory Assessment  Power Assessment   YMCA 3­min step test  Athletes  McArdle step test (athletes)  Vertical jump test and long jump test      Lesson 3 – Nutrition and Supplementation   Essential nutrient­ substance you must get from diet (body wont produced it; ~45 essential  nutrients)  Nonessential­ can be manufactured by your body  calorie­ amount of heat energy needed to raise the temp of 1 gram of water 1°C   Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) ­ energy spent in typical day  Resting metabolic rate  70% of TEE  Thermic effect of food  6­10% of TEE   Daily activities  20% TEE   Macronutrients  Carbs­ sugar, starches, dietary fibers  Four calories in one gram of carbohydrate  Daily recommended intake for carbohydrates  45­65% (130 g / day)   Primary source of fuel during exercise   Sugars­ simplest forms of carbs o Men consume 24.2% sugar o Women consume 25.3%  Fiber­ found in nondigestible plants that don't yield energy o Males rec­ 38 g/day o Female rec­ 25g/day    Protein  Animal sources (richer source of aa)  eggs, milk, meat, poultry, fish  Plant sources  vegetables, grains, soy, beans, nuts  Protein = energy source (but primary sources of energy come from carbs and fats)  10­35% of calories   Active individuals­ half your weight in pounds is the daily grams of protein needed   Lipids  Fats o Triglycerides are 95% of fats; insulation o Unsaturated fats (liquid at room temp)  Olive, canola, peanut oil  Decrease <3 disease by lowering cholesterol o Saturated fats (solids at room temp)  Increased LDL (bad)  Limit to 10% of total cal (limit butter, lard, hi fat meats, fried food) o Trans fat – increase LDL and lowers HDL   Water  Men: 3 liters (13 cups)  Women: 2.2 liters (9 cups)   Fish Oils – decrease risk of heart disease   2 cups of fruit and 3 cups of veggies per day   Lesson 4 – Weight Control   Obesity  1lb of fat = 3500 calories  Not recommended: women <1200 cal and men <1500   Physical Activity   Aerobic Activity  o 2hr 30 min of moderate intensity (per week) o 1 hr 15 min vigorous (per week)  Muscle Strengthening o All major muscle groups (2+ days/week)  Moderate Activity: 3­6 METs o Brisk walking, gardening, ballroom dancing  Vigorous Activity: >6 METS o Jogging/running, swimming laps, circuit training  Talk test o Moderate: talk but can’t sing o Intense: speak a few words  Nonexercise Activity Thermogenesis (NEAT) o Energy expended during physical activity besides exercise (standing, pacing, fidgeting) o Effective way to increase caloric expenditure o 2000 kcal expended each week for weight loss   Eating Disorders – 20 million women; 10 million men  Anorexia nervosa o Refusal to eat, self­starvation, emaciated look o 90­95% of sufferers are female  Bulimia nervosa o Binging and purging followed by guilt and shame o Strict dieting, laxative abuse, excessive exercise o Unusual swelling of cheeks and jaw; tooth discoloration or decay o 1­2% of women o 80% female   Binge­eating o Frequent episodes of consuming huge amounts o 1­5% of population; 60% women; 40% men   Myths  High protein, low carb diets are the most effective way to lose weight and keep it off  Not eating enough cals causes body to go into “starvation mode,” making weight loss difficult   Eating at night makes you fat  Sugars and carbs cause weight gain      Lesson 5 – Behavior Modification   Five exercise obstacles   1. Lack of time 3. Poor social support 2. Unrealistic goals and expectations  4. Anxiety  5. Lack of convenience (money, classes, equipment, facilities, location) 6. 7. Three impediments for taking action  Problems with competence  Problems with confidence  Problems with motivation  o Intrinsic motivators: long­term (pride and achievements) o Extrinsic motivators: short­term (rewards, recognition, approval by others) 8. 9. Five Stages of Change Model (Transtheoretical)  Pre­contemplation (individual is not considering change)  Contemplation (individual realizes they have a problem)  Preparation (seriously considering change; ex: enroll in fitness class)  Action (individual participates in fitness class)  Maintenance (individual continues exercise for up to five years) 10. 11. SMART Goals – Specific Measurable Attainable Realistic Time­specific  12. 13. Types of Support  Instrumental –  tangible and practical (transportation to gym, money for healthy food)  Emotional – encouragement, caring, empathy, concern  Informational – directions, advice, suggestions  Companionship – family, friends, classmates, coworkers (gym buddy) 14. 15. Relaxation techniques  Muscle­to­mind o Massage (alleviates knots, reduces tension and pain)  Mind­to­muscle o Yoga  o Meditation  o Autogenic inhibition (hypnotize) 16. 17. 18. Lesson 6 – Flexibility Training 19. Myths  There is no such thins as too much flexibility o You can overstretch tendons/ligaments  Stretching a cold muscle increases injury risk o Range of motion can be improved via heat OR ice o Cardio has little effect on the safety of static stretching  Static stretching should always be avoided prior to athletic performance 20. 21. Flexibility  Ability to move a joint through its complete ROM  Joint stability is having optimum control throughout all range of motion  Ideal movement  mobility + stability   Why flexibility is important: o People spend more time sitting and less time moving o This causes muscles and ligaments shorten, decreasing flexibility o Decreases in proper posture and movement patterns  may increase injury  Flexibly benefits o Decrease: knots, high BP, and muscle cramps  Factors affecting ROM: o Age, previous injuries (inelastic scar tissue), and activity level  22. 23. Five types of stretching  1. Static stretching – most common o Hold stretch for a min of 30 secs o Allows muscles to relax and elongate o Warm­up or cool­down o A static stretch held for 60+ secs reduces muscle power and force production 2. Dynamic Stretching o Takes a joint through a full available range of motion o Increases heart rate and respiration o Useful b4 competition, reducing muscle tightness and improving performance 3. Self­Myofascial Release (foam rolling) o Apply gentle pressure to knots o Causes muscle to relax and remove knots o Reduces pain and tension o Suggested before static stretching  o Can be used as cool­down 4. Yoga – practice of postures as exercise  5. Pilates – reduces back pain, improves posture, muscular endurance, balance 24. 25. 26. Lesson 7 – Core and Balance Training 27. 28. Core Training  Traditional core training = strengthen abdominals  Low back pain o 8/10 adults (decreased activation of core musculature) o Sedentary and obese  Core structures (lumbo­pelvic­hip complex) o Lumbar spine o Pelvic girdle o Abdomen o Hips  Benefits: o You get a strong core, which leads to proper posture and balance  o Transfer forces to extremities o Prevention and rehabilitation of low­back pain o Size, activation, and endurance of core muscles o Core training reduces injury risk 29.  Local system (stabilizes spine and pelvis) o Diaphragm o Internal obliques  o Multifidus o Transverse abdominis  Global system (movement of trunk/extremities) o Latissimus dorsi o External obliques o Rectus abdominis o Spinal erectors 30. 31. Core­Stabilization Exercises   Involve little motion of spine and pelvis  Maintain draw­in maneuver  Slow tempo, ideal posture o Floor bridge, planks 32. 33. Core­Strength Exercises  Spine movement – flex/ext & rotation  Challenge local and global muscles  Medium tempo o Crunches, knee­ups 34. 35. Core­Power Exercises  Generate forces at higher speeds  Explosive tempo o Rotation chest pass, soccer throws  36. 37. Balance Training  Improves joint stabilization  Viewed as static, but is extremely dynamic  Poor balance  injury risk  Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries o 150,000; 70% noncontact o Due to poor balance o Inability to decelerate, change direction or land properly  Balance training – alleviates high incidence of noncontact injury and falls 38. 39. Balance Stabilizing Exercises   Little motion of balance leg   Slow Tempo o Single­leg balance reach, single leg hip internal/external, single leg throw and catch 40. 41. Balance Strength   Dynamic movement of balance leg  Medium tempo  Single leg squat touchdown, single leg romanian deadlift, step up balance, lunge to balance 42. 43. Balance Power  Small hopping motions  Hold landing 3­5 secs  Explosive tempo o Single leg hop, single leg box hop up, single leg box hop down 44. 45. 46. Lesson 8 – Cardiorespiratory Training 47. 48. Five components of health­related fitness 1. Cardiorespiratory fitness 2. Muscular strength  3. Muscular endurance 5. Body composition 4. Flexibility   Cardiorespiratory exercises – prevent chronic disease  Activity that raises heart and respiration rate  Repetitive and rhythmic: jogging, cycling, swimming  Circuit weight training, calisthenics, sporting activities   Aerobic  Low­intensity activity   Walking, bicycle riding, cross­country skiing  Uses carbs and fats   Anaerobic  High­intensity activity  Oxygen supply is not adequate  100 m sprint, shot put, high intensity, weight training  Uses carbs only (no fat because it cannot break it down fast enough)    FITTE  Frequency – per week  Intensity­ level of demand that a given activity places on the body o Moderate intensity­ increase heart and respiration rates but does not cause exhaustion;  talk comfortably during exercise o MYTH­ you burn more fat at lower intensity because easy work does not require carbs   Type – type of exercise   Time – hrs/week)  Enjoyment       Principles of specificity – the body will adapt to the level of stress placed on it   Beginning cardio program – Intensity  Low to moderate (3 or 4 on 1­10 scale); able to hold a convo  30­60 min of continuous exercise  30 mins two or three times per week   Interval training – Work to rest ratio  1:3 (1 min interval, 3 min recovery)  1:2  1:1 (duration gradually increases)   Circuit Training  As beneficial as low­intensity  Results in higher post­exercise metabolic rates and strength     Lesson 9 – Strength Training   Strength­ ability of neuromuscular system to exert force against external resistance   Muscle contractions  Concentric ­ exerts more force than is being placed on it; muscle shortens/contracts  Isometric ­ force is equal to that placed on it; no change in muscle length  Eccentric ­ exerts less force than is being placed on it; muscle lengthens; injuries   Exercise technique and safety  Feet and knees­ point straight ahead  Head and low­back­ neutral position  Shoulders­ keep back   Light weight + high reps  stability and muscular endurance  Heavy weight + low reps  muscle size (max strength)  Light weight + low reps  power    Benefits of Strength Training  Improves bone density  Controls blood sugar (prevents diabetes)  HR & BP decrease  Improves coordination and joints, strengthens connective tissue   Resistance stabilization Exercises  Stabilize muscles & improve posture and coordination  Unstable environments (stability ball instead of benches or machines) o Ball cobra, single leg squat, single leg scaption   Resistance strength training  Build muscle size  Stable environments (benches, machines) o Bench press, deadlift, lat pulldown, shoulder press machine   Resistance power – associated with sports o Throwing medicine balls, jumping (plyometrics), plyometric push up (clap), squat jump   Resistance training equipment  Free weights (dumbbells, barbells) o Expend more calories; ideal for fat loss o Potentially dangerous, spotter  Selectorized strength training machines (gym machines) o Less intimidating, safer than free weights o Limited range of motion o Inferior to free weights for improving core stability and coordination o Offer artificial support vs your own core musculature  Cable machines o Freedom of movement, but don’t require spotter o Challenge the core  Elastic resistance o Improve muscular endurance  Medicine balls o Develop power o Movements occur explosively w.o the need for deceleration  Kettlebells o Increased core stability and muscular endurance (increased strength and power)  Bodyweight exercises  o Bodyweight + gravity provides the resistance  Stability balls (swiss balls) o Creates unstable base of support o Adjust body position to the unstable movements of the ball  Suspension bodyweight trainers o System of ropes and webbing that allows the user to work against their own bodyweight o User’s hands or feet are supported by a single anchor point o Multi­planar, multi­joint exercises in unstable, yet controllable positions   MYTH­ females think strength­training results in large muscle. Lies. Hormonal differences don't let girls get that bulky  MYTH strength training stunts a child’s growth. Lies. It improves motor skills, body composition, and bone density 


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All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.