UNC LFIT Departmental Final Study Guide
UNC LFIT Departmental Final Study Guide LFIT 114
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Betsy Trujillo on Sunday August 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to LFIT 114 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Staff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see LIFETIME FITNESS: YOGA/PILATES in LFIT at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.
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Date Created: 08/07/16
Lesson 1 – Intro Four risk behaviors 1. Lack of exercise 3. Tobacco 2. Poor nutrition 4. XS alcohol Top three COD (7/10 deaths are due to chronic disease) 1. Cardiovascular disease 2. Cancer 3. Chronic lower respiratory disease (50% of all deaths in US) Cardiovascular Disease 600,000 deaths per year (1/4 adults) Risk factors: o Sedentary lifestyle o smoking o hi BP and cholesterol o obesity Exercise: lowers BP and LDL and increases HDL Cancer Men: 1 in 2 risk; women: 1 in 3 risk Atherosclerosis – plaque build up in your arteries Lung cancer accounts for most deaths (27% of all cancerrelated deaths) Risk factors: o Cigarettes = greatest risk factors o Exercise reduces risk of breast, colon, pancreatic, and uterine cancer Diabetes 7 leading COD 26 million Americans (8.3%) Blood glucose in unable to enter cells; hyperglycemia Type I (pop in young people) o Pancreas produce little or no insulin Type II (9095% of all diabetes o Pancreas produce insulin but cells are resistant o 85% of all type 2 = overweight/obese o Not taken care of nerve damage, vision loss, kidney damage o Exercise increases insulin sensitivity and prevents type 2 Arthritis – 50 million Americans Most common form of disability Degeneration of cartilage in joints Rheumatoid arthritis o Immune system attacks own tissue pain Osteoporosis “porous bones” o Bones lack minerals o Elderly + menopause women Exercise increases strength/flexibility and reduces joint pain Obesity BMI ≥ 30 or 30 lbs over recommended weight; overweight = BMI of 2529.9 Good range is between 18.5 – 24.9 <18.5 = bad! Underweight! Now chronic 36% of adults are obese; 33% are overweight Obesity and youth 12.5 million (17%) are obese 18.4% adolescents (1219 y/o) 18% children (611) 12.1% children (25) Cholesterol High cholesterol 71 million Americans (33.5%) Healthy total cholesterol is <200 Healthy HDL is ≥ 40 Healthy LDL is < 130 Limit to <300 mg/day Typical American Diet Americans consume 240 more calories per day than 40 years ago 48.4% adults meet the minimal recommendations for aerobic activity 24% meet the min. requirements for muscle strengthening activities 20.6% meet the minimum req for aerobic and muscle strengthening activities Lesson 2 – Health & Fitness Assessment Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PARQ) Qualify a person for lowtomoderatetohigh activity levels Identify individuals who require further medical evaluation Answer yes > talk to doctor Resting heart rate: 60100 bpm; Tachycardia: >100 bpm Stroke, cardiac arrest Lower heart rate = stronger heart; athletes ~ 40 Radial pulse (preferred) no thumb, 60 secs for both Carotid pulse (neck) Blood Pressure High BP (silent killer) heart attack, kidney failure Systolic – measures the pressure in arteries when the heart beats (when heart muscles contract) Diastolic measures the pressure in the arteries bw heart beats (when the heart muscle relaxes) Body Measurements BMI o Normal 1824.9 o Cant differentiate between fatfree mass and fat mass Hydrostatic Underwater Weighing o Exercise physiology labs o Fatter people float more in water o Impractical o Archimedes Principle Skinfold Assessment o Measures subcutaneous fat Bioelectrical Impedance o Electrical current is run thru body to estimate body fat and lean body mass o Fat is less efficient conductor than lean tissue o So current flows faster thru fit people Postural Distortions Pronation Distortion Syndrome o Flat feet, adducted, internally rotated knees (foot, ankle and knee pain) o Tight muscles that need stretching: calves, inner thigh o Weak muscles that need to be strengthened: outer hip, foot, ankle Upper Crossed Syndrome o Rounded shoulders, forward head o Tight: chest, neck o Weak: midback, rotator cuffs o Fix: Stability ball cobra Lower Crossed Syndrome o Beltline is a good indicator o Hyperextended low back o Tight muscles: hip flexors (front of hip) o Weak muscles: Gluteals and abdominals o Fix: Floor bridge Flexibility – sit and reach test Measure flexibility of hamstrings and low back muscles Women: 15.8 inches Men: 15 inches Calculations Karvonen: Target heart rate = (HR max – HR rest)( % intensity) + HR rest Max heart rate = 220 – age 2 Weight (kg) / height (m ) Endurance Tests: Push up (upper body) and sit ups (lower body) Cardiorespiratory Assessment Power Assessment YMCA 3min step test Athletes McArdle step test (athletes) Vertical jump test and long jump test Lesson 3 – Nutrition and Supplementation Essential nutrient substance you must get from diet (body wont produced it; ~45 essential nutrients) Nonessential can be manufactured by your body calorie amount of heat energy needed to raise the temp of 1 gram of water 1°C Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) energy spent in typical day Resting metabolic rate 70% of TEE Thermic effect of food 610% of TEE Daily activities 20% TEE Macronutrients Carbs sugar, starches, dietary fibers Four calories in one gram of carbohydrate Daily recommended intake for carbohydrates 4565% (130 g / day) Primary source of fuel during exercise Sugars simplest forms of carbs o Men consume 24.2% sugar o Women consume 25.3% Fiber found in nondigestible plants that don't yield energy o Males rec 38 g/day o Female rec 25g/day Protein Animal sources (richer source of aa) eggs, milk, meat, poultry, fish Plant sources vegetables, grains, soy, beans, nuts Protein = energy source (but primary sources of energy come from carbs and fats) 1035% of calories Active individuals half your weight in pounds is the daily grams of protein needed Lipids Fats o Triglycerides are 95% of fats; insulation o Unsaturated fats (liquid at room temp) Olive, canola, peanut oil Decrease <3 disease by lowering cholesterol o Saturated fats (solids at room temp) Increased LDL (bad) Limit to 10% of total cal (limit butter, lard, hi fat meats, fried food) o Trans fat – increase LDL and lowers HDL Water Men: 3 liters (13 cups) Women: 2.2 liters (9 cups) Fish Oils – decrease risk of heart disease 2 cups of fruit and 3 cups of veggies per day Lesson 4 – Weight Control Obesity 1lb of fat = 3500 calories Not recommended: women <1200 cal and men <1500 Physical Activity Aerobic Activity o 2hr 30 min of moderate intensity (per week) o 1 hr 15 min vigorous (per week) Muscle Strengthening o All major muscle groups (2+ days/week) Moderate Activity: 36 METs o Brisk walking, gardening, ballroom dancing Vigorous Activity: >6 METS o Jogging/running, swimming laps, circuit training Talk test o Moderate: talk but can’t sing o Intense: speak a few words Nonexercise Activity Thermogenesis (NEAT) o Energy expended during physical activity besides exercise (standing, pacing, fidgeting) o Effective way to increase caloric expenditure o 2000 kcal expended each week for weight loss Eating Disorders – 20 million women; 10 million men Anorexia nervosa o Refusal to eat, selfstarvation, emaciated look o 9095% of sufferers are female Bulimia nervosa o Binging and purging followed by guilt and shame o Strict dieting, laxative abuse, excessive exercise o Unusual swelling of cheeks and jaw; tooth discoloration or decay o 12% of women o 80% female Bingeeating o Frequent episodes of consuming huge amounts o 15% of population; 60% women; 40% men Myths High protein, low carb diets are the most effective way to lose weight and keep it off Not eating enough cals causes body to go into “starvation mode,” making weight loss difficult Eating at night makes you fat Sugars and carbs cause weight gain Lesson 5 – Behavior Modification Five exercise obstacles 1. Lack of time 3. Poor social support 2. Unrealistic goals and expectations 4. Anxiety 5. Lack of convenience (money, classes, equipment, facilities, location) 6. 7. Three impediments for taking action Problems with competence Problems with confidence Problems with motivation o Intrinsic motivators: longterm (pride and achievements) o Extrinsic motivators: shortterm (rewards, recognition, approval by others) 8. 9. Five Stages of Change Model (Transtheoretical) Precontemplation (individual is not considering change) Contemplation (individual realizes they have a problem) Preparation (seriously considering change; ex: enroll in fitness class) Action (individual participates in fitness class) Maintenance (individual continues exercise for up to five years) 10. 11. SMART Goals – Specific Measurable Attainable Realistic Timespecific 12. 13. Types of Support Instrumental – tangible and practical (transportation to gym, money for healthy food) Emotional – encouragement, caring, empathy, concern Informational – directions, advice, suggestions Companionship – family, friends, classmates, coworkers (gym buddy) 14. 15. Relaxation techniques Muscletomind o Massage (alleviates knots, reduces tension and pain) Mindtomuscle o Yoga o Meditation o Autogenic inhibition (hypnotize) 16. 17. 18. Lesson 6 – Flexibility Training 19. Myths There is no such thins as too much flexibility o You can overstretch tendons/ligaments Stretching a cold muscle increases injury risk o Range of motion can be improved via heat OR ice o Cardio has little effect on the safety of static stretching Static stretching should always be avoided prior to athletic performance 20. 21. Flexibility Ability to move a joint through its complete ROM Joint stability is having optimum control throughout all range of motion Ideal movement mobility + stability Why flexibility is important: o People spend more time sitting and less time moving o This causes muscles and ligaments shorten, decreasing flexibility o Decreases in proper posture and movement patterns may increase injury Flexibly benefits o Decrease: knots, high BP, and muscle cramps Factors affecting ROM: o Age, previous injuries (inelastic scar tissue), and activity level 22. 23. Five types of stretching 1. Static stretching – most common o Hold stretch for a min of 30 secs o Allows muscles to relax and elongate o Warmup or cooldown o A static stretch held for 60+ secs reduces muscle power and force production 2. Dynamic Stretching o Takes a joint through a full available range of motion o Increases heart rate and respiration o Useful b4 competition, reducing muscle tightness and improving performance 3. SelfMyofascial Release (foam rolling) o Apply gentle pressure to knots o Causes muscle to relax and remove knots o Reduces pain and tension o Suggested before static stretching o Can be used as cooldown 4. Yoga – practice of postures as exercise 5. Pilates – reduces back pain, improves posture, muscular endurance, balance 24. 25. 26. Lesson 7 – Core and Balance Training 27. 28. Core Training Traditional core training = strengthen abdominals Low back pain o 8/10 adults (decreased activation of core musculature) o Sedentary and obese Core structures (lumbopelvichip complex) o Lumbar spine o Pelvic girdle o Abdomen o Hips Benefits: o You get a strong core, which leads to proper posture and balance o Transfer forces to extremities o Prevention and rehabilitation of lowback pain o Size, activation, and endurance of core muscles o Core training reduces injury risk 29. Local system (stabilizes spine and pelvis) o Diaphragm o Internal obliques o Multifidus o Transverse abdominis Global system (movement of trunk/extremities) o Latissimus dorsi o External obliques o Rectus abdominis o Spinal erectors 30. 31. CoreStabilization Exercises Involve little motion of spine and pelvis Maintain drawin maneuver Slow tempo, ideal posture o Floor bridge, planks 32. 33. CoreStrength Exercises Spine movement – flex/ext & rotation Challenge local and global muscles Medium tempo o Crunches, kneeups 34. 35. CorePower Exercises Generate forces at higher speeds Explosive tempo o Rotation chest pass, soccer throws 36. 37. Balance Training Improves joint stabilization Viewed as static, but is extremely dynamic Poor balance injury risk Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries o 150,000; 70% noncontact o Due to poor balance o Inability to decelerate, change direction or land properly Balance training – alleviates high incidence of noncontact injury and falls 38. 39. Balance Stabilizing Exercises Little motion of balance leg Slow Tempo o Singleleg balance reach, single leg hip internal/external, single leg throw and catch 40. 41. Balance Strength Dynamic movement of balance leg Medium tempo Single leg squat touchdown, single leg romanian deadlift, step up balance, lunge to balance 42. 43. Balance Power Small hopping motions Hold landing 35 secs Explosive tempo o Single leg hop, single leg box hop up, single leg box hop down 44. 45. 46. Lesson 8 – Cardiorespiratory Training 47. 48. Five components of healthrelated fitness 1. Cardiorespiratory fitness 2. Muscular strength 3. Muscular endurance 5. Body composition 4. Flexibility Cardiorespiratory exercises – prevent chronic disease Activity that raises heart and respiration rate Repetitive and rhythmic: jogging, cycling, swimming Circuit weight training, calisthenics, sporting activities Aerobic Lowintensity activity Walking, bicycle riding, crosscountry skiing Uses carbs and fats Anaerobic Highintensity activity Oxygen supply is not adequate 100 m sprint, shot put, high intensity, weight training Uses carbs only (no fat because it cannot break it down fast enough) FITTE Frequency – per week Intensity level of demand that a given activity places on the body o Moderate intensity increase heart and respiration rates but does not cause exhaustion; talk comfortably during exercise o MYTH you burn more fat at lower intensity because easy work does not require carbs Type – type of exercise Time – hrs/week) Enjoyment Principles of specificity – the body will adapt to the level of stress placed on it Beginning cardio program – Intensity Low to moderate (3 or 4 on 110 scale); able to hold a convo 3060 min of continuous exercise 30 mins two or three times per week Interval training – Work to rest ratio 1:3 (1 min interval, 3 min recovery) 1:2 1:1 (duration gradually increases) Circuit Training As beneficial as lowintensity Results in higher postexercise metabolic rates and strength Lesson 9 – Strength Training Strength ability of neuromuscular system to exert force against external resistance Muscle contractions Concentric exerts more force than is being placed on it; muscle shortens/contracts Isometric force is equal to that placed on it; no change in muscle length Eccentric exerts less force than is being placed on it; muscle lengthens; injuries Exercise technique and safety Feet and knees point straight ahead Head and lowback neutral position Shoulders keep back Light weight + high reps stability and muscular endurance Heavy weight + low reps muscle size (max strength) Light weight + low reps power Benefits of Strength Training Improves bone density Controls blood sugar (prevents diabetes) HR & BP decrease Improves coordination and joints, strengthens connective tissue Resistance stabilization Exercises Stabilize muscles & improve posture and coordination Unstable environments (stability ball instead of benches or machines) o Ball cobra, single leg squat, single leg scaption Resistance strength training Build muscle size Stable environments (benches, machines) o Bench press, deadlift, lat pulldown, shoulder press machine Resistance power – associated with sports o Throwing medicine balls, jumping (plyometrics), plyometric push up (clap), squat jump Resistance training equipment Free weights (dumbbells, barbells) o Expend more calories; ideal for fat loss o Potentially dangerous, spotter Selectorized strength training machines (gym machines) o Less intimidating, safer than free weights o Limited range of motion o Inferior to free weights for improving core stability and coordination o Offer artificial support vs your own core musculature Cable machines o Freedom of movement, but don’t require spotter o Challenge the core Elastic resistance o Improve muscular endurance Medicine balls o Develop power o Movements occur explosively w.o the need for deceleration Kettlebells o Increased core stability and muscular endurance (increased strength and power) Bodyweight exercises o Bodyweight + gravity provides the resistance Stability balls (swiss balls) o Creates unstable base of support o Adjust body position to the unstable movements of the ball Suspension bodyweight trainers o System of ropes and webbing that allows the user to work against their own bodyweight o User’s hands or feet are supported by a single anchor point o Multiplanar, multijoint exercises in unstable, yet controllable positions MYTH females think strengthtraining results in large muscle. Lies. Hormonal differences don't let girls get that bulky MYTH strength training stunts a child’s growth. Lies. It improves motor skills, body composition, and bone density
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