Exam 1 PY 372 William Hart-Social Psychology
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alex on Monday March 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PY 372 William Hart-Social Psychology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 83 views.
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Date Created: 03/23/15
Exam 1 Study Guide 1 Random sampling gconnection to external validity Survey Procedure in which every person in the population being studied has an equal chance of inclusion Deals with selecting people in the study and helps us generalize to a population 2 Random assignment gconnection to internal validity The process of assigning participants to the conditions of an experiment such that all persons have the same chance of being in a given condition Deals with people already selected in the study randomly placing people in subgroups of the study It helps us infer cause and effect 3 Psychology vs common sense gt Social Psych faces two contradictory criticism It is trivial because it documents the obvious and It is dangerous because its finding could be used to manipulate people Sociologist performed a review of studies on American World War 11 soldiers Common sense is invoked after we know the facts Experiments reveal that when people learn the outcome of an experiment that outcome suddenly seems unsurprising VVV 4 Theory An integrated set of principles that explain and predict observed events To a scientist theories are ideas that summarize and explain fact and they imply testable predictions gt A good theory effectively summarizes many observations and makes clear predications that we can use to confirm or modify the theory generate new explorations and suggest practical applications gt EXAMPLE Venting frustration makes one feel better 5 Hypothesis Specific testable and disconfirmable statement about the behavior we want to study OR the theory we want to test gt Purposes 0 Allow us to test a theory by suggesting how to falsify it 0 Predictions give direction to research and sometimes send investigators looking for things they might never have thought of o The predictive feature of good theories can also make them practical gt EXAMPLE Venting frustration will make people feel well 6 Operationalization Defines a construct in terms of the way it is measured or manipulated ie make the construct concrete gt EXAMPLE Writing an angry letter to the boss and experiencing positive mood 7 Construct The conceptual representation of behaviors the phenomenon around which research is based gt Venting Frustration and Feeling well 8 Construct validity The extent to which the measured variables in research successfully represent the constructs of theoretical interest gt EX Is writing an angry letter venting gt Is experiencing a positive mood feeling well 9 Control Key ingredient in an experimental method A group in a study that does not receive the experimental manipulation The control group allows for comparison with the experimental condition 10 Demgnd ch cteristics Cues in an experiment that tell the participant what behavior is expected To minimize these experimenters typically standardize their instructions or even use a computer to present them 11 Dependent Variable The variable being measured so called because it may depend on manipulations of the independent variable gt EX A particular observed action 12 Independent Variable The experimental factor OR the variable that is manipulated in the experiments by the researchers called the Condition Group 13 Goals of science be able to distinguish examples of research designated to describe predict and understand as well as the methods that may be used in service of these goals e g naturalistic observation gt To Describe behavior Used to describe characteristics in a population a EX What percentage of adults vent their anger and What percentage of adults report being happy with life 0 Methods used to describe behavior 39 Self report survey 39 Observational methods naturalistic observation I Physiological methods skin conductance gt To Predict behavior How to understand how two preexisting variables are related in everyday life 0 EX how much you have and how many problems you have in your life 0 Methods used to predict behavior 39 Correlation Research 0 Valence positive negative 0 Strength strong moderate weak none 0 Strength of relationship 1 to 1 closer to 1 the stronger 0 Correlations close to zero are weak 0 EX 8 or 3 8 stronger 3 or 5 5 stronger gt To Explain behavior Manipulate one or more variables while controlling others holding them constant Used to discover the casual relationship between constructs a Method used to explain behavior I Experimental Methods 14 What can we learn from a correlation gt Used to describe and predict behavior gt Valence of relationship negative or positive gt Negative As one variable increases in value the other decreases in value gt Positive As one variable increases in value the other increases in value 15 Bene ts and disadvantages of experimental correlation and descriptiLe w gt Experimental Research 0 Advantages Can conclude CAUSE and EFFECT by controlling variables and by random assignment 0 Disadvantages Generalizability external validity Demand Characteristics cues in the experiment that tell the participant what behavior is expected Ethical concerns Deception gt Correlational Research 0 Advantages Efficient You can study things that you cannot manipulate gender AND should not manipulate no contact in infancy brain injury 0 Disadvantage Cannot assert causality The number of violent crimes committed in New York increases as ice cream sales increase does ice cream cause violent crime 16 Fundamental attribution error and thinctorobserver biai gt Fundamental Attribution Error Tendency for observers to underestimate situational in uences and overestimate dispositional In uences upon others behavior Also known as Correspondence Bias gt Actor Observer Bias Tendency to explain others behavior as due to dispositions and our own behavior as due to the situation 17 Heuristics A judgment strategy a rule of thumb or a mental shortcut that is quick but imperfect gt Availability heuristic A cognitive rule that judges the likelihood of things in terms of their availability in memory If instances of something come readily to mind we presume it to be commonplace gt Representativeness heuristic Used to estimate the extent to which a person or thing is representative of the average person or thing in the category 18 Hindsight bias The tendency to exaggerate after learning an outcome one s ability to have foreseen how something turned out As known as I knew it all along phenomenon 19 Confirmation biai Tendency to search for information that confirms our preconceptions gt We are eager to verify our beliefs but less inclined to seek evidence that might disprove them gt Helps explain why our selfimages are so remarkably stable gt It is discovered that students seek elicit and recall feedback that confirms their beliefs about themselves gt People seek as friends and spouses those who bolster their own self view even if they think poorly of themselves gt Hart et al 2009 Confirmation bias is about moderate in size 20 Base rate fallacy tendency to ignore baserate information usually presented as a statistic in favor of dramatic or vivid case histories gt Example Linda is 31 single outspoken and very bright She majored in philosophy in college AS a student she was deeply concerned with discrimination and other social issues and participated in anti nuclear demonstrations Which statement is more likely 0 Linda is a bank teller 0 Linda is a bank teller and active in the feminist movement 21 Optimistic bias 22 Renresentativeness heurisl 17 23 llse consensus effect The tendency to overestimate the commonality of one s opinions and one s undesirable or unsuccessful behaviors gt Focuses on matter of OPINION gt EX 90 of fb users were accurate in guessing when they agreed with their friends on political and other issues but were only 41 accurate in guessing disagreements most of the time they thought their friends agreed with them when they really didn t 24 llse uniqueness effect The tendency to underestimate the commonality of one s abilities and one s desirable or successful behaviors gt Focuses on matter of ABILITY gt EX Female students who protect themselves while drinking by designating a driver or drinking only with a meal underestimate how many other women do the same we may see our failings as relatively normal and our virtues relatively exceptional 25 Illusion of transparency The illusion that our concealed emotions leak out and can be easily read by others fewer people notice our emotions then we think gt EX If were happy then our face will show it and other s will notice gt Social Surroundings affect our selfawareness 0 When you re the only white female in a small group you notice how different you are and how others are reacting to the difference gt SelfInterest colors out social judgment 0 When there are problems in a marriage we attribute more responsibility to our partners than to ourselves gt Self Concern motivates our social behavior a In hopes of making a good impression we agonize about our appearance gt Social Relationships help define our sense of self 0 College students who recently break up with partner shift their self perceptions and felt less certain about who they were 26 Spotli2ht effect The belief that others are paying more attention to our appearance and behavior than they really are gt Means seeing ourselves at the center stage thus intuitively overestimating the extent to which others attention is aimed at us gt EX student wore an American Eagle sweatshirt when meeting in group 40 were almost positive that the peers would remember what the shirt said only 10 actually did 27 Theories of purpose for Selfesteem gt Selfesteem The global or overall evaluation that one has of oneself positive or negative gt Terror Management Theory Assures us of our value in the world decreases fear of death gt SelfAffirmation Theory Allows us to cope with specific failures it is a general anxiety buffer gt Sociometer Theory Evolutionary purpose protects against isolation measure of social inclusionexclusion 28 Lewin s eauation Bf P E gt Behavior is a function of the person and the environment gt Text refers to this as power of the person and power of the situation 29 Rosent ll s studv of expectancv effects gt SelfFulfilling Prophecy A belief that leads to its own fulfillment 0 When our ideas lead us to act in ways that produce their apparent confirmation 0 Conducted studies to research the teacherexpectations effect 0 Results show that in some cases teachers will give special treatment to gifted kids 0 Further results show that this was rarely the reason that schools had problems of disadvantaged children because of the teacher s low expectations 30 Dependent variabl what is measured in an experiment 11 31 Independent variable what is manipulated in an experiment 12 32 Kelley s aLtribution theory The theory of how people explain others behaviorfor example by attributing it either to internal dispositions enduring traits motives and attitudes or to external situations gt Analyzes how we explain people s behavior and what we infer from it gt Uses three factors to explain behavior low factors internal 0 Consensus the extent to which other people behave in the same way in a similar situation I EX Ali smokes a cig when she goes out for a meal with her friend If her friend smokes her behavior is high in consensus If only Ali smokes it is low 0 Distinctiveness the extent to which the person behaves in the same way in similar situations I EX If Ali only smokes when she is out with friends her behavior is high in distinctiveness If she smokes at any time or place distinctiveness is low 0 Consistency the extent to which the person behaves like this every time the situation occurs I EX If Ali only smokes when she is out with friends consistency is high If she only smokes on one special occasion consistency is low 33 Demgnd ch cteristics Cues in an experiment that tell the participant what behavior is expected gt EX Experimenter s words tone of voice and gestures search dogs falsely barking in places where their handlers have been misled into thinking such illegal items are located gt To minimize these experimenters typically standardize their instructions or even use a computer to present them 34 Regression toward the mean Example of Bias Misunderstanding the statistical tendency for extreme behavior to return toward one s average gt EX The Sports Illustrated cover jinx 35 Illusory correlation Example of Bias overestimating the relationship between two variables where none actually exist gt EX Cloud seeding in correlation to the rain Participants were convinced in conformity with their ideas about the effects of cloud deeding that they really had observed a relationship between cloud seeding rain 36 Selfserving biases The tendency to perceive oneself favorably gt People accept credit when told they have succeeded gt They attribute the success to their ability and effort but they attribute failure to external factors such as bad luck or the problem s inherit impossibility 37 Selfhandicapping Protecting one s self image with behaviors that create a handy excuse for later failure gt Fearing Failure people might handicap themselves by partying half the night before a big interview or playing video games instead of studying for an exam gt Wavs that people self handicap Fear failure pe0ple will 0 Reduce their preparation for important individual athletic events 0 Give their opponent an advantage 0 Perform poorly at the beginning of a task in order not to create unreachable expectations 0 Not try as hard as they could during a tough egoinvolving task 38 Selfpresentation The act of expressing oneself and behaving in ways designed to create a favorable impression that corresponds to one s ideals gt We work at managing the impressions we create gt We excuse justify or apologize as necessary to shore up our self esteem and verify our self image gt Presenting a desired but plausible identity to others gt Audience may be external imaginary or self 39 Selfmonitoring Being attuned to the way one presents oneself in social situations and adjusting one s performance to create the desired impression gt High scale of self monitoring 0 EX those who agree that I tend to be what people expect me to be a They adjust their behavior in response to external situations a They are most likely to adopt attitudes they don t really hold gt Low scale of selfmonitoring 0 They care less about what others think a They are more internally guided more likely to talk and act as they feel and believe a EX If asked to list their thoughts on gay couples they will put down what they really think regardless of the attitudes of their anticipated audience 40 Selfreference effect Phenomenon in which info is better recalled when it is related to the self gt Self Schemas 41 Selfful lling prophecy 29 42 Counterfactual thinking Imagining alternative scenarios and outcomes that might have happened but didn t gt When people mentally simulate what might have been in certain situations gt Underlies our feelings of luck gt The MORE significant and unlikely the event the MORE intense the counterfactual thinking gt Example 0 0 If one misses a plane or bus they imagine what could ve been if they left 5 minutes sooner If one changes an exam answer then gets it wrong they will think If only The team who barely loses will simulate over and over how they could have one 43 Confirmation biai 19 44 Belief perseverance Persistence of one s initial conceptions such as when the basis for one s belief is discredited but an explanation of why the belief might be true survives gt EX Researchers asked participants to decide whether individuals who take risks make good or bad firefighters O O 0 One group considered a risk prone person who was a successful firefighter and a cautious person who was unsuccessful The other group considered cases suggesting the opposite conclusion Once each explanation was formed it could exist independently of the info that initially created the belief When that info was discredited the participants still held their self generated explanations Therefore continued to believe that risk prone people really do make better or worse firefighters 45 mrned helplessness The sense of hopelessness and resignation learned when a human or animal perceives no control over repeated bad event gt EX Depressed or oppressed people become passive because they believe their efforts have no effect gt Helpless dogs and depressed people both suffer paralysis of the will passive resignation and even motionless apathy gt Uncontrolled bad events Perceived lack of control Learned helplessness 46 mcing for the worst 47 Planning fallacy The tendency to underestimate how long it will take to complete a task gt One of the most common errors in behavior prediction gt Underestimates how long it will take to complete a task gt EX The Big Dig freeway construction project in Boston was suppose to take 10 years and actually took 20 years 48 Qnger and Rodin s famous nursing home study gt Tested the importance of personal control by treating elderly patients in a highly rated Connecticut nursing home in one of two ways gt Group 1 the benevolent caregivers gave the patients their normal well intentioned sympathetic care and allowed them to assume a passive care receiving role 0 3 weeks later most patients were rated by themselves by interviewers and by nurses as further debilitated gt Group 2 promoted personal control emphasized opportunities for choice the possibilities for in uencing nursing home policy and he person s responsibility 0 3 weeks later 93 of group showed improved alertness activity and happiness gt Studies confirm that systems of governing or managing people that promote personal control will indeed promote health and happiness 49 Upward and downward social comnarison Evaluating one s abilities and opinions by comparing oneself with others gt What most of life revolves around gt Festinger 1954 Theory of social comparison 0 People want to know where they stand in their abilities traits and attitudes 0 People prefer objective standards of comparison 0 When an objective standard is not available people will use a social standard gt Upward Social Comparison gCollins 1996 o Motivating if people believe that the standard is attainable EX a college professor 0 De motivating if the standard is not viewed as attainable EX Einstein gt Downward Social Comparison Wills 1981 o Boosts our self esteem if people think they will not experience the same misfortune as the standard that will never be me o Hurts self esteem when people think they can experience the same misfortune I fear I am heading down that same road 50 Know the three maior selfmotjves gt Selfconsistency Need to maintain a stable self concept selfverification gt Selfenhancement Need for a positive selfview and to protect against negative feedback gt SelfAppraisal Desire for accurate selfknowledge 51 Four au ities of automaticitv Four Horsemen of Automaticity gt Controllability Ability to stop or alter process that has already been started gt Intentionality Control over whether process is started gt Awareness Of stimulus processing and or in uential factors gt Ef ciency Degree to which process requires cognitive resources 52 Operationalization Identifies one or more specific observable events or conditions such that any other research can independently measure and or test for them gt EX A researcher measuring happiness and depression in college students decides to use a ten question happiness scale to measure positive outlook in her subjects gt Her operational definition of happiness in this case is a given subject s score on the test 53 Theorv of reasoned Mon Fishbein amp Aizen gt Two predictors of behavior 0 Attitudes toward the behavior 0 Subjective norms o Bother of these result in the construction of a behavioral intention which is the BEST predictor of behavior gt Theory of Planned Behavior is knowing people s intended behaviors and their perceived self efficacy and control 54 When will an attitude predict behavior and converselv when will a behavior cause an attitude gt When will an attitude predict behavior 1 When we assess a true attitude rather than social desirability a Bogus Pipeline Jonas amp Sigall 1971 2 When attention is focused on attitude a Make attitude relevant i Snyder amp Swann 1976 affirmative action and gender discrimination b Make people privately re ective i Diener amp Wallbom 1976 cheating study 3 When the attitude is formed by active experience a Fazio et al 1977 sleeping on a cot study 4 When the attitude is personally relevant a Tuition increase 5 When the cognitive and affective components of attitude match a Attitude towards garter snake b Cognitive Is it dangerous No c Affective Am I afraid Yes 1 Behavior Run Away 6 When appropriate measures are used a Measure at the same level of specificity i Action target context b Use multiple act criterion i Your attitude toward religion may predict religious behavior generally gt When will a behavior cause an attitude 1 Footinthe door effect 2 Lowball technique 55 How can researchers measure attitudes more effectively gt Implicit Association Test A computer driven assessment of implicit attitudes The test uses reaction times to measure people s automatic associations between attitude objects and evaluative words Easier pairings are taken to indicate stronger unconscious associations gt EX One can measure implicit racial attitudes by assessing whether White people can take longer to associate positive words with black faces than with white faces 56 Cognitjve dissongnce Festjnger Tension that arises when one is simultaneously aware of two inconsistent cognitions gt EX Dissonance may occur when we realize that we have with little justification acted contrary to our attitudes or made a decision favoring one alternative despite reasons favoring another 57 Selfperception theory gBemQ The theory that when we are unsure of our attitudes we infer them much as would someone observing us by looking at our behavior and the circumstances under which it occurs gt Assumes that we make similar inferences when we observe our own behavior gt Facial Feedback Effect The tendency of facial expressions to trigger corresponding feelings such as fear anger or happiness 58 Selfaffirmation theory A theory that gt People often experience a self image threat after engaging in an undesirable behavior gt They can compensate by affirming another aspect of the self gt Threatens people s self concept in one domain and will compensate either by refocusing or by doing good deeds in some other domain 59 Lowball technique Tendency to comply with a large unexpected request after having committed to an earlier request gt EX Airlines and hotels use this tactic by attracting inquiries with great deals available on only a few seats or rooms then when those aren t available they hope the customer will agree to a higher priced option 60 FootinLhedoor technique Tendency for people who have complied with a small request to be more willing to comply with a larger request later gt EX California Drive Carefully signs 0 Presented with request to put small window sign up when sign arrives it is large and used for the yard 76 consented 61 Doorintheface technique A strategy for gaining a concession After someone first turns down a large request door in the face the same requester counteroffers with a more reasonable request gt EX Blood Donor Study 62 ABC s of attitudes An evaluation either positive or negative or a person object event etc that is manifested in our thoughts feelings and behaviors toward the attitude object Affect feelings Behavior tendency Cognition thoughts EX A person who believes a particular ethnic group is lazy and aggressive may feel dislike for such people and therefore intend to act in a discriminatory manner VVVV 63 Asch s conformity research A change in behavior or belief as the result of real or imagined group pressure gt Studies of group pressure The line judging studies gt He recreated his Seder at Passover experience gt Asked people individually which of the three lines in the Comparison figure match the standard line gt In the next test the first person in line answers incorrectly so the 2rld person answers incorrectly it causes a trickle effect of conforming to the wrong answer gt 37 conformed to the group s blatantly incorrect guess gt Normative in uence Conformity based on a desire to fulfill others expectations 64 Sherif s work on establishing group norms Study on the formation of group norms using the autokinectic effect gt gt Wondered if it was possible to observe the emergence of a social norm in the laboratory Used the optical illusion called Autokinetic Phenomenon a Self auto motion kinetic The apparent movement of a stationary point of light in the dark Three people were tested separately and asked the estimated movement of the light all answered differently Once grouped together to answer on day 2 all answered varied but in close proximity to each other By day four of testing all three people gave the same answer All three individuals converge as they give repeatedly estimates of the apparent movement of a point of light Informational in uence Conformity from accepting evidence provided by other people 65 When will people conform 1 Group Size The way the group sized is packaged effects the conformity a Lab Experiments a small group can have a big effect 3 to 5 people in a group will elicit much more conformity than just 1 or 2 b Field Experiments When 1 up to 15 people were told to pause on a busy NYC sidewalk and look up the of passerby who also looked up increased as the looking up increased from 1 to 5 people Unanimity In conformity experiments people will usually voice their own convictions if just one other person has also differed from the majority Cohesion A we feeling the extent to which members of a group are bound together such as by attraction to one another EX gays will agree with other gayS Status Higher status people have more of an impact looks status and age do matter Public Response People confirm more when they must respond in front of others rather than writing their answers privately Prior Commitment restrain persuasion When asked in an experiment if the person would like to change their answer after hearing everyone else s answer the person will not change after giving a public commitment to their initial answer 66 Reactance A motive to protect or restore one s sense of freedom Reactance arises when someone threatens our freedom of action gt Supported by experiments showing that attempts to restrict a person s freedom often produce an anticonformity boomerang effect gt EX Many non geeky students stopped wearing a Live strong wristband when nearby geeky academic students started wearing the band gt May contribute to underage drinking 67 Distinguish between conformitv compliance and obedience gt ALL 3 ARE TYPES OF SOCIAL INFLUENCE gt Conformity A change in behavior or beliefs to agree with others gt Compliance Yielding to a request for certain behaviors or agreement to a particular point of view while privately disagreeing gt Obedience A change in behavior or beliefs as a result of the commands of others in authority 68 Understand the Milgram studies on obedience Method Complying with commands to shock another ReaLife Example Soldiers or employees following questionable orders Participants 40 men as teachers Cover story Effects of punishment on learning Machine 15 volts to 450 volts How far did they go when told to give shocks for incorrect responses Psychiatrists guessed 5 of men would go through with the 450 volts Findings 55 went to 450 volts VVVVVVVV 69 Zimbardo s simulated prison experiment what did Mmous study suggest about human behavior gt Behavior is a product of both the individual person and the situation and the prison study appears to have attracted volunteers who were prone to aggressiveness gt The lesson of the role playing studies concerns how what is unreal an artificial role can subtly morph into what is real
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