Exam 3 answers
Exam 3 answers BIOL 2140
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Abby Notetaker on Monday August 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2140 at University of Nebraska at Omaha taught by Dr. Jill Blankenship in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Genetics in Biology at University of Nebraska at Omaha.
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Date Created: 08/08/16
BIOL2140 Exam 3 Spring 2016 name:________________________________ BIOL2140 Genetics Spring 2016 Exam 3 18% of your final grade 1. Put your name on each page of the exam in case pages get separated. 2. Answer to the best of your ability. 3. Write legibly!!! 4. Unless otherwise stated, calculate using 2 decimal places. 5. You do not need to turn in this front page. 6. Cheating is not tolerated. Cheating, action(s) reasonably perceived as cheating, or attempted cheating will negatively affect your final course grade, and may be referred to the appropriate dean or committee for further investigation, which may be recorded in your academic file. 1 BIOL2140 Exam 3 Spring 2016 name:________________________________ 1. Using the phylogenetic tree below, answer the following questions: Learning goal(s): Define terms associated with evolution and use that knowledge to identify mechanisms of evolution in an example. -Calculate evolutionary relationships using a phylogenetic tree a. Which species is (are) most closely related to Panagrolaimomorpha? (1 pt) Cephalobomorpha and Tylenchomorpha b. Which species is the outgroup? (1 pt) Plectida c. The Dracunculoidea and Gnathostomatomorpha diverged following the formation of a river in the middle of their territory. What type of speciation would that represent? (1 pt) Allopatric d. Describe two pre-zygotic isolating mechanisms that could have caused divergence in the worms discussed in part “c”. Briefly provide details about how each could possibly arise. (4 pts) Many possibilities here. Ecological, behavioral, temporal, mechanical, and/or gametic with the appropriate details as to how they could have occurred. 2. A chromosome (DEFG HIJ) has undergone a variety of mutations. Name the type of mutation that led to the following chromosome arrangements. (2 pts each) 2 BIOL2140 Exam 3 Spring 2016 name:________________________________ Learning goals: Determine types of chromosome mutations that might give rise to specified genetic observations. a. DEFGFGHIJ tandem duplication b. DFEGHIJ paracentric inversion c. DEFIGJ pericentric inversion d. DEFGHJ deletion e. DEFGHDEFIJ displaced duplication 3. A normal chromosome and its homolog carrying an inversion are given below represents the centromere). Learning goals: Predict the effect of inversions and translocations on meiosis. normal KLMNOPQ inversion KNMLOPQ a. What type of inversion is this? (1 pt) paracentric b. During meiosis, a crossover occurred between homologs in the region between N and M (single cross-over) in an individual heterozygous for the inversion. Fill in the table below with the resulting chromosomes prior to metaphase and the fate of that chromosome as meiosis completes. Don’t forget to indicate the location of the centromeres! (6 pts) Chromosome sequence What happens to it? KLMNO PQ normal, OK KLMNK lost in meiosis QP ONMLO PQ torn apart in meiosis KNMLO PQ OK, but inverted 4. A translocation occurred between two chromosomes as shown below (N/T-normal/translocation, 1/2-chromosome 1/chromosome2): Learning goals: Predict the effect of inversions and translocations on meiosis. N1 ABCDEFG T1 ABCD789 N2 3456789 T2 3456EFG a. What type of translocation is this? (2 pts) 3 BIOL2140 Exam 3 Spring 2016 name:________________________________ reciprocal translocation b. Draw the chromosomes as they would line up during metaphase. (4 pts) G G F F E E ABC D- -6543 ABC D- -6543 7 7 8 8 9 9 c. What gametes would be produced by alternate segregation of these gametes in meiosis? (4 pts) Chromosomes composition in gametes gamete N1, N2 1 gamete N1, N2 2 gamete T1, T2 3 gamete T1, T2 4 5. On the following diagram, label the 5’ and 3’ ends of the double- stranded DNA, and the bases (hint: pay attention to the # of bonds) (also letter designations for base pairs are fine). The large O’s in the drawing are phosphates, small O’s are oxygens, and dotted lines are hydrogen bonds. (10 pts) Learning goals: Describe the structure of DNA, including base pairing and the nature of interactions between bonds. Identify the 5’ and 3’ end of a nucleotide strand given structural information. 4 BIOL2140 Exam 3 Spring 2016 name:________________________________ Top- 5’-ACGT-3’ Bottom- 3’-TGCA-5’ 6. What is the reverse complement of the DNA fragment 5’- GCGTTACATGGT-3’? ( 4 pts) Learning goals: Calculate complementary DNA strand sequence and write it in the 5’-3’ orientation. 5’-ACCATGTAACGC-3’ 7. How many of each of the following does this double-stranded DNA molecule have? (1 pt each) Learning goals: Describe the structure of DNA, including base pairing and the nature of interactions between bonds. 5’ ATTCCTACCATAGGCAATGA 3’ 3’ TAAGGATGGTATCCGTTACT 5’ a. hydrogen bonds 48 b. purines 20 c. phosphates 40 8. a. Is the structure below a DNA or an RNA nucleotide1 pt) DNA Learning goals: Differentiate between RNA and DNA. b. Modify the structure above to convert it to the other type of nucleotide. (2 pts) Add the OH group in the right spot (2’ position) 5 BIOL2140 Exam 3 Spring 2016 name:________________________________ 9. Identify two differences between mitochondria and chloroplasts. (1 pt) Learning goals: Compare and contrast chloroplasts and mitochondria Several options here. M-All eukaryotes vs. C-plants, Larger genome in C, C mutation rates are slower… 10. A phenotypically normal woman whose mother had a mitochondrial disease is planning a family. As her genetic counselor, what advice would you give her regarding her chances of having an affected child and why? (3 pts) Learning goals: Briefly describe replication and inheritance of organelles. She could still have a child with the disease because mitochondrial diseases are generally threshold diseases. She may not have had enough damaged mitochondria to cause disease, but due to unequal partitioning of cytoplasmic contents, her offspring could get enough damaged mitochondria to cause disease phenotypes. 11. What base pair(s) is/are most likely modified by methylation in the sequence below (clearly circle base pairs) 2 pts) Learning goals: Identify sites of possible DNA methlyation in a sequence. 5’ TGCATCGATGCACTGC 3’ 3’ ACGTAGCTACGTGACG 5’ 12. A drug that blocks the activity of prokaryotic DNA Pol I was added to bacterial cells. What specific effect would that have on the cell? (2 pts) Learning goals: Discuss properties of polymerases and predict the consequences of a loss of activity in the polymerase. RNA primers would not be replaced. 13. Answer the following questions about the diagram of DNA synthesis below: (3 pt each except for d) Learning goals: -Identify components of replication, their function, and the process they contribute to. -Predict the consequence of a loss/inactivation of a component of replication. 6 BIOL2140 Exam 3 Spring 2016 name:________________________________ a. What enzyme is located at (a) and what would happen to synthesis if this gene had a mutation rendering it non-functional? Topoisomerase or gyrase-DNA would build coiled pressure due to unwinding by the helicase and synthesis would pause or stop because helicase would be unable to unwind any more. b. Which enzyme is functioning at (b)? What would happen to synthesis if this gene had a mutation rendering it non-functional? Helicase. DNA strands could not be separated and DNA synthesis would pause/stop. c. What enzyme adds RNA nucleotides at (d)? What would happen to synthesis if this gene had a mutation rendering it non- functional? Primase (or DNA pol alpha)-synthesis could not be initiated because there would be no free 3’OH for DNA polymerase to use to begin synthesis. d. Label the strand that will form Okazaki fragments (1 pt). Accepted either here because helicase was on wrong strand. The bottom one was the lagging strand based on the direction of synthesis. 14. A mutation in the replication licensing factor blocks geminin binding. What specific effect will that have on the cell? 3 pts) Learning goals: Predict the consequence of a loss/inactivation of a component of replication. You would see unrestrained synthesis because licensing would not be blocked .You would build up extra copies of a large portion of your genome. 15. Investigating a patient with an unknown disorder, you notice his chromosomes have much shorter ends than you would anticipate for a man his age. Provide at least one hypothesis for what might be mutated in his cells and why you believe that might be the case. ( 4 pts) Learning goals: Identify components of replication, their function, and the process they contribute to. Predict the consequence of a loss/inactivation of a component of replication. 7 BIOL2140 Exam 3 Spring 2016 name:________________________________ A mutation in either telomerase or the telomere associated RNA gene. Loss of either element would not enable his telomeres to lengthen at the end of synthesis, leading to shorter telomeres (and thus chromosomes) with every cell division. 16. If the sequence of a double-stranded DNA molecule is 5’ CGATGCATGACTG 3’ 3’ GCTACGTACTGAC 5’ and the template strand is the top strand, what is the sequence of the RNA molecule encoded by this sequence (write it 5’ to 3’ and label the ends)? (4 pts) Learning goals: Identify coding (nontemplate) and template strands. Predict RNA sequence given either strand. 5’-CAGUCAUGCAUCG-3’ 17. What is the RNA sequence transcribed from the DNA shown below? (3 pts) Learning goals: Identify coding (nontemplate) and template strands. Predict RNA sequence given either strand. promoter +1 5′ GTAACTATAATTGCGAACGATGCTAGCA 3′ 3′ CATTGATATTAACGCTTGCTACGATCGT 5′ 5’-GAUGCUAGCA-3’ 18. The sequence in question 17 is from a bacterial cell. In this sequence, the bolded, underlined letters were mutated from a T-A pair to a G-C pair. Learning goals: Identify basic promoter elements in promoters and predict the specific consequence to transcription if mutations occur. Predict consequences to transcription of a loss or functional mutation in elements involved in transcription. a. What affect, if any, do you think this would have on transcription? (2 pts) Nothing, it is outside of the -10 and -35 consensus sequences b. What binds to the promoter to help initiate transcription? (1 pt) sigma factor c. What part of the transcription initation complex binds to the TATA box in the promoters of eukaryotes? (1 pt) 8 BIOL2140 Exam 3 Spring 2016 name:________________________________ TBP 19. What would be the impact of (2 pts each): Learning goals: Predict consequences to transcription of a loss or functional mutation in elements involved in transcription. a) a mutation that renders Rat1 non-functional in a eukaryotic cell? RNA transcripts would be longer (sort of-the mRNA would not, but there would be a lot of sequence transcribed after the cleavage site…). b) mutating the sequence encoding the cleavage site of a eukaryotic RNA transcript? That particular gene would be larger because RAT1 would not bind. 20. The following sequence represents an intrinsic termination site in bacteria (you are given the template sequence here). Identify the elements required for termination and draw a diagram of the RNA that will be transcribed from this DNA, including its nucleotide sequence and any secondary structures that form.(6 pts) Learning goals: Compare and contrast eukaryotic and prokaryotic transcription. -Predict consequences to transcription of a loss or functional mutation in elements involved in transcription. 3’ ACGAGGCAGCTAGCACCAGCTAGCTGCCAAAAAAAAAGTCATG 5’ Stem loop A tract G G U U G C C G U A A U G C C G U A G C C G 9 BIOL2140 Exam 3 Spring 2016 name:________________________________ C G UGCU- -UU… 10 BIOL2140 Exam 3 Spring 2016 name:________________________________ Bonus 1. Species I has 2n=6 and species II has 2n=14. What would the expected chromosome numbers be in individual organisms with the following chromosome mutations? (1 pt each) Learning goals: Distinguish types of aneuploidy and polyploidy and predict the consequences these have for mating. a. Autotretraploidy in species I. 12 b. Tetrasomy in species II. 16 c. Monosomy in species I. 5 d. Allotetraploidy including species I and II. 20, 16, 24 e. Allotriploidy including species I and II. 13, 17 2. Determine the consensus for the sequences shown below (use the degenerate nucleotide table on page 1): (5 pts) Learning goals: -Develop a consensus sequence from aligned sequences. sequence 1 A G C T T A G C T G sequence 2 C C C T C G G C T G sequence 3 A G C A C C G T T A sequence 4 A G C T T T G C A C sequence 5 A G C A C A T G A G sequence 6 G T C A T C T C A G A G C W Y N G C W G 11
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