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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Savannah Beach

Exam 1 Study Guide SPA 3011

Savannah Beach
University of Central Florida
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

This is a study guide for Exam One for Speech Production
Speech Science 1
Prof Perkins
Study Guide
speech, production, SpeechProduction, Science, audiology, SpeechandAudiology
50 ?




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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Savannah Beach on Monday August 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SPA 3011 at University of Central Florida taught by Prof Perkins in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Speech Science 1 in Communication Sciences and Disordes at University of Central Florida.

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Date Created: 08/08/16
CHAPTER ONE Speech science is the study of…? ● How speech is produced, how it is transformed into an acoustic signal, and what is in this  acoustic signal that listeners use to decode a verbal message. True or False? Speech production & speech perception are related ­ TRUE CHAPTER TWO Why is it important to maintain objective and accurate measures as a Speech/Language  clinician? ­ In order to know if your speech­language therapy is having an effect or is  improving speech. 9 basic reason SLP’s need to study speech science. ­ Understanding baseline measures of speech ­ Keep abreast of technological advances in the field ­ Understand and meet the needs of bilingual clients ­ Facilitate second language acquisition ­ Reduce regional accents ­ Understanding the link between speech production and perception ­ Promote a greater sensitivity to language ­ Obtain and understand a universal perspective of the human species ­ Maintain and promote professionalism CHAPTER THREE Know specific anatomy of larynx (cartilages, muscles) and function.  ­ Larynx helps against aspiration.  ­ Contains the glottis, subglottic, and supraglottic. ­ Glottis = opening between the VF’s ­ Subglottic = below the glottis/VF’s ­ Supraglottic = above the glottis/VF’s During speech, what percentage of the breath cycle is spent inhaling & what percentage is spent  exhaling? ­ Inhaling = 10 percent ­ Exhaling = 90 percent During quiet breathing, what percentage of the breath cycle is spent inhaling and what  percentage is spent exhaling? ­ Equal time exhaling and inhaling ­ Inhaling = 40 percent ­ Exhaling = 60 percent Are the lungs passive or active during inspiration? ­ Passive When does inspiration stop (during normal breathing?) ­ When the elastic recoil of the lungs kicks in Describe the difference between quiet exhalation and exhaling for speech. ­ Quiet Breathing = about equal for inhalation and exhalation ­ Speech Breathing = Exhalation used a lot more; Bigger volume of air; VF begin to  approximate. Name 2 ways you can raise the fundamental frequency/pitch of your voice. ­ Increasing subglottal air pressure ­ Adjusting the vocal folds What prosodic feature also increases as a result of increasing subglottal air pressure? ­ Increases volume (loudness) During inspiration, volume/pressure (which one?) increases first, which results in a decrease of  air pressure in the lungs (causing air outside to rush in). ­ First volume changes and then pressure changes.  ­ Boyles Law = Volume and pressure have an inverse relationship Stages of Inspiration? ­ The VF’s open ­ The diaphragm lowers and the external intercostals raise the rib cage, thereby increasing  the volume of the lungs. ­ The air pressure within the lungs decreases. ­ Air rushes inside until the pressure within the lungs is roughly equal to the air pressure  outside of the lungs. Stages of Expiration? ­ Muscles of Inspiration continue to be active ­ Muscles of Inspiration cease and elastic recoil of the lungs kick in. ­ Muscles of Expiration squeeze out remaining air. What is the myoelastic aerodynamic theory? What components are involved? ­ Myo = muscle – The VF’s ­ Elastic = elastic recoil ­ Aerodynamic = air movement ­ Subglottal air pressure is increased bellow the VF’s causing them to open from bottom to  top and then the Bernoulli Effect and elasticity work together to close the VF’s again  from bottom to top. CHAPTER FOUR What is the primary function of the vocal folds? The secondary function? ­ Primary function = to act as a valve for the lungs and protect them from the aspiration of  food and other substances into the lungs. ­ Secondary function = Essential for the production of speech. What are the average fundamental frequencies for men, women, and children (roughly)? ­ Men = 100 Hz ­ Women = 200 Hz ­ Children = 300 Hz In order for vocal folds to vibrate and produce speech, they must first be adducted/abducted. ­ Adducted (closed) What are the unique characteristics of the human vocal tract? ­ More prone to chocking than other animals because the opening to the lungs (larynx) and  the esophagus are close together. ­ The angle between the oral and pharyngeal cavities is at nearly a right angle in adult  humans. ­ Larynx situated lower in the human VT ­ Right angle creates two independently resonating cavities (oral and pharyngeal) which us  to create acoustically stable speech sounds. Know basic anatomy of the vocal tract. ­ Three main cartilages of the larynx are: Thyroid, Cricoid, and Arytenoid. ­ Adducting of the VF’s 1. Interarytenoid (IA) 2. Lateral Cricoarytenoid (LCA) – Secondary adductor ­ Tensing the VF’s 1. Cricothyroid (CT) 2. Thyroarytenoid (TA) – Secondary Tensing Muscle ­ Abducting the VF’s 1. Posterior Cricoarytenoid (PCA) – The only abducting muscle What is the difference between periodic & aperiodic waves? ­ Periodic = Repeats itself; Certain pattern ­ Aperiodic = Does not repeat; No pattern; Perceived as noises. Speech sounds are considered to be pure tone/complex. ­ Complex because the sound is always modified or filtered by the VT. CHAPTER FIVE What is Voice Onset Time (VOT)? What is considered a long VOT? A short VOT? ­ VOT = time between the release of a stop consonant and the start of phonation. ­ Voiceless stops have a longer VOT interval or delay between the release of the consonant and the onset of voicing for the vowel. >30 msecs ­ Voiced stops have a shorter delay before the onset of voicing. <30 msecs Which formant frequencies are necessary to distinguish one vowel from another?  ­ First and Second Frequencies What is amplitude? What is its perceptual correlate? ­  is the magnitude of displacement (increase or decrease) of a sound pressure wave. ­ Intensity What is frequency? What is its perceptual correlate? ­ The perceptual dimension along which sounds can be ordered from low to high. ­ Pitch What is the source­filter theory? ­ A theory of speech production whereby the vocal folds are considered the sound source  and the vocal tract the filter for the sound. True or False? Frequency and amplitude are independent of each other. ­ TRUE CHAPTER SIX What are the 3 major resonating cavities of the vocal tract? ● What cavity relates to F1?  ­ Pharyngeal Cavity ● What cavity relates to F2? ­ Oral Cavity   The other resonating cavity of the VT is the Nasal Cavity Which vowel has the biggest difference between F1 and F2? Why is this so? ­ /i/ ­ Because it’s high and in the front What is a spectrum? ­ Visual image of speech measuring amplitude by frequency What is special about the formant frequency values of the schwa vowel? ­ It is the only vowel that creates a quarter wave resonator with the VT What is the term for a tube that is open at one end and closed at the other? ­ Quarter Wave Resonator How do the following articulatory maneuvers affect the value of formants? ● Rounding the lips? Is lower ● Raising the tongue? Is higher  ● Fronting the tongue? Is higher What are formant transitions? What is the reason for transition? ­ the moment of release of the stop constriction the resonances of the vocal tract change  rapidly. Why can’t stops be isolated from other speech sounds within a syllable? ­ Because of the burst of higher amplitude Resonance Frequency Formula ­ F1 = (1) x [93000/(4 x 17.5)] = ­ F2 = (3) x [93000 /(4 x 17.5)] = ­ F3 = (5) x [93000 /(4 x 17.5)] = KEY TERMS: Fundamental Frequency ● Measured in Hertz (cycles per second) ● No relationship between the fundamental frequency & formant frequencies. ● Fundamental frequency can remain the same for a series of vowel sounds produced by the same  speaker ● Speakers can alter amplitude & fundamental frequency independently ● Acoustic energy is NOT only present simply at the fundamental frequency… ○ Energy is present at fundamental frequency AND whole # multiples of the fundamental  frequency (harmonics) Harmonics ● Know how to calculate given a fundamental frequency ● The fundamental frequency is the first harmonic Octaves Damping Formant frequencies: Frequency values emphasized due to configuration of the vocal tract ● These are the acoustic correlate that determines a vowel. ● Formants do not have a direct relationship to the fundamental frequency. ● Keep in mind that harmonics & formants are easy to confuse since they both relate to speech  and they are both measured in Hertz!


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