History Of Life - study guide
History Of Life - study guide GLY 2000
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maria Gomez on Wednesday August 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GLY 2000 at University of South Florida taught by Gregory Herbert in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views.
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Date Created: 08/10/16
History of Life study guide: Geology terms and review ● Social relevance; a) Hazard includes volcanoes and earthquakes. b) Coastline includes sand movement prevention. c) Environmental includes water and air pollution and d) Energy resources includes oils and hydraulics. ● Each layer of earth is equivalent to a year's worth of history (including temperature at the time and fossil records). ● Climate will always fluctuate because of earth's tilt axis and the angle it faces the sun at. ● Oceans are carbon sinks and the higher the water temperature the more Co2 is released from these sinks. Science, the scientific method and intelligent design ● The scientific method is used for creating and testing hypothesis. It is important to remember that science does not prove anything, all conclusions are provisional, it just becomes more accepted as it survive stronger repeated test. ● Hypothesis testing (all hypotheses must be testable) To be able to test and use a hypothesis you must be able to a) falsify or support it and b) identify it as strong or weak. ● All test will go from “weak” to “less weak” to “strong” ● Evidence that is used to support a hypothesis is considered to be used wrongly, as a scientist you always want to falsify not support what you’re testing. ● Intelligent design was originally known as creationism, it states that certain features of the universe work so well or are so complicated that it could've only been done by an intelligent being. ● This topic is usually not reviewed in a science classroom unless it falls into one of the following categories 1. It provides a testable hypothesis 2. It features the work being described extremely well 3. The features being explained must be inexplicably complex or 4. It will in some way prove that evolution by natural selection is a blind process. Evolutionary theory ● This topic covers the origins of all modern concepts. ● Adaptation, Speciation and Extinction are all genetic basis of traits and macroevolutionary change. ● *Charles Darwin*: Through observation showed that life evolves randomly by genetic mutation, genetic selection is independent of any outside guiding inteligent form. ● Darwin's Synthesis: 1. Organisms produce more offspring than can survive. 2. Individuals vary in attributes and abilities to avoid early deaths. 3. Only survivors can reproduce. 4. If traits are in fact heritable, offsprings should be more resistant through generations. 5. Natural selection results in new and better adapted forms of life. ● *Charles Lyell*: Founder of the principle of geology, he influenced the evolutionary theory, formed the principle of uniformitarianism which states that geological features from the past can be explained by reference through geological presence now. He also explained the concept of geological time. ● *Thomas Malthus*: Stated that population growth always threatens to to overwhelm the available food supplies That disasters are avoided by “positive checks” that elevate death rates such as famine and war. He also helped explain that organisms will produce far more offsprings than can survive. ● Natural Selection: is the process where organisms better adapt to the environment around them tend to survive and produce better more resistant offsprings. ● Sexual Selection: organisms choose partners based on their features and how they think these features will benefit their offspring's, sexual selection can either reinforce or reverse the process of natural selection. ● There are three kinds of selection. A) Natural selection for individuals B) Natural selection for groups and C) Sexual selection. ● Selective breeding (i.e when people choose two different breeds and mate them to create a new breed) is not considered natural selection. ● MICROevolution: is evolution that happens within a species. ● MACROevolution: is evolution that happens to all species together. ● There are four kinds of evolutionary innovations and are all caused by enemies; 1. Arms race: competition where the only goal is staying ahead of the enemy. 2. Reciprocal innovation where one species will become better than the other to beat it (i.e a wart hog will become fates to escape its predator or catch its prey, because of this its predator/prey will also become faster) 3. Progressive innovation is use as big solutions for big problems and an example of this are nuclear weapons and jet interceptors. 4. Herbivory innovation can be seen in plants where they produce phytoliths, which are small glassy grains that over time wear down the dentures of their predators. ● Forces for perfection, universal progress and harmony and NOT considered natural. ● Speciation: is known as the formation of a new and distinct species. The steps are as followed; 1. There is one species 2. This species experiences reproductive isolation 3. The species then experience mutation and stages of natural selection 4. Two distinctive species have know form with no possible hybridization between them. ● Peripatric speciation occurs when a subject population becomes established and reproductively isolated in a new region. ● Reproductive isolation can happen without geographic isolation; Failure to mate: Failure to mate successfully: Ecological: have different sources Mechanical: “lock and key” they have different genitalia functions Seasonal: in plants this occurs when they Gamete Incompatibility: there is no reaction flower at different times. between the sperm and the egg Ethological: different mating behaviours Hybrid Inability: the embryo will fail to develop F1 Sterility: Donkeys are an example of this. DNA and genes ● DNA is a molecular set of instructions that is stored in a cell's nucleus, the DNA does not actually DO anything it just provides a blueprint. ● The letters in DNA are (G)uamine, (A)denine, (T)hymine which can also be represented with U, and (C)ytisine. ● Transcription: the DNA double helix is opened and a copy of mRNA is produced. ● Translation: mRNA moves from the nucleus into the cytoplasm and is translated into a chain of amino acids. ● 2080% of the human DNA is actually “junk”. ● About 70% of mutations are actually damaging to the organism while the remaining 30% will either be weakly beneficial or neutral. ● Mutations are copy errors in the DNA sequencing of letters, this can happen each time your cells divide to produce more cells. ● In P oint Mutation a letter is either left out or added to the sequence by mistake. In Duplication a letter will appear twice in the sequence. In D eletion a letter is removed from the sequence all together. ● Regulatory genes: tell the cells how and when to do something ● Structural genes: basic instructions to make an organism ● Hox genes: specify anterior/posterior axis and segment identity in animals ONLY. ● Transposon genes: are “copy/paste” genes that increase the human genome structure. About 50% of the human genome is composed of transposon genes. ● Horizontal gene transfer: occurs when genes are transferred between organisms NOT between parent to offspring. ● Life forms prefer the heavy isotope of carbon because of its many properties including a) its ability to for a single, double and triple bonds b) it can exist as a gas, liquid or solid c) it works very well in different atmospheres and d) its very abundant. ● The Stanley Miller experiment (1953) miller attempted to recreate what early earth would have been by using what he believed were the earliest elements found on earth (ammonia, methane, hydrogen and water) the only problem was that methane was not abundant in early earth. The resolution was substituting it for was Iron which when combined with Co2 it created much more amino acids than methane alone. ● IronSulfur world hypothesis; an early form of life may have had metabolism without genetics. This is seen with life found in hydrothermal vents. Planets and Outer space ● Early universe was formed from hydrogen and helium only. ● The most abundant atom in the universe is hydrogen. ● The universe is made up of as the same “stuff” as the human body. This occurs because we all form from supernovas, ● Supernovas: this is the explosion of a star, the debri from the start will then form elements. These explosions occur when the star collapses on itself. ● Dyson Spheres: are megastructures that will engulf a planet and capture most if not all of its power output. ● Nucleosynthesis: happens inside of stars and it’s when intense heat allows for the synthesis of heavier elements. ● What defines a planet? A) it must orbit a “sun” B) it must be massive enough to be a sphere on its own C) it must have a cleared the neighborhood around its orbit. ● Jovian planets: are known as gas giants or ice giants, these planets are on the outer side and include Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune and Uranus. ● Terrestrial planets: are known as rocky planets these are closer to the sun and include Venus, Mars and Earth. ● There are three methods for detecting planets this includes 1. The transit method where the planet can be seen after it blocks a star's light during orbit 2. Radial Velocity method this method is used when the planet causes the star nearest to it to wobble. 3. Infrared lighting method this method is used when the planet is big enough to emit its own heat. ● What makes a planet habitable? for a planet to be habitable it must have climate and appropriate weather for life to survive in, it must have water as water helps with cell movement and cell function, it must have plate tectonics, something that helps pull the Co2 out of the air. ● The “drake equation” consists of the following 1. Life is abundant and pervasive and 2. How and where can life form? ● What are the properties of a living system? A) selforganizing, it must be able to maintain and produce structure. B) it must be carbonbased C) replicates through DNA and D) it must contain cells ● Symbiosis two organisms working together ● Endosymbiosis: organisms working together with a host. “an evolutionary theory that explains the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotes. It states that several key organelles of eukaryotes originated as a symbiosis between separate singlecelled organisms.” ● Primary endosymbiosis one cell engulfs another cell ( phagocytosis) refers to mitochondria ● Secondary endosymbiosis when the product of primary endosymbiosis is itself engulfed and retained by another free living eukaryote. ● Plants undergo two symbiosis events therefore they are more highly evolved than humans they use chloroplast in the day and mitochondria in the night. Origin of animals ● Snowball earth (second major glaciation) when the peaks begin to be drastic (because earth's climate is not stable ex: high temps high life) The troph is also so deep that when it got too cold life could have been close to extinction. Everything was iced over or mushy ice. When this happens life is probably reduced to tiny pockets that can contain life. ● Promotriatsic extinition (80%) of life goes extinct. Snowball earth is more extreme. ● The evolution of animals was the first group of eukaryotes (multicellular) to permanently establish on earth. ● Some eukaryotes stayed single celled ● Three groups of multicellular eukaryotes a. Animals b. Plants c. fungi/bacteria ● It happens by small steps 1, simple incomplete cell division (failed splitting) 2. Ability of cells to communicate division of labor and emergence of soma (body) 3. Division of labor some cells give up reproduction and specialize on group beneficial trait. (i.e motility being able to move and walk) Requires FREE cells to integrate unselfishly. ● The only cells in the human body that reproduce are sperm and egg cells. ● One of the best examples of evolution of multicellularity is in plants. Plants are large multicellular “beast” ● Volvocine series is a complex algae that gives opportunity to explore the complexity between unicellularity and multicellularity. They use photosynthesis and develop much faster than regular algae they are also more complex. ● The volvocine algae is a eukaryote. ● Death happens because you have division of labor in a multicellular body. ● Germ line (sex cells) = immortal ● Somatic line (body cells) = mortal ● Once the soma has done its job it dies. ● *the entire human body is expandable it’s only there to carry your sex cells. ● Evolution of eukaryotic = origin of sex ● Sex evolved before death (over a billion years before) ● The meaning of life is reproduce and to reproduce well. ● Lifes mission: a protect your sex cells by not dying prematurely b deliver them to a suitable mate whose overall traits will best ensure survival of offspring c after a and b die and get out of the way. ● There are three criterias for a trait to be an adaptation; ● 1. Heritable in some way ● 2. An advantage in survival and reproduction does it give an individual organism any benefit ● 3. The agency or agent in question is a real threat to individuals. (agency/agents something that might prevent it from reproducing) ● Why evolve multicellularity? A predation avoidance b higher feeding efficiency c single celled algae species evolved multicellularity when grown in presence of predators (lab experiments) d first predatory eukaryotes appeared 0.8 (mil) GA very close to the first ancestor of fungi and animals. This links back to snowball earth. ● Bacteria didn’t evolve multicellularity some bacteria actually form colonies and can both swarm and moves as a group but they never develop any more than that. This happens because bacteria can never produce enough energy to do so, they would need to cooperate and and signal each other. These occur by chemical signals through DNA and this is much too closely for bacteria. (protein synthesis alone is 75% of energy in a cell) ● Eukaryotes have mitochondria and because of this they can have enough energy to do what bacteria can’t. ● Single celled eukaryotes and the simplest animals on eart feed ny intracellular digestive systems. This is also called phagocytosis. ● Placozoans: are almost as primitive as sponges. they are multicellular, platelike, amoeboid, covered in flagella. No symmetry no front/back or left/right, Feed on algae. Do not have eyes, hearts or brain. You can actually pass it through a coffee filter. They’re almost single celled. If you do it with two organisms they will form one once passed through the system. Asexual reproduction by fission or locomotion. Movement is not coordinated. No tissue no muscles. ● Cnidaria: (sea anemones, jellyfish, corals) they have permanent shape and gut. That’s the step up from placozoans. From now on all organisms are extracellular digestives. ● Bilaterians: started with small worm like animals with mouth (not necessarily a separate anus) and had a primitive gut. Sensory structures around the mouth, body wall muscles, bilateral symmetry (left and right) and organs. ● You can have both symmetry and radial symmetry, right down the middle. ● Hox genes evolve the identity of cells. This can be seen in the evolution from bilateral symmetry to radial symmetry to top bottom symmetry. ● The molecular clock dates always give you the oldest origin for speciation (it just tells you when splittings happen) the chemical biomarker will always give you the next oldest origin. This comes before the body fossil because the chemicals go everywhere. Body fossils are hard to find. Human Evolution: ● The closest relative to humans are the great apes. ● They split up from old world african monkeys about 25 million years ago and 40 million years ago from the new world monkeys. ● About 67 million years ago you run into a common ancestor with a chimp. ● Ardipithecus ramidus lived about 4 ½ million years ago and are pretty close to the split. This was sort of an in between for our skeleton and something primitive. It had a grasping big toe, and unfused wrist yet it had pelvis with a femur. They have a fuse of human teeth and chimp teeth. ● There are many different branches of fossils that show different kinds of humans. Within the last 200.000 years there have been at least five different species of humans. Yet they all went extinct there is evidence of butchery and warfare on these other species. Other evidence can be found in the human genetic code, and it contains neanderthal DNA, which means there used to be interbreeding between these two species. ● Eurasia and Americas contain 2.5 % neanderthal DNA, Australians and New Guinea's contain 2.5% of neanderthal DNA and 5% denisovans DNA. And about 2% of sub saharan africans DNA contains homo erectus. ● About 200,000 years ago our species begin around 80,000 years later humans begin to leave africa. This group eventually becomes europeans and asians and this group then splits up again. ● We coexisted with neanderthals for about 12,000 years. ● Intelligence does not necessarily give an advantage in survival, you just need to live long enough to reproduce and do it well to survive. ● Traits that we share in common with Hominoidea no tails, opposable thumbs, fingernails instead of claws, similar skulls, evolutionary juvenilization, (palmers grasp) also called the kung fu grip in newborns, complex social structures, parental behaviour, tool usage, hunt and occasionally eat meats, human like consciousness (abstract thought and concept of the future), brain structure for sign language.
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