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PSY 100 FInal Exam Notes

by: Kaela Williams
Kaela Williams


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Introduction to Psychology
Dr. Carroll
Study Guide
Intro to Psychology
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaela Williams on Thursday August 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 100 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Dr. Carroll in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.

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Date Created: 08/11/16
Introduction to Psychology Final Exam Review Personality What is personality?­ Distinctive and stable pattern of behavior, thoughts, motives, and emotions that  characterizes an individual a) Consistency & stability b) Disntinctiveness General approaches to studying personality Psychodynamic Humanistic Learning/Social Cognitive Trait  Biological What does each approach stress? – comparability and uniqueness Freud’s personality theory free association­ person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or  embarrassing.  unconscious/preconscious/conscious structures of personality (and their functions) Id­ sex (life) instinct, instinctual energy (libido), aggressiveness (death) instinct; pleasure principal   devil Ego­ avoids pain, obtains realistic strategies; reality principle  Stuck b/w the two Superego­ values and morals; controls id’s impulses; conscience & ego ideal  angel Stages of Psychosexual development 1. Oral­ sucking, eating, biting 2. Anal­ pooping, personality of being anal 3. Phallic­ Oedipal (boy)/ Electra (girl) complex; identification (3­6) 4. Latency­ little or no sexual motivation (6­ puberty) 5. Genitals­ Sexual intercourse (Puberty­ rest of our lives) Fixations associated with the stages­ fixation of libido (roughly translated as sexual drives or instincts)  on a different area of the body. Defense mechanisms Rationalization­ attempt to explain away IRRATIONAL behavior Repression­ PUSHING DOWN/ blocking from conscious awareness, thoughts or memories that  are stressful Regression­ to go back and REGRESS to earlier psychosexual stage Displacement­ taking your feelings out on someone who didn’t cause them Reaction formation­ OPPOSITE behavior of how you feel Projection­ attributing your own thoughts and feelings & desires toward someone else Sublimation­ changing forbidden impulses into behaviors that’s sociably accepted Jung’s Personality theory collective unconscious archetypes Adler’s personality theory Striving for superiority compensation What are the similarities and differences between Freud and the Neo­Freudians?­ the neo­freudians take freuds  ideas as a starting point but then shift away from his focus What are some of the problems with the psychodynamic theories? 1. Sexist 2. Sex 3. Case study approach  Trait Perspectives Central traits­ 3­10 traits that best describe you Cardinal traits­ single characteristics that influences about everything you do  Cattell (16) and factor analysis  Decide what goes in  Determine interrelationships  Factor clusters  Name the factors Eysenck’s 3 dimensions  Extroversion  Neuroticism   Psychotism  The Big 5 Openess­ broad range of interests, imagination, insight, abstract thinkers Conscientiousness­ good impulse control, goal directed, organized, mindful of details Extraversion­ extrovert Agreeableness­ trust, kindness, affection, prosocial behavior, cooperative Neuroticism­ sadness, moodiness, emotionally, unstable, moodswings, anxiety  Biological perspective Heredity­ twin and adoption studies Temperaments­ EAS: Emotionality­how easily upset Activity Level­ movement Sociability­ seeking out others Evolutionary forces Humanistic perspectives Roger’s self theory (Real vs Ideal self) Incongruence, unconditional positive regard Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs 1. Love  2. Esteem 3. Self­ actualization 4. Safety 5. Physiological  Behavioral/Social­cognitive Perspectives operant conditioning Bandura (observational learning, reciprocal determinism) Locus of control Psychological Disorders What is abnormal behavior? (Atypical: unusual/ infrequent, deviant, maladaptive, distress, self­defeating:  dangerous) Know the major ideas for causes of the disorders for: psychodynamic, biological, learning, cognitive  perspectives Know the areas covered of the DSM­5 ( Diagnostic & statistical manual of mental disorders)  Diagnosis  Psychosocial and contextual factors  Severity rating   Anxiety disorders (know the similarities and differences; symptoms, etc) generalized anxiety disorder phobic disorders (types: specific phobias, social anxiety disorder (social phobia), agoraphobia(fear of  public place)) panic disorder­ unexpected panic attack/ develop anxiety over having another one  Obsessive­compulsive disorder (know difference between obsessions­ recurrent thought or image and  compulsions­ irresistible urge to engage in some action repeatedly) Somatic Symptom disorders conversion disorder somatic symptom disorder Dissociative disorders dissociative amnesia (subtype:  dissociative fugue) dissociative identity disorder Mood disorders major depressive disorder (hopelessness, eating disruptions, sleeping disruptions, low energy) bipolar disorder Schizophrenia 1. Delusions (irrational thoughts; beliefs individuals hold that doesn’t have a box in reality) 2. Hallucinations (all sensory) 3. Disorganized speech (jumble of words that make no sense) 4. Grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior 5. Negative symptoms (lack of/ withdrawal)  **Know the symptoms and differences between each of the disorders and groups of disorders.  Also, you need  to know the factors related to the causes of each disorder and the neurotransmitters associated with the various  disorders. Psychotherapy Who provides treatment?   What are their differences? Insight therapies psychoanalysis (Freud, etc) Free association interpretation (of dreams, etc) Analysis of resistance Analysis of transference Roger’s person­centered therapy Genuineness, empathy unconditional positive regard Cognitive­behavioral therapies (Rational Emotive Therapy) ABC Model Behavioral therapies systematic desensitization flooding exposure and response prevention aversion therapy behavioral modification token economies Biomedical therapies drugs (what drugs treat various disorders; which neurotransmitters) Tricyclics MAO inhibitors SSRIs benzodiazepines lithium thorazine clozapine ECT Psychosurgery How effective are the therapies? Cumulative Material Who established the 1st Psychological laboratory? Wilhem Wundt: Introspection  Know the historical progression of psychology (structuralism: Edward Tichetner, functionalism: Williams  James, behaviorism: John Watson, psychodynamic psychology: Sigmund Freud). Compare and contrast the different psychological perspectives   Behaviorism­ how environmental factors affect observable behavior  Psychodynamic­ Behavior is result of unconscious dynamics, inner forces. Not based on observation  Humanistic­ human behavior  Cognitive­ Based on mental process (Speaking, Thinking etc.) People act because they think; People thin because they are human   Neuroscience­ body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences  Sociocultural­ Behavior results from social and cultural influences. Ex: Kissing  Evolutionary­ Mental abilities evolve over millions of years Ex: Vision  Basic Research­ pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base  Applied Research­ scientific study that aims to solve practical problems  Introspection­ examination/observation of one’s own mental and emotional processes What are theories?­ observations and predicts behaviors or events  What are hypotheses?­ testable prediction  What is their purpose in psychology?­ the results will either confirm our theory or lead us to revise or reject it operational definitions (operationalization): carefully worded statement of the exact procedures (operations) used in a research  study Type of measurements   self­report­ surveys/questions, interviews   observation­ naturalistic observations, laboratory observations   physiological measures­  Correlation designs­ a measure of the extent to which 2 factors vary together (­1.00 to +1.00)   Nonexperimental designs­relies on interpretation, observations, or interactions to come to a conclusion  Experimental studies (What are the 3 necessary conditions for an experiment?) 1. measure variables accurately 2. estimate their interrelations 3. maintain control over extraneous variables  independent variable­ controlled and manipulated, dependent variable­ what’s measured,  extraneous variables­ undesirable variables,  random assignment­ random placement,  placebo­ substance that has no effects experimental group­ participants who receive treatment  control group­ participants who DO NOT receive experimental treatment  List and Describe Piaget’s 4 Stages of Cognitive Development 1. Sensorimotor Stage (Birth­ 2)­ infants and toddlers acquire the knowledge through sensory experiences  and manipulating objects  Object permanence­ objects continue to exist even though they cannot be seen  2. Preoperational Stage (2­7) ­ struggling with logic, seeing other people’s point of view, and ideal of  constancy 3. Concrete Operational Stage (7­11)­ working things out in head rather than physically 4. Formal Operational Stage(11+)­ mathematical calculations, think creatively, use abstract reasoning, and  imagine the outcome of particular actions Discuss the following terms from Piaget's theory of cognitive development  Assimilation­ using existing schema to deal with a new object or situation  Accommodation­ existing schema (knowledge) does not work, and needs to be changed to deal with  a new object or situation.  Object permanence­ objects continue to exist even when they are not seen or heard   Conservation­ child understands that changing the form of a substance or object does not change its  amount, overall volume, or mass  Egocentrism­ inability on the part of a child in the preoperational stage of development to see any  point of view other than their own  Centration­ develop logic or reasoning  Irreversibility­ child falsely believes that actions cannot be reversed or undone  List and Describe the types of attachment   Secure­ The child uses its parents as a secure base from which to explore the world. If the parent  leaves, the child becomes upset, but is happy and easily comforted when the parent returns  Anxious­ The child explores little, preferring to remain close to the parents. He or she becomes  highly upset when the parent leaves, and resists interaction with the parent upon his or her return   Avoidant­ Similar to the anxious­resistant type, but the child does not appear to behave much  differently around the parents than he or she would around strangers.   Disorganized/disoriented­  Erikson's stages of psychosocial development (from birth through old age) 1. Trust vs mistrust ( 1  year) 2. Autonomy vs shame/doubt (2­3) 3. Initiative vs guilt (4­6) 4. Industry vs inferiority (6­ puberty) 5. Identity vs role confusion (teens – early 20s) 6. Intimacy vs isolation (early adulthood) 7. Generativity vs stagnation (middle adulthood) 8. Integrity vs. despair (late adulthood)  List and Describe Kohlberg's stages of moral development 1. Preconventional­ judge something that’s right/wrong whether we get rewarded for it or not 2. Conventional­ right/wrong based on other standards 3. Postconventional­ judgement from personal ethics  Structure and function of neurons:  cell body (soma)­ cell life support, axons­ passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles, or glands  Dendrites­ receive messages from other cells, synapse­ electrical/chemical signal to another neuron, myelin sheath­  covers the axon of some neurons, terminal buttons­ forms junctions with other cells, neurotransmitters­  chemical messages that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons Central (brain and spinal cord) vs. peripheral nervous system (sensory & motor neurons that connects CNS to the rest  of the body) Somatic (skeletal nervous system) vs. autonomic nervous system (controls the glands and the muscles of the  internal organs) Sympathetic (fight or flight/stress) vs. parasympathetic nervous systems (calms you/ peace) Lobes of the brain (and their function)  Frontal lobe­ thinking, memory, behavior, and movement  Temporal lobe­ hearing, learning, and feelings  Brain stem­ breathing, heart rate, and temperature  Parietal lobe­ touching and feeling  Occipital lobe­ seeing  Cerebellum­ balance and coordination Structures of the eye (and their functions)  Cornea lens­ transparent tissue covering the front of the eye: does not have blood vessels; does have nerves   Pupil­ hole in the center of the eye where light passes through    Retina­ layer of tissue on the back portion of the eye that contains cells responsive to light (photoreceptors)   Optic nerve­bundle of over one million axons from ganglion cells that carry visual signals from the eye to the brain  Trichromatic theory of color vision­ 3 different types of receptors (cones) that respond maximally to differently wavelengths of light *equivalent colors= red, green, blue Opponent­process theory of color vision­ red/green, blue/yellow, black/white Stimulus for hearing:  Sound (amplitude­ loudness, wavelength­ pitch of the sound) Structures of the ear (and their functions) outer ear (pinna and eardrum)­ vibrations of the eardrum middle ear (hammer, anvil, and stirrup)­ turn those vibrations in the fluid filled cochlea of the inner ear inner ear (cochlea and basilar membrane)­ neural impulses which are sent to the brain via the auditory nerve Place theory­ high pitch Frequency theory­ low pitch Gestalt principles  Proximity­ elements are placed close together  Similarity­ shapes are similar  Continuity­ compelled to move through one object and continue to another object  Closure­ incomplete or a space is not completely enclosed Binocular  (two eyes to see): retinal disparity, convergence and  Monocular perception cues  (one eye to see): interposition, linear perspective, relative size, texture gradient, motion parallax Stages of sleep (and what occurs during each stage) 1. Alert/awake= beta waves 2. Relaxed/calm= alpha waves 3­4. Deep sleep= delta waves 5. REM (rapid eye movement)  Sleep disturbances (possible causes and treatments) Insomnia (persistent problems in either falling or staying asleep), apnea (doesn’t get enough oxygen), narcolepsy (sudden attacks of overwhelming sleepiness), night terrors (high arousal and appearance of being terrified) Theories of dreaming wish fulfillment­ expressing unacceptable feelings; deeper layer of hidden meaning activation­synthesis­ consolidating memories from the previous day Classical conditioning  UCS­ unconditionally, naturally, and automatically triggers a response EX­ when you smell one of your favorite foods, you may immediately feel hungry. (leads to something)  UCR­ unlearned response that occurs naturally in response to the unconditioned stimulus EX­ smell of food is unconditioned response  CS­ associated with the unconditioned stimulus; trigger a conditioned response EX­ pairing a whistle with dinner time ; NS  CS CR­ learned response to the previously neutral stimulus EX­ conditioned response would be feeling hungry when you heard the whistle Operant conditioning/ Conditioning Acquisition­ new condition response tendency Shaping(OC)­ desired behavior  Extinction­ stop reinforcing   Spontaneous recovery­ stop reinforcing and start again  Generalization­ transfer of response Discrimination­ allows you to know when you can participate in events Reinforcements (positive­ addition and negative­ withdrawal or taken away) Schedules of reinforcement fixed­ratio­ reward after doing something a # of times, variable­ratio­ a reward after unpredictable #of times, fixed­interval­ a reward after only after a specified amount of time has elapsed, variable­interval­ a reward after an unpredictable amount of time has passed Observational Learning What are the 4 key elements for observational learning to take place? 1. Attention­ paying attention to what’s happening around that observer 2. Retention­ persistence to perform a learned behavior 3. Reproduction­ copying a behavior 4. Motivation­ perform the act only if they have motivation to do so Know differences between  sensory memory­ fleeting memory of image, sound, or other sensation,  working memory­ mental workplace, and long­term memory­ unlimited capacity/ unlimited duration serial position effect (primacy and recency) priming Problems with effective retrieval      ineffective encoding (lack of attention/low level processing), decay (memories fade w/ time), interference  (retroactive­ new info interfering with old vs. proactive­ old info interring with new) amnesia (retrograde vs. anterograde) Steps to problem solving      techniques (trial/error, algorithms­ systematic procedures guaranteed to find solution, heuristics­ simpler  thinking strategies, insight­sudden false of understanding)      things that go wrong with problem solving (confirmation bias­ we only search for info that confirms our  idea, mental set­ tendency to use problem solving strategies that have worked in the past, functional fixedness) Making decisions      heuristics (representativeness­ how well does the individual/idea/event match a particular prototype,  availability­ mental shortcut that relies on immediate examples that come to mind) IQ= intelligence quotient (mental age/chronological age x100) normal distribution­distribution of many physical and psychological attributes (bellcurve) standardization­ consistency & objectivity of how tests are administered and scored reliability (test­retest, split­half) validity­ test measures what it’s supposed to a) Content­ material on the test b) Criterion (predictive)­ scores on the test  Interactionism [B = f (P, E)] Understand what attributions (explain their own behavior and that of others) the fundamental attribution error  (tendency of observers to underestimate) Persuasion and attitude change Source (credibility, attractiveness, similarity) Message (capture attention, be understandable, be convincing, be memorable) Receiver (need for cognition a) central route processing (focus on argument) b) peripheral route  processing (influenced by message sources), initial attitude position) Influence (Define the terms: conformity­ adjusting our behavior or thinking toward some group standard,  obedience­ changing opinions, judgements, or actions because someone told you to, compliance­ agree to do  what is requested) Milgram (1965) ­ obedience to shock others  Asch (1955) ­ conformity to line lengths Tools of influence for compliance: Ingratiation, reciprocity (not so free sample), multiple requests:  Foot­in­the­door (small request   larger), Door­in­the­face (larger request  small), Low­balling (adding to orginal) bystander effect­ the presence of multiple witnesses to an event and inhibits the tendency (diffusion of  responsibility, informational influence, evaluation apprehension) Decision Model of Helping 1. Notice event 2. Interpret as emergency 3. Assume responsibility 4. Identify means to help


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