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Exam #1 Study Guide

by: kaitlyn everson

Exam #1 Study Guide PSYC 201

kaitlyn everson
Eastern Washington University

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Notes that cover lecture and book material for first exam
Life Span Development
Ginny Mehlert
Study Guide
Ch., 1, 2, 3
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by kaitlyn everson on Thursday August 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 201 at Eastern Washington University taught by Ginny Mehlert in Winter 2014. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Life Span Development in Psychology at Eastern Washington University.

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Date Created: 08/11/16
PSYC 201- Exam #1 Chapter 1 Vocabulary—  Human Development: the multidisciplinary study of how people change and how they remain the same over time  Nature Nurture Issue: the degree to which genetic or heredity influences (nature) and experiential or environmental influences (nurture) determine the kind of person you are  Continuity Discontinuity Issue: whether a particular developmental phenomenon represents a smooth progression throughout the life span (continuity) or a series of abrupt shifts (discontinuity)  Universal versus Context Specific Development Issue: whether there is just one path of development or several paths of development  Biopsychosocial Framework: the useful way to organize the biological, psychological, and sociocultural forces on human development  Neuroscience: the study of the brain and nervous system, especially in terms of brain-behavior relationships  Theory: an organized set of ideas that is designed to explain development  Psychodynamic Theory: theories proposing that development is largely determined by how well people resolve conflicts they face at different ages  Psychosocial Theory: Erikson’s proposal that personality development is determined by the interaction of an internal maturational plan and external societal demands  Epigenetic Principle: in Erikson’s theory, the idea that each psychosocial strength has its own special period of particular importance  Operant Conditioning: learning paradigm in which the consequences of a behavior determine whether a behavior is repeated in the future  Reinforcement: a consequence that increase the future likelihood of the behavior that it follows  Punishment: a consequence that decreases the future likelihood of the behavior that it follows  Imitation or Observational Learning: learning that occurs by simply watching how others behave  Self-Efficacy: people’s belief about their own abilities and talents  Information Processing Theory: theory proposing that human cognition consists of mental hardware and mental software  Ecological Theory: theory based on idea that human development is inseparable from the environmental contexts in which a person develops  Microsystem: the people and objects in an individual’s immediate environment  Mesosystem: provides connections across microsystems  Exosystem: social settings that a person may not experience firsthand but that still influence development  Macrosystem: the cultures and subcultures in which the microsystem, mesosystem, and exosystem are embedded  Competence: a person’s abilities  Environmental Press: demands put on people by the environment  Life Span Perspective: view that human development is multiply determined and cannot be understood within the scope of a single framework  Selective Optimization with Compensation (SOC) Model: model in which three processes (selection, optimization, and compensation) form a system of behavioral action that generates and regulates development and aging  Life Course Perspective: description of how various generations experience the biological, psychological, and sociocultural forces of development in their respective historical contexts  Systematic Observation: watching people and carefully recording what they do or say  Naturalistic Observation: technique in which people are observed as they behave spontaneously in some real-life situation  Structured Observation: technique in which a researcher creates a setting that is likely to elicit the behavior of interest  Self-Reports: people’s answers to questions about the topic of interest  Reliability: extent to which a measure provides a consistent index of a characteristic  Validity: extent to which a measure actually assesses what researchers think it does  Populations: broad groups of people that are of interest to researchers  Sample: a subset of the population  Correlational Study: investigation looking at relations between variables as they exist naturally in the world  Correlation Coefficient: an expression of the strength and direction of a relation between two variables  Experiment: a systematic way of manipulating the key factor(s) that the investigator thinks causes a particular behavior  Independent Variable: the factor being manipulated  Dependent Variable: the behavior being observed  Qualitative Research: method that involves gaining in-depth understanding of human behavior and what governs it  Longitudinal Study: longitudinal study research design in which the same individuals are observed or tested repeatedly at different points in their lives  Cross Sectional Study: study in which developmental differences are identified by testing people of different ages  Cohort Effects: problem with cross-sectional design in which differences between age groups (cohorts) may result as easily from environmental events as from developmental processes  Sequential Design: developmental research design based on cross- sectional and longitudinal designs  Meta-Analysis: a tool that enables researchers to synthesize the results of many studies to estimate relations between variables Concepts—  Recurring Issues & Examples: o Nature vs. Nurture  Example: some individuals inherit a disease that leads to mental retardation if they eat dairy products, but if their environment contains no dairy products they develop normal intelligence o Continuity vs. Discontinuity  Do we develop smoothly or in stages? o Universal vs. Context-Specific Development  Is there just one or multiple ways in which development occurs?  How does development occur differently in different cultures?  Four Forces of Development: o Biological Forces- include all genetic and health-related factors that affect development o Psychological Forces- include all internal perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and personality factors that affect development o Sociocultural Forces- include interpersonal, societal, cultural, and ethnic factors that affect development o Life Cycle Forces- reflect differences in how the same event affects people of different ages o Turns into the biopsychosocial framework of development  How do scientists describe the study of the brain? o Neuroscience is the study of the brain and development o Helps to identify patterns of brain activity that can reveal interactions between biological, psychological, sociocultural, and life-cycle forces  Theories of Development & Theorists: o Psychodynamic  Freud & Erikson o Learning  Watson, Skinner, & Bandura o Cognitive  Piaget & Vygotsky o Ecological and Systems  Bronfenbrenner & Lawton and Nahemow o Lifespan  Baltes  Major Concepts of Theories: o Psychodynamic Theory- development based on people’s ability to resolve conflicts at different ages  Psychosocial Theory- development of personality  Erikson’s 8 Stages across the entire lifespan o Learning Theory- how learning influences behavior  Involves self-efficacy  Behaviorism- Watson’s belief that anyone could learn to anything, development was based on experiences  Social Learning Theory- people learn by watching or imitating o Cognitive-Developmental Theory- focus on thought processes and the construction of knowledge  Piaget’s 4 Stages of Cognitive Development  Information-Processing Theory- brain is like a computer processor; we have hardware and software, essentially  Vygotsky’s Theory- emphasized that children’s thinking doesn’t develop in a vacuum, but rather it is influenced by the sociocultural context in which children grow up  General idea that children’s thinking becomes more sophisticated as they develop o Ecological and Systems Approach- environment and its effects on development  Ecological Theory  Bronfenbrenner’s Theory- divided the environment into four levels (microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem); emphasizes that there are many levels of influence on human development  Competence-Environmental Press Theory- according to this theory people adapt more effectively when there is a good match between their competence (abilities) and the environmental press (demands put on them) o Life Span and Life Course Perspective  Life Span- human development cannot be determined by just one framework  Four Features: mulitdirectionality, plasticity, historical context, and multiple causation  Life Course- based on different generations experiences  How do researchers measure concepts? o Measurement in research:  Systematic Observation  Naturalistic Observation (“real life”)  Structured Observation (created situations)  Sampling behavior with tasks  Self-Reports  Physiological measures o Evaluating research:  Reliability (consistency)  Validity (accurate measure of wanted variable)  Types of Research for Studying Development o General Research Designs-  Correlational studies  Experimental studies  Qualitative Studies o Designs for Studying Development  Longitudinal studies  Cross-sectional studies  Sequential studies (combined longitudinal and cross- sectional) Chapter 2 Vocabulary—  Chromosomes: threadlike structures in the nuclei of cells that contain genetic material  Autosomes: first 22 pairs of chromosomes  Sex Chromosomes: 23 pair of chromosomes; these determine the sex of the child  Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA): molecule composed of four nucleotide bases that is the biochemical basis of heredity  Gene: group of nucleotide bases that provides a specific set of biochemical instructions  Genotype: person’s hereditary makeup  Phenotype: physical, behavioral, and psychological features that result from the interaction between one’s genes and the environment  Alleles: variations of genes  Homozygous: when the alleles in a pair of chromosomes are the same  Heterozygous: when the alleles in a pair of chromosomes differ from each other  Dominant: form of an allele whose chemical instructions are followed  Recessive: alleles whose instructions are ignored in the presence of a dominant allele  Incomplete Dominance: situation in which one allele doesn’t dominate another allele  Sickle Cell Trait: disorder in which individuals show signs of mild anemia only when they are seriously deprived of oxygen; occurs in individuals who have one dominant allele for normal blood cells and one recessive sickle-cell allele  Phenylketonuria (PKU): inherited disorder in which the infant lacks a liver enzyme  Huntington’s Disease: progressive and fatal type of dementia caused by dominant alleles  Behavioral Genetics: the branch of genetics that studies the inheritance of behavioral and psychological traits  Polygenic Inheritance: when phenotypes are the result of the combined activity of many separate genes  Monozygotic Twins: the result of a single fertilized egg splitting to form two new individuals; also called identical twins  Dizygotic Twins: the result of two separate eggs fertilized by two sperm; also called fraternal twins  Heritability Coefficient: a measure (derived from a correlation coefficient) of the extent to which a trait or characteristic is inherited  Niche Picking: process of deliberately seeking environments that are compatible with one’s genetic makeup  Nonshared Environmental Influences: forces within a family that make siblings different from one another  Prenatal Development: the many changes that turn a fertilized egg into a newborn human  In Vitro Fertilization: process by which sperm and an egg are mixed in a petri dish to create a zygote, which is then placed in a woman’s uterus  Eugenics: effort to improve the human species by letting only people whose characteristics are valued by society mate and pass along their genes  Zygote: fertilized egg  Implantation: step in which the zygote burrows into the uterine wall and establishes connections with a woman’s blood vessels  Germ Disc: small cluster of cells near the center of the zygote that will eventually develop into a baby  Placenta: structure through which nutrients and wastes are exchanged between mother and the developing child  Embryo: term given to the zygote once it is completely embedded in the uterine wall  Ectoderm: outer layer of the embryo, which will become the hair, the outer layer of skin, and the nervous system  Mesoderm: middle layer of the embryo, which becomes the muscles, bones, and circulatory system  Endoderm: inner layer of the embryo, which becomes the lungs and the digestive system  Amnion: inner sac in which the developing child rests  Amniotic Fluid: fluid that surrounds the fetus  Umbilical Cord: structure containing veins and arteries that connects the developing child to the placenta  Cephalocaudal Principle: s principle of physical growth that states that structures nearest the head develop first  Proximodistal Principle: principle of physical growth that states that structures nearest the center of the body develop first  Period of the Fetus: longest period of the prenatal development, th th extending from the 9 until the 38 week after conception  Cerebral Cortex: wrinkled surface of the brain that regulates many functions that are distinctly human  Vernix: substance that protects the fetus’s skin during development  Age of Viability: age at which a fetus can survive because most of its bodily systems function adequately; typically at 7 months after conception  Spina Bifida: disorder in which the embryo’s neural tube doesn’t close properly  Stress: physical and psychological responses to threatening or challenging conditions  Teratogens: an agent that causes abnormal prenatal development  Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD): disorder affecting babies whose mothers consumed large amounts of alcohol while they were pregnant  Ultrasound: prenatal diagnostic technique that uses sound waves to generate an image of the fetus  Amniocentesis: prenatal diagnostic technique that uses a syringe to withdraw a sample of the amniotic fluid through the mother’s abdomen  Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS): prenatal diagnostic technique that involves taking a sample of tissue from the chorion  Fetal Medicine: field of medicine concerned with treating prenatal problems before birth  Crowing: appearance of the top of the baby’s head during labor  Hypoxia: a birth complication in which the umbilical blood flow is disrupted and the infant does not receive adequate oxygen  Cesarean Section (C Section): surgical removal of infant from the uterus through an incision made in the mother’s abdomen  Preterm (premature): babies born before the 36 week after conception  Low Birth Weight: newborns who weigh less than 2,500 grams (5 pounds)  Very Low Birth Weight: newborns who weigh less than 1,500 grams (3 pounds)  Extremely Low Birth Weight: newborns who weigh less than 1,000 grams (2 pounds)  Infant Mortality: the number of infants out of 1,000 births who die before their first birthday Concepts—  Genes and Chromosomes: o Chromosomes contain genes o Genes contain genetic information on our heredity  Sex Chrordsomes: o 23 pair of chromosomes o XY chromosome pair makes a boy o XX chromosome pair make a girl o Women only give an X chromosome, so the man provides either the other X or a Y chromosome to determine sex  Genotype vs. Phenotype: o Genotype is the set of genes you inherit o Phenotype is the physical representation of these genes; also called traits  Heterozygous vs. Homozygous Alleles: o When the alleles in a pair either differ or are the same o When someone is heterozygous, one of the alleles is typically dominant over the other; except in cases of incomplete dominance o Incomplete dominance is a problem when it comes to sickle-cell disease  Chromosomal Abnormalities: o When someone has extra, missing, or damaged chromosomes o Causes disturbance in development o Example: Down Syndrome  Inherited Diseases: o Recessive Allele Diseases  Sickle cell diseases, PKU o Dominant Allele Diseases  Huntington’s disease  Polygenic Inheritance: o When many genes affect the phenotype  How do twins develop? What are the two types of twins? o Monozygotic Twins (identical) o Dizygotic Twins (fraternal) o Either type of twin may share of the same experiences and environment o Identical twins will be more similar than fraternal twins, but that’s simply because of heredity  Three Stages of Prenatal Development: o Period of the Zygote (weeks 1-2)  Implantation  Menstruation stops o Period of the Embryo (weeks 3-8)  Baby body structures start to form, internal organs, and 3 layers of embryo  Amniotic sac fills with fluid  Umbilical cord connects embryo to placenta o Period of the Fetus (week 9 to birth)  Week 4- neural tube forms; spinal cord and brain grow  Cerebral cortex flourishes  Week 9- differentiation of ovaries and testes  Week 12- circulation system begins  Week 16- movements felt by mother  Week 20- eyebrows, eyelashes, scalp hair  Week 22-28- age of viability; baby can remember voices, music, tastes  Principles of Growth: o Cephalocaudal and Proximodistal  Types and Categories of Teratogens: o Drugs  Cigarettes, alcohol, caffeine, etc.  Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder o Diseases  Bacterial and viral infections can be very harmful to the baby  AIDS, Herpes, Rubella, Chicken Pox, etc. o Environmental Hazards  PCBs, Lead, Mercury, X-Rays  Preterm or Premature Babies th o Means that the baby was born before the 36 week after conception  Birth Weights o Low birth weight is <5 pounds o Very low birth weight <3 pounds o Extremely low birth weight <2 pound Chapter 3 Vocabulary—  Reflexes: unlearned responses triggered by specific stimulation  Alert Inactivity: state in which baby is calm with eyes open and attentive; the baby seems to be de deliberately inspecting the environment  Waking Activity: state in which a baby’s eyes are open but seem unfocused while the arms or legs move in bursts of uncoordinated motion  Crying: state in which a baby cries vigorously usually accompanied by agitated but uncoordinated movement  Sleeping: state in which a baby alternates from being still and breathing regularly to moving gently and breathing irregularly; the eyes are closed throughout  Basic Cry: cry that starts softly and gradually becomes more intense; often heard when babies are hungry or tired  Mad Cry: more intense version of a basic cry  Pain Cry: cry that begins with a sudden long burst, followed by a long pause and gasping  Irregular or Rapid Eye Movement Sleep: REM; irregular sleep in which an infant’s eyes dart rapidly beneath the eyelids while the body is quite active  Regular (nonREM) Sleep: sleep in which heart rate, breathing, and brain activity are steady  Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: SIDS; when a healthy baby dies suddenly for no apparent reason  Temperament: consistent style or pattern of behavior  Malnourished: being small for one’s age because of inadequate nutrition  Neuron: basic cellular unit of the brain and nervous system that specializes in receiving and transmitting information  Cell Body: center of the neuron that keeps the neuron alive  Dendrite: end of the neuron that receives information; it looks like a tree with many branches  Axon: tubelike structure that emerges from the cell body and transmits information to other neurons  Terminal Buttons: small knobs at the end of the axon that release neurotransmitters  Neurotransmitters: chemicals released by the terminal button that allow neurons to communicate with each other  Cerebral Cortex: wrinkled surface of the brain that regulates many functions that are distinctly human  Hemispheres: right and left halves of the cortex  Corpus Callosum: thick bundle of neurons that connects the two hemispheres  Frontal Cortex: brain region that regulates personality and goal- directed behavior  Neural Plate: flat group of cells present in prenatal development that becomes the brain and spinal cord  Myelin: fatty sheath that wraps around neurons and enables them to transmit information more rapidly  Synaptic Pruning: gradual reduction in the number of synapses, beginning in infancy and continuing until early adolescence  Electrocephalography: the study of brain waves recorded from electrodes that are placed on the scalp  Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging: fMRI; method of studying brain activity by using magnetic fields to track blood flow in the brain  Experience Expectant Growth: process by which the writing of the brain is organized by experiences that are common to most humans  Experience Dependent Growth: process by which an individual’s unique experiences over a lifetime affect brain structures and organization  Motor Skills: coordinated movement of the muscles and limbs  Locomote: ability to move around in the world  Fine Motor Skills: motor skills associated with grasping, holding, and manipulating objects  Toddling: early, unsteady form of walking done by infants  Toddlers: young children who have just learned to walk  Dynamic Systems Theory: theory that views motor development as involving many distinct skills that are organized and reorganized over time to meet specific needs  Differentiation: distinguishing and mastering individual motions  Integration: linking individual motions into a coherent, coordinated whole  Perception: processes by which the brain receives, selects, modifies, and organizes incoming nerve impulses that are the result of physical stimulation  Visual Acuity: smallest pattern that one can distinguish reliably  Cones: specialized neurons in the back of the eye that sense color  Visual Cliff: glass-covered platform that appears to have a shallow and a deep side; used to study infants depth perception  Kinetic Cues: cues to depth perception in which motion is used to estimate depth  Visual Expansion: kinetic cue to depth that is based on the fact that the object fills as ever greater proportion of the retina as it moves closer  Motion Parallax: kinetic cue to depth perception based on the fact that nearby moving objects move across our visual field faster than do distant objects  Retinal Disparity: way of inferring depth based on differences in the retinal images in the left and right eyes  Pictorial Cues: cues to depth perception that are used to convey depth in drawings and paintings  Linear Perspective: a cue to depth perception based on the fact that parallel lines come together at a single point in the distance  Textures Gradient: perceptual cue to depth based on the fact that the texture of objects changes from coarse and distinct for nearby objects to finer and less distinct for distant objects  Intersensory Redundancy: infants’ sensory systems are attuned to information presented simultaneously to different sensory modes  Theory of Mind: ideas about connections between thoughts, beliefs, intentions, and behavior that create an intuitive understanding of the link between mind and behavior Concepts—  Reflexes: o Babinski- baby’s toes flare out when the sole of the foot is stroked from heel to toe o Blink- a baby’s eyes close in response to bright light or loud nose o Moro- a baby throws its arms out and then inward (as if embracing) in response to loud noises or when its head falls o Palmar- a baby grasps an object placed in the palm of its hand o Rooting- when a baby’s cheek is stroked, it turns its head toward the stroking and opens its mouth o Stepping- a baby who is held upright by an adult and is then moved forward begins to step rhythmically o Sucking- a baby sucks when an object is placed in its mouth o Seen as precursors or survival instincts  Apgar Score and Elements: o Virginia Apgar o 5 Apgar Scores:  Heart Rate  Muscle Tone  Skin Tone  Respiration  Reflexes o Each is scored 0, 1, or 2, then added together  Good physical condition= total of 7+  Needs special attention= total of 4-6  Life threatening= 3 or less  Four Systems of NBAS: o T. Berry Brazelton o Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale o Includes 4 systems-  Autonomic- the newborn’s ability to control bodily functions such as breathing and temperature regulations  Motor- the newborn’s ability to control body movements and activity levels  State- the newborn’s ability to maintain a state (e.g., staying alert or staying asleep)  Social- the newborn’s ability to interact with people  Four States of Newborns: o Alert Inactivity o Waking Activity o Crying o Sleeping  Three Types of Cries: o Basic Cry o Mad Cry o Pain Cry  Infant Temperament: o Temperament of an infant is just how they are behaving and the pattern of these behaviors o The number of temperaments has been debated, but it’s between 2 and 9 types o Rothbart’s 3 Dimensions indicate child temperament o Scores during infancy are predictive about adulthood  Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS): o Sudden death of an infant with no cause o Risk factors-  Premature birth or low birth weight  Parental smoking  Child overheating and sleeping on stomach  African-American children have a greater risk o To reduce the risk it is urged to have child sleep on their side or back  Worldwide Child Malnutrition o 1 in 4 children around the world under the age of 5 are malnourished o This causes children to develop more slowly o Often it’s hard to nourish malnourished children because they are quiet and listless, so it goes by unattended  Organization of Experiences o The brain organizes experiences based on:  Experience-expectant growth  Experience-dependent growth  Infants’ Perceptual Abilities: o Smell, Taste, and Touch-  Infants have a keen sense of smell  They also have a very developed sense of taste  Infants are very sensitive to touch o Hearing-  Hearing isn’t as innate as the aforementioned perceptions, but they still can hear as infants  Infants respond to sounds in their surroundings starting at 7-8 months after conception (while they are still in the womb) o Seeing-  Infants are born with less visual acuity then they will have as adults, but by the time they turn one they have acuity that is essentially the same as an adults o Color-  At birth infants can only see a few colors, but by three months they have all 3 kinds of cones and their associated circuits are working so they can see the full range of colors  Depth-Perception: o Visual Cliff- showed that by the time that children could crawl they had depth perception and were too scared to go to the “deep” area of the table o Done by Walk and Gibson o Up to 6 months the baby noticed it was different, but weren’t necessarily fearful o At around 7 months, the baby’s heart started racing in fear, showing awareness of some depth perception  Infant’s Self-Concept: o Mirror Test- having the mother put a red smudge on an infant’s nose and then placing them in front of the mirror to see what they do  Most one-year olds reached out and touched the red dot on the reflection  But around 15 months, the children begin looking in the mirror and touching their own nose  By 2 years old, virtually all children touch their own nose  Wellman’s Theory of Mind: o Wellman’s theory consists of three phases through the preschool years  In the first stage 2-year-olds are aware of desires and often speak of their wants and likes; so they understand that people have desires and desires cause behavior  By about age 3, they can clearly distinguish between the mental and physical world  At about 4 years old mental states become center stage in children’s understanding of their own actions and the actions of others


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