Abnormal Psychology Exam 3 Study Guide
Abnormal Psychology Exam 3 Study Guide
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gabrielle Craft on Friday August 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to at Florida State University taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 08/12/16
Eating Disorders Describe the three eating disorders. 1. Anorexia nervosa: characterized by a pursuit of thinness that leads to self- starvation 2. Bulimia nervosa: characterized by a cycle of bingeing followed by extreme behaviors to prevent weight gain 3. Binge-eating disorder: characterized by regular bingeing but do not engage in purging behaviors What are the different anorexia subtypes? - Restricting type: weight loss achieved by severely limiting food intake, no binge-eating - Binge-eating/purging: person has also regularly engaged in binge-eating and purging during last three months What are risk factors for developing eating disorders? - 1 degree relatives/ both disorders more likely - higher MX concordance rates for both anorexia and bulimia - Body dissatisfaction: desire for thinness, heritable - Environmental factors: play greater role on etiology - Low levels of endogenous opioids: reduce pain, enhance mood suppress appetite - Low levels of serotonin Describe treatments for eating disorders. - antidepressants that increase serotonin - clinical movement: restoring weight, modifying distorted eating behavior, addressing the psychological and family issues - AN: increase weight, long-term maintenance of weight gain - CBT: reductions in symptoms through 1 year - FBT: anorexia viewed as an interpersonal, rather than individual issue - Problem-focused therapy: aims to change behavior through unified parental action - Challenge societal ideals, beliefs of thinness - Increase self-assertiveness skills, regular eating patterns - CBT MORE EFFECTIVE THEN MEDICATION Give one sentence description of each theoretical conceptualization of eating disorders for: Cognitive Behavioral - Anorexia focuses on body dissatisfaction and fear of fatness, certain behaviors negatively reinforcing feelings of self control brought about by weight loss are positively reinforcing perfectionism and personal inadequacy lead to excessive concern about weight - Bulimia self-worth strongly influenced by weight low self-esteem ridged restrictive eating triggers lapses, which become binges and after binging disgust w/ oneself and fear of gaining weight lead to compensatory behavior purging temporarily reduces anxiety about weight gain negative feelings about purging lead to binges Psychodynamic: Buroke family environment focused on the fact that the child wanted control through their eating behavior or didn’t want to grow up, best family treatment: looks at parent as resource not at fault Genetic: 1 degree relatives of individuals with both disorders more likely to have the disorder, higher MZ concordance rates for both anorexia and bulimia Biological: low levels of endogenous opioids (substances that reduce pain, enhance mood and suppress appetite), serotonin related feelings of satiety, What are treatments for eating disorders? - Anorexia Immediate goal Is to increase weight Second goal is long-term maintenance of weight gain - CBT: more effective than medication - - Family-based therapy Found to be effective Anorexia viewed as interpersonal rather then individual - Cognitive Bulimia: challenge societal ideals of thinness, beliefs about weight and dieting, all-or-nothing beliefs about food Personality What is a Personality disorders? - Long standing, maladaptive traits which impair social and occupational functioning and cause emotional distress - Actual disorder is defined by the extremes of several personality traits behavior is long-standing, pervasive and dysfunctional What is the difference between Categorical and dimensional diagnostic system? - Categorical: yes or no/ different groups - Dimensional: most characteristics are present in varying degrees 1. Social involvement: positive/friendly v. not involved 2. Assertion: dominance v. passive 3. Affect control anxious rumination v. behavioral acting out What are the characteristics of each of the three personality disorder clusters (A, B, C). A. Paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal; odd or eccentric; (low social involvement) B. Antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic; dramatic, emotional or erratic; low affect control (behavioral acting out) C. Avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive; appear anxious or fearful; low on social involvement/aversion (passive and submissive) What is the difference between the DSM ASPD and Cleckley’s Psychopath/Sociopath? - ASPD: bad behavior (breaking laws, irritable aggressive, in debt, reckless, no regard for truth) - Cleckley’s Psychopath: refers less to anti social behavior more to the psychopaths psychology/personality, poverty of emotions both positive and negative, no sense of shame/ remorseless, superficially charming/manipulate others for personal gain, lack of negative emotions make learning from mistakes impossible Review criteria for psychopathy 1. Selfish, remorseless individual who exploits others 2. An antisocial life-style Describe each personality disorder. Paranoid: expects to be mistreated, lookout for possible signs of trickery, mistrustful, blame others, jealous, unjustified doubts of loyalty Schizoid: does not desire/enjoy social relationships, few close friends, rarely report strong emotions, experience few pleasurable activities, indifferent to praise, criticism, sentiments of others, pursue solitary interests Schizotypal: have the interpersonal difficulties of schizoid personality, but more eccentric then schizoid but less then schizophrenic - Characteristics: odd beliefs, magical thinking, recurrent illusions, speech used in unusual fashion, behavior & appearance eccentric, paranoid ideation, ideas of reference/illusions, characterized by cognitive/perceptual distortions, inability to tolerate close friends, odd behavior but not psychosis, MILD FOR MOF SCHIZOPHRENIA Antisocial: Borderline: reveals instability in relationships, mood, self-image, have an undeveloped clear/coherent sense of self, cant bear to be alone (fears of abandonment), series of intense one-on-one relationships (alternating between idealization/devaluation), chronic feelings of depression and emptiness, harm self (self-mutilation), - DSM DEFINITION: a pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image and affects and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood present in a variety of contexts as indicated by five or more of the following: Frantic efforts to avoid abandonment Pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationships (alternating between extremes of idealization and devaluation) Identity disturbance: markedly and persistently unstable self-image or sense of self Impulsivity in at least two areas that are potentially self-damaging Recurrent suicidal behavior, gestures of self-mutilation Affective instability due to marked reactivity of mood Chronic feelings of emptiness, inappropriate intense anger Transient, stress-related paranoid ideation or severe dissociative symptoms Histrionic: people who are overly dramatic/attention seeking while displaying emotion extravagantly are actually shallow emotionally - Characteristics: pervasive pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts as indicated by five or more of the following Uncomfortable in situations in which he/she is not the center of attention Interaction with others is often characterized by inappropriate sexually seductive or provocative behavior Consistently uses physical appearance to draw attention to self Displays rapidly shifting and shallow expression or emotions Has a style of speech that is excessively impressionistic and lacking in detail Shows self dramatization theatrically and exaggerated expression of emotion Suggestible, easily influenced by others Considers relationships to be more intimate than they actually are Excessive, almost theatrical emotional responsiveness At the same time shallowness to these emotions Narcissistic: histrionic is more emotionally dramatic superficial, want attention, uses sexuality seductiveness, extreme female stereotype, narcissistic is more male stereotype - Characteristics: pervasive pattern of grandiosity need for admiration and lack of empathy, indicated by five or more of the following: Grandiose sense of self-importance Expects to be recognized as superior Preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, love Beliefs that they are “special” and unique and can only associate with other special people Requires excessive admiration Has sense of entitlement, unreasonable expectations of treatment or automatic compliance Interpersonally exploitative, lacks empathy, envious of others Interpersonal relationships are disrupted by lack of empathy, envy arrogance, manipulation Feelings of entitlement Avoidant: people who are keenly sensitive to criticism, rejection or disapproval, fearful in social settings, reluctant to enter into relationships, afraid of saying something foolish, believe they are incompetent and inferior, exaggerate risk in doing something outside usual routine - comorbid with depression Dependent: lacks self-confidence and self-reliance, feel the yare weak and others powerful, spouses/partners assume responsibility for deciding everything, agree with other even when they know they are wrong, feel uncomfortable when alone, preoccupied with ears of being abandoned, subordinate their own needs for the needs of others, pervasive and excessive need to be taken care of obsessive-compulsive: perfectionist, preoccupied with details, preoccupied rules &schedules, have inordinate difficulty making decisions and allocating time interpersonal relationships are poor, demand that everything be done their way, generally serious formal/ inflexible, hoard money, What is the defense mechanism splitting? - person sees the world in black white terms (good or bad) - cant intergrade good and bad feelings - cant tolerate bad feelings What is the Big Five-factor model (McCrae & Costa, 1990)? Openness: how curious and imaginative Conscientiousness: how responsible and organized Extroversion: how outgoing and energetic Agreeableness: how kind or sympathetic Neuroticism: how anxious or tense Substance-Related Disorders DSM-5 has one category: Substance use disorder: List some of the DSM-5 symptoms - Problematic pattern of use that impairs functioning Examples: 2 or more symptoms within a 1-year period - Failure to meet obligations* - Repeated use in situations where it is physically dangerous* - Repeated relationship problems - Continued use despite problems - Tolerance - Withdrawal - Substance taken for a longer tome or in greater amount than intended - Efforts to reduce or control use do not work - Social, hobbies or work given up - Continued use despite knowing problems - Craving to use the substance is strong Describe some of the more serious symptoms associated with withdrawal symptoms from alcohol and other substances. - Having four or more server symptoms like: Tolerance: larger doses needed Withdrawal: negative physical and psychological effect from stopping usage Physiological dependence: presence of tolerance or withdrawal Briefly describe each drug: - Marijuana - Drug derived from dried and ground leaves and stems of the female hemp plant. Major active ingredient THC. Psychological effects are: Feelings of relaxation and sociability Rapid shifts of emotion Interferes with attention, memory, and thinking - Alcohol- enters bloodstream quickly through small intestine, interacts with several neural systems (stimulates GABA receptors, increases dopamine and serotonin, inhibits glutamate receptors) Reduces tension Produces pleasurable effects Produces cognitive difficulties Large amounts: motor impairment, poor decision making/awareness of errors made Long term: Malnutrion/liver damage, Fetal alcohol syndrome Delirium tremens: occurs when blood alcohol levels drop suddenly - Hallucinogens (i.e., LSD)- Mescaline, psilocybin, ecstasy, PCP, effects include Colorful visual hallucinations Psychedelic trip: expansion of consciousness Flashbacks: Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder - Barbiturates: sleeping aids but also used for sleeping - Amphetamines- increase alertness and motor activity, reduce fatigue, produce high levels of energy, sleeplessness, reduce appetite, increase HR, constrict blood vessels, trigger release and block reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine, High doses can lead to: nervousness, agitation, irritability, confusion, paranoia, hostility - Opiates- group of addictive sedatives that in moderate doses relieve pain and induce sleep include: opium, morphine, heroin, codeine; psychological effects are: Produce euphoria, drowsiness and lack of coordination Rush: intense feelings of warmth and ecstasy Stimulate receptors of the body’s opioid system Tolerance develops and withdrawal occurs What are the effects of each of the above drug (example Opioids: Produce euphoria, drowsiness, and lack of coordination). Substance abuse With physiological dependence: presence of either tolerance or withdrawal Without physiological dependence: absence of either tolerance or withdrawal What are LSD flashbacks? - Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder: most common during stress What is “alcohol myopia”? - user focuses reduced cognitive capacity on immediate distractions, less attention focused on tension-producing thoughts How does your expectancies about alcohol (or drug) effects actually influence what you experience after using the dug/alcohol? - People who expect slchol to reduce stress and anxiety are most likely to drink - Drinking and positive expectancies influence each other positively Describe the incentive-sensitization theory of substance dependence: when brain lights up when sees anything associated with drug, trigger craving Describe Alcoholics Anonymous: largest self-help group for problem drinkers, regular meetings provide support, understanding and acceptance, promotes complete abstinence Disorders of Childhood DSM-5 has new names for disorders: - Split Childhood Disorders into two chapters 1. Neurodevelopmental Disorders 2. Disruptive, Impulse Control, and Conduct Disorder - Mental retardation will now be called Intellectual Developmental Disorder DSM-5 combined some disorders - Autistic disorder+ Asperger’s disorder+ Pervasive Developmental Disorder = Autism Spectrum Disorder Externalizing disorders Characterized by: outward-directed behaviors - Noncompliance, aggressiveness, over-activity, impulsiveness - Includes: ADHD, Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Substance Disorders Internalizing disorder Characterized by: inward-focused behaviors - Depression, anxiety, social withdrawal - Includes: childhood anxiety, mood disorders (more common in girls Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: excessive levels of activity - List symptoms: fidgeting, squirming, running around when inappropriate, incessant talking - Distractibility and difficulty concentrating, makes careless mistakes and cannot follow instructions - Three subcategories in DSM-IV-TR A. Predominantly inattentive type: 6 or more manifestations of inattention present for at least 6 months: careless mistakes, not listening well, not following instructions, easily distracted, forgetful in daily activities B. Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type: 6 or more manifestations of hyperactivity-impulsivity present for at least 6 months: fidgeting, running about inapportriataley, acting as if driven by a motor, interrupting or intruding, incessant talking C. Combined type: symptoms of both A and B, must be present in two or more settings Etiology of ADHD - Genetic factors Heritability estimates as high as 70 to 80% - Etiology of ADHD (other factors include) Perinatal and prenatal factors Low birth weight Can be mitigated by later maternal warmth Treatment of ADHD - Stimulant medications (Ritalin, Adderall, Concerta, Strattera) - Psychological treatment - Parental training - Change in classroom management Conduct Disorder: pattern of engaging in behaviors that violate social norms, rights of others and are often illegal - List key symptoms: aggression, cruelty towards others or animals, damaging property, lying stealing, vandalism, lack of remorse - Two distinct CD types 1. Life-course-persistent pattern of antisocial behavior 2. Adolescence-limited: maturity gap between physical maturation and rewarding adult behavior - Etiology of Conduct Disorder (CD) - Genetic factors - Heritability likely plays a part - Neurobiological factors - Poor verbal skills - Difficulty with executive functioning - Psychological factors - Deficient moral development, especially lack of remorse - Modeling and reinforcement of aggressive behavior - Harsh and inconsistent parenting - Lack of parental monitoring - Sociocultural factors - Poverty - Urban environment Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD): do not meet criteria for CD but child displays pattern of defiant behavior - List key symptoms: argumentative, loses temper, lack of compliance, deliberately aggravates others, hostile, vindictive, spiteful or touchy, blames others for their problems - Comorbid with ADHD, learning/communication disorders Separation anxiety disorder: worry about parental or personal safety when away from parent typically first observed when child begins school - List key symptoms: extremely shy and quiet, may exhibit selective mutism Learning Disability: evidence of inadequate development in a specific area of academic, language, speech or motor skills Intellectual Developmental Disorder: mental retardation, intellectual disability is characterized by significant limitations both intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social and practical adaptive skills Formerly known as Mental Retardation in DSM-IV-TR (Not preferred due to stigma) - DSM-5 criteria: Intellectual deficit of 2 or more standard deviations in IQ below the average score for a person’s age and cultural group, which is typically an IQ score less than 70 Significant deficits in adaptive functioning relative to the person’s age and cultural group in one or more of the following areas: communication, social participation, work or school, independence at home or in the community, requiring the need for support at school, work, or independent life Onset before age 18 Autism Spectrum Disorder - DSM-5 combined multiple diagnoses into one: Autism Spectrum Disorder - Combined from DSM-IV - Autistic disorder, Asperger’s disorder: - List key symptoms: deficits in social communication/social interactions, restricted, repetitive behavior patterns, interests or activates, onset in early childhood, symptoms limit and impair functioning - Problems with the social world - Rarely approach others, may look through people - Problems in joint attention - Communication deficits (Children with ASD evidence early language disturbances) - Psychological treatments more promising than drugs - Earlier treatment associate with better outcomes .
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