Study Guide for Exam 1, Practice Exam 1 with Key
Study Guide for Exam 1, Practice Exam 1 with Key BIO 182
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caitlyn Hathorne on Saturday August 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 182 at Arizona State University taught by Prof. Foltz-Sweat in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see General Biology II in Biology at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 08/13/16
ASU West - Dr. Sweat BIO 182 - Exam 1 Study online quizlet.com/_2e2qek 1. 7 propertiesof > order 16. emergent properties that emerge as species move living organisms > evolutionary adaptation properties further away from a common ancestor > regulation 17. evidence of > artificial selection > reproduction evolution > antibiotic resistance > response toenvironment > anatomical homologies > growth and development > embryotic homologies > energy processing > cellular homologies 2. adaptive diversification in order tofill a variety of > vestigial parts radiation niches 18. first animals arthropods 3. allopatric new species from geographical isolation on land speciation 19. first plants 4. analogoustraits similarities from convergent evolution, no organisms homology, nocommon ancestor on land 5. artificial selection encourages inheritance of desired traits 20. first amphibians vertebrates 6. beginning oflife > divine creation on land > spontaneous origin > panspermia 21. founder genetic drift from isolation of part of OG 7. effect population, genetic variability reduced biological species a population that produces viable and concept fertile offspring 22. frequency fitness of phenotypes comes from how 8. bottleneck genetic drift from extreme loss of total dependent common (female v.male) selection effect` population, genetic variability reduced 9. conditionsof > large population 23. genetic drift chance events fluctuate allele frequencies Hardy Weinberg > noemigration 24. gradualism evolution comes from accumulation of gradual > noimmigration changes > random mating 25. heterozygote greater reproductive success of heterozygous; > nomutations advantage preserves genetic variation (sickle cell:AA fine, > recessive + dominant phenotypes Aa protection from malaria, aa sickle cell 10.convergent similar features found in independent disease) evolution evolutionary lineages 26. history oflife > 3.5 billion = unicellular, bacteria, prokaryotes 11. core theme of evolution > 2.4 billion = oxygen in atmosphere biology > 2.1 billion = eukaryotes 12.Darwin "On the Origin of Species" > 1.5 billion = milticellular 27. homologous similarities from shared ancestry 13.directional selection traits 28. Lamarck 2 principles: > parts of body used often become larger and stronger, others deteriorate > inheritance of acquired characteristcs 29. levelsof > biosphere 14.disruptive biological > ecosystem selection organization > community (destabilizing) > population > organism > organ and organ system > tissues > cells > organelles 15.ecological species ecological niches > molecules concept 30. 48. Linnaeus > morphological species concept pre-zygotic > temporal - different breeding times > nested classification system of organisms barriers > behavioral - attract mates differently > binomial naming of species > mechanism - parts don't fit > gametic - sperm attracted toegg of its own 31.Lyell "Principles of Geology": kind > same processes in past and present at same rate 49.punctuated stasis followed by sudden evolution > older layers on bottom, new on top equilibrium > earth is older than 6000 years 50.purpose of detect microevolution and if population is 32.macroevolution evolutionary change above species level Hardy evolving 33.major ideasof > structure = function Weinberg biology > cell is the basic unit 51.reductionism every complex phenomenon can be > uses and transmits information (DNA) explained by the simplest physical > interact with others and environment mechanisms present > use energy 52.sexual individuals with certain inherited traits are > homeostasis selection more likely toattract mates 34.Malthus "Essay on the Principle of Populations": 53.stabilizing > human population increases selection exponentially, food supply linearly > population controlled by disease, war, etc. 35.mechanism of heritable traits are passed on;mutation, evolution migration, genetic drift, natural selection 36.microevolution evolutionary change below species level 54.sympatric population divides intotwoseparate species 37.molecular clock means of measuring time of evolutionary change based on changes in genes speciation (same location) 38. 55.systems analyzes interactions among parts monophyletic common ancestor and all descendants clade biology 39.morphogenesis measurable anatomical criteria 56.Wallace pushover;developed theory of natural speciesconcept selection similar toDarwin 40.neutral theory theory that evolution comes from random 57.Wegener > continental drift drift of mutant alleles that are neutral 58.where life noconsensus: 41.orthologous homologous genes in species from began > beach gene speciation, codes for same protein > earth's crust > clay 42.paralogousgene homologous genes in genome from gene > deep-sea vents duplication 43.paraphyletic common ancestor and some descendants clade 44.parsimony simplest explanation is best 45.phylogenetic smallest group of individuals that share speciesconcept common ancestor 46.polyphyletic nocommon ancestor and some or all clade descendants 47.post-zygotic > reduced hybrid viability - health based barriers > reduced hybrid fertility - reproduction based
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