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Chapters 1-3 Exam 1

by: Cassandra Casal

Chapters 1-3 Exam 1 GLY 1010

Cassandra Casal
GPA 3.2

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Chapters 1-3
Michael Wacker
Study Guide
Geology, Science, EARTH, rocks, minerals
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cassandra Casal on Saturday August 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GLY 1010 at Florida International University taught by Michael Wacker in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Geology in Science at Florida International University.


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Date Created: 08/13/16
Study Guide for Midterm 1 Chapters 1-10 Chapter 1 Be able to identify geologic hazards. Geologic hazards are responsible for great loss of life and destruction of property. A geologically hazardous condition exists when life and/or property are threatened by geologic or hydrologic processes. Geologic Event Hazards They Cause Earthquake A. Ground shaking B. Surface faulting C. Landslides and liquefaction 1. Rock avalanches 2. Rapid soil flows 3. Rock falls D. Tsunamis Volcanic Eruption A. Tephra falls and ballistic projectiles B. Pyroclastic phenomena C. Lahars (mud flows) and floods D. Lava flows and domes E. Poisonous gases What factors control the distribution of the Earth’s natural resources? Understand Earth’s place in the Solar System. Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.  Know the order and basic make-up of each layer for both the compositional (chemical) and physical layers of the Earth. What is the composition of the core and what does it compare to? Earth's core has two parts, a solid iron inner core and a molten outer core, which is composed of a nickel-iron alloy. The outer core begins about 1,800 miles under the crust What are the two crustal types and how do they differ? continental crust and oceanic crust.  Ocean crust is composed of the rock basalt, a dark, dense igneous rock  Continental crust consists mostly of granite, a less dense, lighter in color, igneous rock.  Know and be able to draw the basic “Rock Cycle” (Section 1.6). Understand density and how it affects rock with the layers of the Earth including how hot/cold rock have different densities even though it is the same rock and what happens to each compared to the surrounding rock. Chapter 2 Understand the concept of “relative dating” and how it is done by geologists. Relative dating is the science of determining the relative order of past events (i.e., the age of an object in comparison to another), without necessarily determining  their absolute age, (i.e. estimated age) Know the principles of superposition, cross-cutting relationships, and how inclusions and contact effects relate to relative dating. Law of superposition stating that in any undisturbed sequence of rocks deposited in layers, the youngest layer is on top and the oldest on bottom, each layer being younger than the one beneath it and older than the one above it. Cross-cutting relationships is a principle of geology that states that the geologic feature which cuts another is the younger of the two features. It is a relative dating technique in geology. Know the different map types and how they are used. Chart -> water map Map -> land Topographic-> detailed elevation Understand the terms density, mass, and weight. Understand the difference between qualitative and quantitative. Quatitative data are anything that can be expressed as a number, or quantified.  Examples of quantitative data are scores on achievement tests, number of hours  of study, or weight of a subject. These data may be represented by ordinal,  interval or ratio scales and lend themselves to most statistical manipulation. Qualitative data cannot be expressed as a number. Data that represent nominal  scales such as gender, socieo economic status, religious preference are usually  considered to be qualitative data. Know the four geologic Eras and be able to put them in order of time. Understand the scientific method: observation, hypothesis, and theory THINGS TO KNOWWWW Divergent convergent and transfer Know why they’re higher Subduction Convergent Mid ocean segments 2-20 cm to year Chapter 3 Know and understand the evidence for plate tectonics? Fit of continents, fossils, structural similarities, rock types, paleomagnetism, hot spots, earthquakes, etc. Know and understand the three types of plate boundaries. What is going on in geologic terms, lithospheric types, and geologic features associated with each type. Where is lithosphere created? Destroyed? Most complicated is convergent, know about O-O, O-C, and C-C collisions. Know the boundaries of the North American Plate. What Plates border it? Is the east coast of North America a plate boundary? Where is the boundary? How do the earthquakes associated with each plate boundary differ (Deep versus shallow, large versus small, etc)? How is magma generated at a mid-ocean ridge? Why do mid-ocean ridges sit higher than oceanic crust away from the ridge? How fast are the plates moving? Know the range of motion. 2-20 cm per year What are hot spots and how do they explain plate movement? What are the three forces the move plates? Slab pull, ridge push, convection. What is the Curie Point and why is it important? The Curie temperature is a point at which materials lose their ferromagnetism, the ability to align their  atoms even in the absence of a magnetic field. They become paramagnetic, requiring an external  magnetic field to magnetize and remain in that state. Magnetic materials may change properties at a  variety of temperatures, but they are often quite high. When the temperature drops again, the  material recovers its magnetism, illustrating that the phase change is reversible. The Curie  temperature phenomenon is named for noted researcher Pierre Curie. When materials are in a ferromagnetic state, exposure to a magnetic field can align their atoms and  create an attraction. If the field is taken away, the magnetism remains, as the material has a form of  memory. This can be used to make permanent magnets and demonstrate a variety of interesting  physical phenomena. Paramagnetic materials, however, require the maintenance of an external  magnetic field to remain magnetized. At the Curie temperature, the heat agitates the atoms inside the material so much that they cannot  align, and it loses its magnetism. This can have important implications. Ingeology, for example, high  heat can occur in lightning strikes and volcanic eruptions, and is capable of causing the properties of minerals in the Earth’s crust to change. Observers looking at magnetic minerals need to consider  their history and what may have influenced them. Where and how is the Earth’s magnetic field produced? What happens during reversals? Know the stages associated with continental rifting. Uplift, continental rift, narrow ocean basin, wide ocean basin


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