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Biology 150, Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Brigette Honaker

Biology 150, Exam 2 Study Guide BIO 150

Brigette Honaker

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About this Document

This study guide contains a detailed explanation of all suggested study topics for Exam 2.
Introduction to Biology
Jeffrey Carmichael
Study Guide
Biology, Photosynthesis, Cellular Respiration, calvin cycle, Mitosis, Meiosis
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brigette Honaker on Sunday August 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 150 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Jeffrey Carmichael in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.


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Date Created: 08/14/16
Exam 2 Study Guide 1. The major stages of cellular respiration, including where they occur, what is produced at each stage, and the process of producing ATP by chemiosmosis. a. Glycolysis: Occurs in cytosol; one 6-carbon glucose molecule is broken into two 3 carbon pyruvates; ATP is produced from ADP and P; NiD is reduced to NADH b. Pyruvate Processing: Occurs in matrix of mitochondria; 2 pyruvates per every 1 glucose used in glycolysis; each pyruvate processed to release one + CO 2olecule and the compound acetyl CoA; more NAD is reduced to NADH c. Citric Acid Cycle: Occurs in matrix of mitochondria; each acetyl CoA is oxidized to 2 CO2molecules; ATP and NADH produced; FAD reduced to FADH 2 d. Electron Transport Chain: Occurs in the inner membrane of mitochondria; electrons from NADH and FADH mo2e through the electron transport chain; energy released to create a proton gradient across membrane i. Chemiosmosis: protons defuse from high proton concentration to low proton concentration across the inner membrane, resulting in an electrochemical proton gradient; ATP synthase (enzyme) allows protons to move like this and uses the resulting energy to make ATP 2. Compare and contrast the processes of aerobic cell respiration and fermentation. a. Oxygen i. Oxygen available during aerobic respiration gives you 18 times more energy ii. With no O2to turn into CO2for pyruvate processing, cells will form acids. 3. The light reactions of photosynthesis including the pathway of electron flow through and the significance of: PS1, PS2, ETC, and ATP synthase. a. PSII (Photosystem 2) i. First protein complex in the light dependent reactions ii. Located in the thylakoid membrane iii. Enzymes capture photons to energize electrons iv. Electrons transferred through coenzymes and cofactors to reduce plastoquinone to plastoquinol 1 Exam 2 Study Guide v. Energized electrons are replaced by oxidizing water to form hydrogen atoms and molecular oxygen b. ETC (Electron Transport Chain) i. Series of reactions that transfer electrons is redox reactions and transfers protons across a membrane, creating energy used to form ATP c. PSI (Photosystem 1) i. Second photosystem in photosynthesis ii. Uses light energy to mediate electron transport from plastocyanin to ferredoxin iii. Series of 100+ cofactors d. ATP Synthase i. An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ATP 4. The functional role of chlorophyll and accessory pigments a. Chlorophyll a i. Absorbs light and transfers it to photosystems II and I for light dependent reactions ii. Primary pigment used in photosynthesis iii. Released chemical energy iv. All photosynthetic organisms use chlorophyll a b. Accessory Pigments i. Work in conjunction with chlorophyll a ii. Chlorophyll b: Found in green algal and higher plant antennae; reflects green light iii. Carotene: Used in many unsaturated hydrocarbons; transmit light energy to chlorophyll; reflects orange and yellow light iv. Xanthophyll: Modulate light energy; high quantity in leaves; reflects yellow light 5. Location of the light reactions and the Calvin cycle a. Light reactions i. See #3 for information on Photosystems I and II ii. Occur in the thylakoid membrane of the cholorplast b. Calvin Cycle i. See #6 for information on the Calvin Cycle ii. Occurs in the stroma of chloroplasts 2 Exam 2 Study Guide 6. Explain what occurs during the Calvin cycle (“dark reactions”) including the significance of: CO2, RuBP, RuBisCo, ATP, and NADPH. a. 3CO + 6NADPH + 5H O + 9 ATP  G3P + 2H + 6NADP + 9 ADP + 8P 2 2 i b. Uses energy from light dependent reactions to convert CO and 2ther compounds into organic compounds; AKA carbon fixation c. RuBisCo (Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase osygenase) i. Key enzyme used in the Calvin Cycle ii. Catalyzes the carboxylation of RuBP iii. Also catalyzes photorespiration (RuBP with O )2 d. RuBP (Ribulose – 1,5 – bisphosphate) i. After carboxylation occurs, an unstable 6 carbon product immediately decays into 3-PGA which is important to metabolic pathways ii. In photorespiration, RuBP and O 2orm 3-PGA and phospholgylcolic acid e. CO 2 i. Carboxylizes RuBP for the first step of the Calvin Cycle f. ATP i. Phosphorylizes 3-PGA in the second step of the Calvin Cycle; produces ADP and 1,3BPGA g. NADPH i. Reduces 1,3BPGA in the third step of the Calvin Cycle; produces G3P and NADP + 7. Explain the significance of C4 photosynthesis. a. AKA C4 carbon fixation; this is a specialized, more evolved method to convert CO 2nto organic molecules, similar to C 3arbon fixation (aka the calvin cycle); overcomes the wastefulness of RuBisCo during photorespiration 3 Exam 2 Study Guide b. Divided between 2 cells, mesophyll cell and bundle sheath cells; light dependent reactions and preliminary carbon fixation occurs in the mesophyll cell; C2 is released to the bundle sheath cells via malate; CO 2hen undergoes carbon fixation by RuBisCo and the Calvin Cycle; PEP is recycled back to the mesophyll cells and the carbohydrate products are distributed to the plant. c. Significance: Minimizes the losses of photorespiration. Enables C plants to 4 thrive in high temperatures, intense sunlight, and low soil moisture 8. The stages of mitosis (including the position of chromosomes and chromatids) a. Interphase: Cell prepares for cell division. Cell grows and replicated its chromosomes. i. G 1hase: The cell grows ii. S phase: The cell duplicates its chromosomes iii. G2phase: The cell grows more and prepares for mitosis b. Prophase: Occurs after G int2rphase. Chromosomes are tightly condensed in the nuclear envelope and the spindle starts to form. Nuclear envelope contains 2 sister chromatids for each chromosome. c. Prometaphase: Nuclear envelope disintegrates. Microtubules begin to locate the kinetochores on the chromosome centromeres. Chromosomes float freely in the middle of the cell, no longer contained in the nuclear envelope. d. Metaphase: Microtubules attached to the kinetochores. The 2 centromeres in the spindle begin pulling chromosomes to the opposite sides of the cell. The tension causes the chromosomes to align along the center of the cell. e. Anaphase: The sister chromatids are split, forming 2 identical daughter chromosomes. Daughter chromosomes are pulled to opposite sides of the cell. f. Telophase: 2 new nuclear envelopes forms around each daughter chromosomes. Each new nucleus has an identical set of chromosomes. g. Cytokinesis: The two cells have separate via either a cleavage furrow (in animal cells) or a cell plate (in plant cells). 9. Nondisjunction and its potential impacts a. Nondisjunction: The failure of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate during cell division. b. Results in daughter cells with abnormal chromosome numbers. This can cause a serious of chromosomal defects. 4 Exam 2 Study Guide 10. Stages of the cell cycle a. G 0hase: resting phase; cell has left the cell cycle and has stopped dividing. b. Interphase i. G 1hase: The cell grows ii. S phase: The cell duplicates its chromosomes iii. G2phase: The cell grows more and prepares for mitotic phase c. Mitotic phase: Meiosis or mitosis occurs for chromosome separation. d. Cytokinesis phase: Separation of all cell components 11. The significance of, and experimental evidence for, MPF a. MPF = Maturation-Promoting Factor; cyclin-Cdk complex that simulates mitotic and meiotic phases of the cell cycle b. In Mitosis i. Allows the progression from the G2phase into the M phase ii. Activated by a phosphatase c. Experimental Evidence i. First found in frog eggs. Frog eggs can be induced to enter M phase by injecting cytoplasm that already went into the M phase (i.e. already had the MPF) 12. The stages of meiosis (including the position of chromosomes and chromatids) a. Meiosis I: Segregates homologous chromosomes, producing 2 haploid cells which each contain chromatid pairs i. Prophase I: Longest phase of Meiosis. Homologous chromosomes pair and exchange DNA via chromosomal crossover. ii. Metaphase I: Homologous pairs move together along the metaphase plate. Kinetochore microtubules from both centrosomes attach to their respective kinetochores. iii. Anaphase I: Kinetochore microtubules shorten, pulling homologs to opposite poles. iv. Telophase I: Chromosomes arrive at the poles. New nuclear membranes form. Sister chromatids remain attached. v. Cytokinesis: Results in a total of 2 daughter cells, each with a diploid set of chromosomes. b. Meiosis II: Separation of sister chromatids. Process occurs in each daughter cell. i. Prophase II: Nuclear envelopes disappear. Centrosomes form and arrange spindle fibers. ii. Metaphase II: Spindle fibers attach to kinetochores and the metaphase plate forms (perpendicular to previous metaphase plate). iii. Anaphase II: Sister chromatids separate to opposite poles. Sister chromatids are now called sister chromosomes. iv. Telophase II: Nuclear membranes reform around each new set of sister chromosomes. v. Cytokinesis: Results in a total of 4 daughter cells, each with a haploid set of chromosomes. 13. Explain how genetic variation is introduced into sexually- reproducing populations (including being able to calculate the number of chromosome combinations in gametes) 5 Exam 2 Study Guide a. Genetic variation is introduced by chromosome crossover and independent assortment. b. Chromosomal crossover: Crossing over of exchanging DNA by exchanging pieces of genetic material between homologs. c. Independent assortment: During gamete production, individual hereditary factors assort independently, giving different traits an equal opportunity of occurring together. 14. Differentiate between genes/alleles, chromosomes/chromatids/homologous chromosomes, haploid/diploid a. Genes: A distinct sequence of nucleotides forming part of a chromosome. b. Alleles: One of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome. c. Chromatids: One copy of a newly copied chromosome. Chromatids are joined together at the centromere. d. Homologous chromosomes: a set of one maternal and one paternal chromosomes that pair up with each other. The copies have the same genes in the same locations. e. Haploid cells: Cells that have a single set of unpaired chromosomes. f. Diploid cells: Cells that have two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent cell. 6


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