Psychology 102 Exam 3 Study Guide
Psychology 102 Exam 3 Study Guide PSY-P 102
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Veronica Bone on Monday March 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY-P 102 at Indiana University taught by Irene Vlachos-Weber in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 511 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology 2 in Psychlogy at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 03/23/15
Psychological Disorders Exam 3 Psychology 102 What is abnormal A Defining a Abnormality is not i Insanity legal term the person did not know the difference between right and wrong during a crime ii Simply quotunusualquot is not abnormal 1 Ex a child genius b Psych disorder group of symptoms create significant distress suffering or impairment in daily living c Criteria i Deviance behavior deviates from what society considers acceptable 1 Ex transvestitism straight male sexually aroused by wearing women s clothing a Deviant for men to dress like women socially acceptable for women to dress like men b Different depending on society you re in culture religion ii Maladaptive behavior everyday adaptive behavior is impaired 1 Ex binge drinking for students a Effects health not enough sleep issues academics stress iii Personal distress report of great personal pain and suffering 1 Ex depression except mania have lots of ideas and energy and feel great 2 Ex ASPD a Antisocial against being social feel entitled b Don t have empathy feeling with someone c Typically male d Incidence of abnormal disorders i Lifetime up to 48 of people at some point in their lives ii Any year 20 meet criteria 1 Includes a Big things like schizophrenia b Most common depression anxiety and substance abuse c Also eating disorders e Issues i Culturally determined 1 Major categories occur across cultures a Depression anxiety psychosis 2 Norms differ across cultures a Greetingsgestures waving hi here is normal may mean something else in another country b Personal space c Dating behavior sex before married or not d Clothing how much skin you can show 3 Norms change over time a Homosexuality until 70s it was in the DSM i Changes in culture fight for civil rights ii Research sexual orientation no difference in abnormal functioning 4 Myths about abnormal disorders lots of stigma a Incurable most people actually do get better i Disorders take different courses 1 Episodic there is a beginning and an end like depression and bipolar 2 Chronic going to always have it sometimes betterworse like anxiety disorder b People violent amp dangerous i Usually not but the bad cases are interesting to people so they get media attention c People behave in bizarre ways i Mostly in severe disorders ii Like people who believe they are Jesus ii Explaining abnormality 1 Historical Ancient Greeks gods were interfering w human life a If you were behaving in an abnormal way must be gods supernatural explanation b If people thought you were a witch they would tie up and throw in water i If you float you are a witch ii If you sink you are not a witch c Biological i Hypocrites 1 Women can create life while men can t pregnancy is the natural state of a women if not than you have a wandering uterus looking for fetus 2 Hysteria comes from this idea physical symptoms with no physical cause 2 Today diathesis stress model a Diatheses biological predisposition genetic i Ex schizophrenia 1 population 48 chance if one identical twin has it the other will b Stress from the environment c Need both of these for disorder to be expressed i Even with biological disposition will not show up wout stress ii High predisposition needs only a little stress to be anxious iii Low predisposition needs a lot of stress 1 Ex Irene and Jeff are opposite B Categorizing disorders a Diagnosis distinguishing one illness from another i Can t make diagnosis on one symptom but a pattern of symptoms ii DSM Diagnostic amp Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSMV 1 Lists of symptoms for disorders but no info on causes or treatment Anxiety Disorders A Fear vs Anxiety all experience at one time or another not a disorder until it messes with daily life a Fear innate emotion present at birth focus on the present i It is not bad it helps with survival focusing on present and avoid what is dangerous b Anxiety derives from fear focusing on the future i Not about the actual act but the consequences 1 Like not afraid of physically taking test but the results and doing bad on the test c Characteristics i Chest tight restless sweaty dry mouth mind goes blank heart rate increases eat when stressed cry ii Sympathetic nervous system turns on iii Fight or flight d Chronic always have it but intensity wavers i quotfull moon more stressed ii quotsliver of moon less anxious e More female than male i Why 1 Social phobia Sensitive to environment Hormones Transitional female roles Society pressures body images ii Thinking styles depressionanxiety ex couple gets in argument 1 Male distract themselves workout or go drink 2 Women ruminate think about everything the guy did wrong think upon everything 3 Distracting is more effective guy feels better women are more anxious iii Societal roles who can show fear Women can guys it is weird B Generalized Anxiety Disorder anxiety and worry about a number of events activities a Worry about money jobs tests grades and relationships b Difficult to concentrate catastrophize irritable risk aversion muscle tension chronic C Phobias persistent irrational fear of object or situation avoidance interferes with daily behavior you know it is irrational but you can t help it know you re not going to get hurt but still scared a Specific object or situation i Almost always have panic response 1 Ex animals like spiders dogs birds catect Also natural environments like heights germs dark ect 2 Ex Marvins phobia of pitbulls a Learned phobia through observational learning watching friend be attacked b Treat him by exposure flooding by exposing to most feared stimulus i Can t stay at high level of anxiety so he will calm down and learn its not actually going to hurt him b Social fear of public humiliation or embarrassment avoid these situations i If you just don t like it but do it anyway its fine if you would rather take an F it s a phobia F Equally in male and female Public speaking and interviews Panic Disorder recurrent panic attacks amp worry about future attacks Panic attack epidode overwhelming fear for 530 minutes a Symptoms 1st time don t know what s happening heart rate increase nausea fears dying breathing and hyperventilation Sudden may be unexpected Ex Gene had panic attacks going to the grocery store so she avoided situation b Agoraphobia fear of public or unfamiliar place in which person would feel trapped embarrassed if they had panic attack World gets smaller and smaller first avoid places stay inside house ect Ect 1 Ex Of extreme case girl was scared of leaving bathroom sat on toilet for a month skin grew around toilet seat Obsessivecompulsive disorder OCD many people who claim they have OCD actually have OCPD obsessive compulsive personality disorder inflexible things done in particular way or unhappy but don t have obsessions or compulsions more likely in college students ect 0 Causes a Ex Jeff Irene s husband must do everything quothisquot way with the dishwasher Obsessions recurrent intrusive thoughts impulses that cause anxiety Compulsions repetitive behaviors or mental actions person feels driven to perform believe harm will occur if rituals are not done Ex Gale feels compelled to wash her hands because of contaminants she washes hands 8200x a day 1 Diaphisis stress model biological predisposition environment a Had a baby wanted everything clean so germs don t hurt baby then her own kid and husband represents contamination had to shower before hugging her 2 She is not psychotic because she knows her fear is irrational 3 Can have compulsion without obsessions and vise versa People think that if they have an obsessive thought they will act on it which is not true 1 If you have road rage and have a thought of running a pedestrian over chances are you wouldn t Treatment behavior therapy by exposure for obsession and response for compulsion Exposure and response Expose them to germs like touching the toilet and not letting them wash their hands right after 1 Show them that it will not hurt them Hypocondrasis you have physical symptoms but exaggerates what It means or what you have 1 Headachehead tumor 2 Arm falls asleep paralyzed Biological i Genetic inhibited shy GAD social phobia 1 Polygenic many different genes make up a disorder if there was just one we could isolate it and eliminate it 2 Don t like novelty new things people situations a Social don t want to be around new people afraid of being embarrassed ii Brain 1 Overactive amygdala limbic system emotion tells when you are in danger a Fear response causes one to fell they are always in danger i Would be good in past primitive communities because should look out for dangerous animals and such now it is not so much needed not it serious danger a lot iii Neurotransmitters chemicals 1 Communication between neurons sometimes too low and need meds for more neurotransmitters a Serotonin for depression b Norepinphrine fight or flight response b Psychological i Anxiety sensitivity sensitive to the symptoms of anxiety misinterpret physical symptoms 1 Ex climbing the stairs will increase your heart rate and you will sweat people will panic thinking they are having a panic attack causing a anxiety and sometimes resulting in a panic attack ii Irrational dysfunctional thinking 1 Catastrophize thinking that the worst thing would happen iii Learning 1 Classical conditioning 1 Before conditioning 2 Before conditioning v xquot J response response Food Salivation Whistle No salivation Unconditioned Unconditioned Neutral No conditioned stimulus response stimulus response 3 During conditioning 4 After conditioning i 39 Xx t response response Whistle Food Sahvation Whistle Salivation Unconditioned Conditioned Conditioned response stimulus response How to develop a phobia through classical conditioning o Unconditioned stimulus is the dog bite which comes with the unconditioned response of fear 0 This is the natural response to the situation now will associate dogs with dog bites so it elicits fear so in future o Conditioned stimulus is the dog which has the conditioned response of fear 2 Observational learning being scared of something because of watching something in the past a Ex watching friend being attacked by dog in the past now being scared of dogs b It is usually maintained because you avoid the fear c Avoidance increases which reinforces the fear because you can never see that the dog will not hurt you Mood Disorders persistent episodic disturbances in affect mood that interfere with normal functioning A Major depressive disorder subclinica depression is shorter time with fewer symptoms a Most common and most severe form of depression b 23x more women 25 than men 12 c An episode lasts at least 2 weeks d Symptoms i Cognitive must have at least 1 or 2 symptom 1 Depressed mood most of day 2 Much less interestpleasure in activities anhedonia 3 Feelings worthlessness and guilt excessive 4 Diminished ability to think or concentrate 5 Recurrent thoughts death suicidal ideation ii Physical 1 Significant weight lossgain appetite increase or decrease 2 Fatigue loss of energy 3 Insomniahypersomnia sleep too much can t get out of bed 4 Agitated or much slower e Example with the lady in the video that was depressed i She would not make eye contact thinks she is the devil and has suicidal thoughts ii Electroconvulsive therapy 1 Shocks brain to stimulate neurons 2 Makes them release neurotransmitters in order to make patient feel better more happy 3 If lots of neurons fire at the same time it causes a grandma seizure 4 Can be highly effective side effect is memory loss iii After therapy she was smiling making eye contact B Bipolar disorder manicdepression cycle between manic and depressive episodes a Cycle between diagnosis 1 manic episode b Manic episode last at least 1 week unless require hospitalization of being abnormally elevated expansive irritable mood i Grandiosity elevated dselfesteem ii Hyperactive need much less sleep increased amount of energy iii Pressured speech speak really quickly because of racing thoughts iv Racing thoughts flight of ideas v Pleasurable activities can lead to painful consequences 1 Super shopping sprees 2 Sexual activities vi Distractible c When people have manic they might not want to take meds because they feel so good C Causes a Biological i Genetic variance what episode due to genes 1 MDD 40 genes 2 Bipolar 90 genes ii Neurotransmitters 1 Serotonin mood norepinphrine stress dopamine pleasure b Psychological i Cognitive errors depressive triad 1 Depressive Triad negative thoughts about self world and future 2 Cognitive errors a Ex all or none thinking i When something is either perfect or terrible getting an A is perfect a B is terrible b Ex mind reading i Jump to conclusion of what people are thinking or doing without evidence ii Say hi to someone and they don t say hi back jump to that they don t like you ii Learned helplessness 1 When efforts don t work then you stop trying even when there might be a solution 2 Ex the dog studies a Kept a dog in a cage and shocked dog the dog tried to get out but they couldn t after so many times they stopped trying When they shocked the dog with an open door in the cage the dog still didn t try to escape because they learned helplessness they didn t think there was a way iii Stressful life events perception 1 Set off on initial depressive episode 2 How a person s attitude about the situation or their view effects their reaction 3 Ex getting a C on an exam for a Premed student vs graduating senior a Premed freaks out thinking they will never get into med school it is going to ruin their future ect b Graduating senior celebrates no worries they are done and have a job lined up it is no big deal and is happy with it Schizophrenia psychotic disorders characterized by major disturbances in thought emotion and behavior A Split from reality not split personality dissociative identity disorder a Their reality is different than everyone else can t argue with the person and tell them that they are wrong because it is as real to them as the sky is blue for us B Effects 1 of population effects male and females equally but men experience more severely and earlier C Symptoms a Positive symptoms excess presence of unusual behaviors i Impaired perception ii Hallucination iii Inappropriate emotion iv Disorganized speech v Loose association vi Delusions 1 Persecution 2 Grandeur b Negative symptoms loss of normal functions I Flat affect ii Avolition iii Withdrawal iv Catatonia D Causes a Biological i Genetic ii Brainstructure iii Neurotransmitter 1 Increasein 2 Decrease in b Psychological DSM Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 0 Standard in psychology and psychiatry o Classifying psychopathology based on observable symptoms must meet certain criteria 0 Categorical approach implies a person either has a mental disorder or does not 0 Dimensional approach consider mental disorders along a continuum in which people vary in degree rather than kind Assessment the examination of a person s mental state to diagnose possible psychological disorders 0 Primary goal is to make a diagnosis so appropriate treatment can be provided 0 Prognosis the course and probable outcome will depend on mental disorder diagnosed Internalizing vs Externalizing disorders 0 Internalizing characterized by negative emotions grouped in categories by distress and fear 0 Major depression generalized disorder panic disorder 0 More common in women 0 Externalizing characterized by disinhibition o Alcoholism conduct disorders antisocial behavior 0 More common in men PTSD Post Traumatic Stress Disorder a mental disorder that involves frequent nightmares intrusive thoughts and flashbacks related to an earlier trauma 0 More common in females 0 Have the inability to forget o Hypervigilant to stimuli shown a picture or hearing a certain noise can bring back memories Dysthymia a form of depression that is not severe enough to be diagnosed as a major depression and can last 220 years Schizophrenia 0 Negative symptoms 0 More common with men 0 Associated with a poor prognosis doesn t react to medication as much because it is more of a dysfunctional abnormal brain anatomy 0 Children with Schizophrenia express compared to siblings 0 Unusual social behaviors more severe negative emotions and motor disturbances 0 Individuals with Schizophrenia had mothers that are more likely to have 0 Contracted influenza during the 2quot l trimester 0 At this time trauma or pathogens can interfere with fetus brain 0 Treatment 0 Medication reduces delusions and hallucinations o Cognitivebehavioral therapy reduce delusions and hallucinations Mindfulnessbased cognitive therapy 0 People who recover from depression continue to be vulnerable to faulty thinking when they experience negative moods 0 Goals to help patients become more aware of negative feelings when they are vulnerable and to help them learn how to disengage from negative thinking through meditation Transcranial magnetic stimulation a powerful electrical current produces magnetic fields rapidly switching on and off induces electrical current in brain region interrupting neural function in that region 0 May help with depression Deep brain stimulation surgically implanting electrodes deep within the brain mild electricity is used to stimulate brain woptimal frequency and intensity 0 Treat OCD depression and Parkingson s Antidepressants o 1 in 10 Americans over 6 take antidepressants 0 Increased use due to marketing pressure of the drug industry drug companies give doctors an inflated sense of evidence of pharmacological treatment pay for beneficial research 0 Biases on effectiveness of drug therapy want to publish successes rather than failures 0 Antidepressants vs Placebos o Antidepressants may help treat the symptoms of depression without having influence on the cause 0 There are placebo effects in treatment of depression but antidepressants lead to greater improvement 0 For placebo effects to work the patient must believe it will work I Making the placebo come with side effects can convince the patient it is real and the placebo effect will work better 0 Treatment for depression 0 Most effective is the combinedtreatment approach using psychotherapy and drug therapy 0 No better therapy just what works better for the patient I Drug treatment is better for those who are suicidal have acute distress or those unable to commit to regular therapist visits I Psychotherapy for those with physical problems like liver impairment cardiac problems 0 Good because it is long lasting and has no side effects of medication
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