New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

study Guide

by: Manaswini Mattegunta

study Guide BTEC 1322

Manaswini Mattegunta

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Introduction to Biotechnology
Albert Flavier
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Introduction to Biotechnology

Popular in Biotechnology

This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Manaswini Mattegunta on Monday August 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BTEC 1322 at University of Houston taught by Albert Flavier in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biotechnology in Biotechnology at University of Houston.


Reviews for study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 08/15/16
Introduction to Biotechnology ( Part 1) Bioprocessing Use of living cells to manufacture a product Bioinformatics Use of computer technology to manage biological information Stages in the evolution of Biotechnology: 1. Classical biotechnology: domestication of plants and animals for food and other human needs. Use of controlled organisms in controlled environment to make products such as bread, cheese, yogurt, and alcohol 2. Modern biotechnology: involves genetic engineering Genetic engineering Transfers genes from one genus to another and enables the creation of genetically modified organism,(GMO) Recombinant biotechnology Combines gene fragments from different diet sources. - Includes recombinant RNA (rRNA) cell fusion, and stem cells Classification of Biotechnology Organism Based 1. Microbial 2. Animal 3. Plant Product/ Technology 1. Forensic 2. Agricultural 3. Medical 4. Industrial 5. Environmental (energy) History of Biotechnology Smallpox Living organisms for vaccinations Robert Hooke Discovery of cells Pasteur Lactic acid fermentation of bacteria Buchner Detection of fermentation enzymes in yeast Charles Darwin Origin of species Gregor Mendel Father of Genetics Alexander fleming Discovered antibiotic , penicillin Oswald Avery Isolation of pure DNA Hershey and Chase Discovered the hereditary material as DNA Watson Crick Structure of DNA is Double Helix Arthur Kornberg Crystallizes DNA polymerase Norman Borlaug Father of GREEN Revolution and first to plant breeder to win Nobel prize Stanley Cohen Isolated bacterial plasmids, and showed transformation of antibiotic …..resistance gene carried on plasmid, conferred antibiotic resistance to the transformed bacteria Herb Boyer Discovered the DNA restriction enzyme (EcoRI) Paul Berg Formed recombinant DNA ( E.coli and SV40-virus) Gentech Inc First biotechnology company Human insulin Produced in E.coli Kary Mullis Amplification of DNA by PCR rBGH First recombinant animal hormone produced in E.coli BRCA1 Breast cancer gene Craig Venter and Francis Collins Human genome project (completed in 2003) Cell theory ● Basic unit of structure and function ● All cells come from pre-existing cells ● All organisms are made of cells Organisms are divided into three kingdoms Basic features of cells Plasma membrane: regulates the passage of materials between cell and its surrounds Cytosol: semifluid substance within the cell DNA: the genetic information Ribosomes: make proteins Eukaryotic cell Prokaryotic cell Animals, Plants, Fungi & Protists Bacteria, Archaea Membrane-enclosed organelles No membrane-enclosed organelles Nucleus No nucleus Larger Smaller More Complex Less complex Genome : the complete set of DNA in an organism’s nucleus and mitochondria (and chloroplast) Genomics: is the large scale study of sets of genes within and between species Gene: unit of inheritance A sequence of nucleotides on DNA that provide cells with the information needed to produce a specific protein DNA: 1.Consists of 2-strands, i.e., a double helix 2.There is polarity in both strands and are anti parallel to each other. One strand goes in a 5’ to 3’ direction, and the paired strand goes in 3’ to 5’ direction 3.The paired strands are stabilized by H-bond between complementary bases: a.A pairs with T b.G pairs with C DNA replication: Origin of replication where DNA strands open up and forms a bubble Bacterial chromosomes has one but eukaryotic has multiple origins of replication There is a Y- shaped replication fork where DNA starts to elongate Multiple enzymes and proteins participate together 1. Helicases: unwind the double helix 2. Single strand binding proteins: bind and stabilize the unwounded DNA 3. Gyrase: corrects the overwinding ahead of the replication fork by breaking swiveling and rejoining the DNA strands 4. DNA polymerase III: catalyzes the addition of nucleotides to generate new strands of DNA 5. RNA primer: starts the DNA replication and is generated by an enzyme called primase 6. DNA polymerase I: removes RNA primer and attaches the DNA nucleotides Leading strand: replicates continuously in the 5’ to 3’ direction, it needs only one RNA primes Lagging strand: it is also called as the Okazaki fragments ,it works in the opposite direction , in requires multiple RNA primers. DNA ligase: joins all of the okazaki fragments together into continuous DNA Telomeres: do not contain genetic code instead they protect the genes from being eroded through multiple rounds of DNA replication Central Dogma of Molecular Biology DNA ---> RNA---> Protein Proteins are the link between genotype and the phenotype Roles of proteins in biological systems: Structural: in membranes and organelles, and in the cytoplasm Carry out essential reactions as enzymes Receptor proteins bind to other molecules such as hormones to relay signal inside the cell Many hormones are also proteins and used for cell-to-cell communication Antibodies that destroy foreign materials Gene expression the process by which DNA directs protein synthesis include two stages ● Transcription ● Translation In a Bacterial cell​: Transcription and translation occur in the in cytoplasm In a Eukaryotic cel​l: Transcription and translation occur in two different components. Transcription -nucles, Translation-cytoplasm RNA processing also takes place Transcription RNA polymerase: ​An enzyme called an RNA polymerase pries the two strands of DNA apart and joins together RNA nucleotides complementary to the DNA template strand. THEY DON’T NEED A PRIMER Promoter: The DNA sequence where RNA polymerase attaches and initiates transcription is known as the promoter TATA box These are crucial for transcription initiation Transcription factors help bind RNA polymerase to the promoter Transcription: Elongation Unlike the DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase does not need a primer to initiate the polynucleotide synthesis The RNA is synthesized in the5’ to 3’ Termination In eukaryotes, RNA polymerase II transcribes a sequence on the DNA called the polyadenylation signal sequence (AAUAAA) in the pre-mRNA. ​Pre-mRNA is released from RNA polymerase II 10-35 nts downstream from AAUAAA signal and is now ready for RNA processing Transcription DNA is copied only once each time the cell divides Thousands of copies of RNA can be created from a gene during transcription Types of RNA synthesized in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells Messenger RNA (mRNA) ​ : Translated into polypeptide. ​Ribosomal RNA (rRNA): ​ Used in the building of ribosomes which are sites for polypeptide synthesis. Transfer RNA (tRNA). ​ Carry amino acids to ribosome for addition to the growing polypeptide. m-RNA processing 1. Addition of 5’ CAP -methylated form of guanine 2. Addition of 3’ poly-A tail 3. RNA splicing-- removal introns 4. They are exported from nucleus to cytoplasm 5. Protection of mRNA from digestion by RNA- degrading enzymes ​ Termination: occurs when stop codons reach the A site(UAA UGA UAG)


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.