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URI / Chemistry / CHM 227 / Define octet rule.

Define octet rule.

Define octet rule.

Description

School: University of Rhode Island
Department: Chemistry
Course: Organic Chemistry Lecture 1
Professor: Ralph salvatore
Term: Summer 2016
Tags: organic, Organic Chemistry, Chemistry, part1, UNE, and online
Cost: 25
Name: UNE Online Organic Chemistry 1 Lecture, Chapters 1-14 Notes
Description: These notes are thorough, detailed and neat. They provide visual examples and charts that coincide with the material. I attend URI, but took Orgo through UNE's online program with Professor Manyan. My final grade placed me within the top 5% out of 4,500 students who have taken the class, to give you a general idea of how well my notes work!
Uploaded: 08/17/2016
32 Pages 46 Views 3 Unlocks
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Chapter One: Structure and BondingWe also discuss several other topics like Is cost a function of age?

Electronegativity increases 6ft  right and bottom  topWe also discuss several other topics like How does psychological stress influence health?

  • Polar covalent have elements with greater difference in electronegativity than non polar (generally)
  • Greater difference electronegativity, greater dipole moment, more polar the bond
  • Element with greater electronegativity oriented to positive electrode and lesser electronegativity oriented to negative electrode
  • OCTET RULE: Outer shell of an atom will always have 8 electrons (except Hydrogen) which only needs 2)
  • Free e-pairs are not shared between 2 atoms)
  • # of valence e- of atom determined by periodic table group #
  • Double and triple bonds possible
  • Formal charge = # valence e- -(# lone pour e- + ½ # bonding e-)

If you want to learn more check out What is human capital?

If you want to learn more check out Explain the bcg growth matrix.

Don't forget about the age old question of Exchange of equivalents is a theory of what?

We also discuss several other topics like Sovereignty refers to what?

*free e- are

*bonds are

*free e- count as bond when determining hybridization

  • Hydrogen Halide: hydrogen to group 7 element

*KEYP OINTS OF HYBRIDIZATION*

  • SP3 when bonded to 4 atoms; SP2 when bonded to 3 atoms; SP when bonded to 2 atoms
  • Double bond counts as 1 bond and so does triple
  • Dipole moment goes toward most electronegativity element

Chapter 2

  • Acid loses proton; conjacid results from base gaining proton
  • Base gains a proton; conjbase results from acid losing proton
  • Strong acid dissolves favors product; weak acid react ants

  • Larger Ka = stronger acid but smaller pKa = stronger acid

  • pH = -log[H+]         or          [H+] = 10-pH

  • acidic < 7                 basic >7

  • carboxyl group – COOH or -CO2H

*alcohols have -OH group and much weaker than carboxylic

        Ex: methyl alcohol and ethyl alcohol

                CH3OH pKa = 15.5                CH3CH2OH pKa =15.9

*amines result from replacing 1+ hydrogens bonded to ammonia with a carbon – containing substituent

        Ex: methylamine and ammonia

                Ch3NH2 pKa = 40        NH3 pKa =36

  • most common orgo bases because p Ka so high
  • stronger the acid =, weaker its conjbase and vice versa

*alcohol can act as acid or base

  • strongest acids: pro + alcohol, pro + carboxylic, pro + water
  • least acidic: alcohol and water
  • pro+ amine pKa  10 carboxylic pKa 5
  • strongest acid produces most stable base (weakest base)
  • most electroneg  least electroneg  sp > sp2 > sp3
  • most electroneg (sp) is strongest acid; least electroneg (sp3) is weakest acid
  • strongest acid has its H+ bonded to largest atom

*Substituent effects acidity

        Ex. acetic acid < bromoacetic acid < chloroacetic acid

  • closer substituent is to the proton donor , weaker it is

Chapter 3

  • alkanes composed only C and H atoms and single bonds only
  • hydrocarbons contain only carbon and hydrogen
  • straight chain alkanes are when carbons form continuous chain with no branches (table pg 74)
  • general alkane formula: CnH2n+2
  • constitutional isomers are compounds with same molecular formula but differ in way atoms connected

  • “iso” – means a carbon bonded to hydrogen and two CH3 groups
  • Constit. Isomers of pentane (C5H12) are iso pentane and 2, 2 – dimethylpropane
  • Constit. Isomers of hexane (C6H14) are isohexane; 2, 2 – dimethylbutane; 2 methylpentane; 3 methylpentane and 2,3 demethylbutane
  • Constit. Isomers  as # C in alkane
  • Systematic nomentclature allows structure to be derived from the name

*alkyl group/substituent results from H+ being removed from alkane and named by changing “one” to “yi”; “R” indicates alkyl group

                Ex: memyl group CH3 -                ethyl group CH3CH2 –

                        Propyl goup CH3CH2CH2        butyl group CH3CH2CH2CH2 –

        *alcohol results from a hydrogen  in alkane replaced by OH

                        Ex: R – OH  CH3OH methyl alcohol

        *amines results from a H+ in alkane replaced  by NH2 

                        Ex: R – NHz  CH3CH2NH2 ethylamine

                *alkyl nalide results from H+  in alkane replaced by a halogen (7A)

                

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