Study guide 2
Study guide 2 DEP 3305
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DEP 3403 Psychology Of Adulthood
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This 27 page Study Guide was uploaded by sumreen Notetaker on Tuesday March 24, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to DEP 3305 at Florida International University taught by Andre Maharaj in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 527 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Adolescense in Psychlogy at Florida International University.
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Date Created: 03/24/15
Chapter 5 Outline Peer Groups 0 Peer Groups Groups of individuals of approximately the same age 0 Kids spend time with friends 0 Studies show that kids are more positive when hanging out with friends 0 American society is highly segregated 0 Far more important in the 20th century Origins of Adolescent peer groups in contemporary society 0 Not all societies have peer groups that are defined by age 0 Later on in the 20th century adolescents were directly effected by educational age grouping Changes in the size of Youth population 0 Baby boom the period following world war 2 during which the number of infants born was extremely large 0 Baby boom lasted 15 years 0 Went form 7 to 10 of total population 0 Today 1 in 7 individual is an adolescent 0 When there is an increase changes must be made in the funds for social services educational programs health care etc The adolescent peer group A problem or a Necessarv 0 Some believe age segregation has led to a separate youth culture 0 negative effects on adolescents 0 young people maintain attitudesvalues different from the rest of society more important 0 adults alone no longer adequately prepare youth for the future 0 peer groups are vital socializing agents 0 Others believe that industrialization and modernization has made peer groups The nature of adolescent Peer groups 0 changes in peer groups in 4 ways 0 sharp increase during adolescence in the time spent with peers versus adults I over half of American adolescents spend waking hours with peers I 15 of waking hours are spent on parents F I boys spend time alone I girls spend time alone or with friends I increase in time spent with peers are more string among white girls than among boys or black youth 0 peer groups begin to function much more often without adult supervision 0 increasingly more contact with peers is with oppositesex friends 0 adolescence marks the emergence of larger collectives of peers or crowds I small groups at most 3 or 4 children at a time I what causes peer groups to change 0 change through biological cognitive and social transitions of adolescence O puberty stimulates interest in other sex relations I 50 years ago popularity was associated with physical attractiveness girls athletic ability boys and wealth academic success was frowned on 0 In most high schools today physical attractiveness athletic ability and wealth are still associated with popularity might be different for nonWhite communities Cliques and Crowds I Cliques small tightly knit groups of between 2 and 12 friends generally of the same sex and age 0 The importance of the clique whatever its basis is that it provides the main social context in which adolescents interact with one another 0 Crowds large loosely organized groups of young people composed of several cliques and typically organized around a common shared activity 0 Membership based on stereotype or reputation not friendship I 3 purposes of crowds 0 to locate adolescents within the social structure of the school 0 to channel adolescents into associations with some peers and away from others 0 to provide contexts that reward certain lifestyles and disparage others Changes in cligue and crowds 0 Participation observation a research technique in which the researcher infiltrates a group of individuals in order to study their behavior and relationships ex 21 jumpstreet never been kissed 0 By 48 years children single out specific peers as playmates At 8 or 9 children have their first intimate and reciprocal relationships Older children and adolescents emphasize loyalty in friendships By about 14 friendships consist of intimacy and support during stressful periods Less dependence on family and start to hang outwith opposite sex Ethnography a type of research in which indiViduals are observed in their natural settings 0 Structure changes from more differentiated to more permeable and then lastly less hierarchal 0 These changes allow adolescents more freedom to change crowds enhance their status Adolescents and their crowds 0 Social map to adolescence O Involvement in institutions controlled by adults and informal peer culture Crowds as reference groups 0 Reference groups a group against which an individual compares him or herself 0 Because they often serve as reference groups crowds play as important role in the adolescents identity development 0 Adolescent behavior is affected by crowds in at least four ways 1 Youth imitate the behavior of highstatus peers 2 Crowds establish social norms values and expectations 3 Crowds reinforce social norms 4 When adolescents are reinforced for following a crowd s norm they feel better about themselves and further incorporate their crowd membership identity Adolescents and their cliques 0 Cliques typically are composed of people of 0 same age 0 kids don t have a lot of friends that are older or younger because of age grading they are not given the opportunity to spend time with the other students not their age 0 same raceethnicity 0 very few ethnically mixed cliques 0 usually because they understand each other more 0 same socioeconomic background 0 same sex at least during early and middle adolescence 0 stronger among white students 0 boys and girls are interested in different actiVities Common interests between friends 0 Orientation toward school 0 More true among white and Asian students 0 Orientation toward the teen culture 0 Bond over similar types of activities music taste style choices 0 Involvement in antisocial activity aggressive 0 Forms deviant groups With kids Who are antisocial and Whoa are 0 Gangs organized peer groups of antisocial individuals I Are at greater risks of problems in addition to antisocial behavior including elevated levels of distress exposure to violence and violent victimization Members are more isolated from their family Problematic parentchild relationships lead to the development of an antisocial child When parents try to separate you from your friend the child becomes closer to those peers The crowd rewards them for certain accomplishments Iatrogenic effects unintended adverse consequences of a treatment or intervention 0 EX side effects of a medication are far worse than the problem it is intended to treat 0 antisocial adolescents more time with like minded peers they frequently teach other how to more effective delinquents Similarity between Friends 0 selection kids attract one another because of the same similarities 0 socialization they became similar because friends in uence each other 0 6X2 pCCI39 pI39CSSUI39C 0 both selection and socialization are equally in uential when it comes to drugs 0 peer in uence is generally stronger among white adolescents 0 can fall into 1 of 4 profiles 0 high functioning involved in school activities low use of alcohol and few symptoms of depression maladjusted friends show opposite of high functioning disengaged friend not engaged in anything even drinking engaged engaged in school got decent grades and sometimes drank 0 there is moderate stability in friendship over time 0 13 of students keep the same best friend each year 0 12 of best friends that are each others lst best friend last a lot longer 0 same sex friends are more stableand boys friendship are a lot stronger 0 most common causes od broken friendship O jealousy O incompatibility O Violation of intimacy O aggression Popularitv and Reiection sociometric popularity how wellliked an individual is perceived popularity how much status or prestige an individual instrumental aggression aggressive behavior that is deliberate and planned reactive aggression aggressive behavior that is unplanned and impulsive adolescents Who use instrumental aggression are more popular Relational aggression acts intended to harm another through he manipulation of his or her relationships With others as in malicious gossip 0 Mean girls Rejected adolescence O Withdrawn shy usually Victims of bullying O Reactive aggressions bullies others 0 Aggressive and Withdrawn greater risk for rejection Consequences of rejection 0 Depression 0 Behavior problems 0 Academic difficulties 0 Hostile attribution bias the tendency to interpret ambiguous interactions With others as deliberately hostile Victimization and harassment 0 Their hesitancy low self esteem and lack of confidence make other children feel uncomfortable and their submissiveness makes them targets for bullying 0 He more the children are teased rejected the more anxious and hesitant they feel and the more they blame themselves for their victimization creating a cycle of victimization 0 Peer harassment can be experienced O Directly as a victim 0 Indirectly Witnessing someone eles be victimized 0 Adolescents Who come from less af uent families are more likely to be bullied 0 Prevalence of bullying is higher in schools and countries With greater income inequality 0 Cyber bullying bullying that occurs over the Internet 0 less common than inperson harassment 0 approximately 11 of adolescents report being victim of online harassment 0 Types of bullying are correlated O victims of traditional bullying are also bullied online 0 perpetrators of traditional bullying also engage in cyber bullying 0 response to bullying O passive 0 support seeking O aggressive 0 those who do little of everything 0 those who do nothing report best outcomes Chapter 6 Outline 0 Middle schools junior highs and high schools are all forms of secondary education 0 Today nearly 95 of individuals 14 17 are enrolled in school 0 Secondary education the system of middle schools junior high schools and high schools 0 1920 the high schools we know today were established 0 In 1930 only about half of 1417 age group were students and the 20th century is 1 in 10 were students 0 High schools were meant for the elite in the early 20th century 0 Comprehensive high school an educational institution that evolved during the first half of the 20th century offering a varied curriculum and designed to meet the needs of a diverse population of adolescents 0 All students achieve academic proficiency on standardized test 0 Schools who do poorley on tests lose funding 0 Not enough resources Teaching to the test 0 subjects not on the test at risk for being cut No common set of standards gaming the system Encouraging poorperforming students to be absent on testing days Reporting schoolWide average scores Without revealing the huge gaps between low and highperforming students Pushing lowachieving students out of school Social promotion The practice of promoting students from one grade to the next automatically regardless of their school performance Obama administration has attempted to fix many of the initial problems stressed the need to have high standards for all students stressed the need for a common set of standards across all 50 states Race to the Top schools encouraged to develop better ways of evaluating teachers helping teachers to improve their classroom skills and replacing poor teachers With better ones Organization of schools charter schools public schools that have been given the autonomy to establish their own curricula and teaching practices school vouchers government subsidized vouchers that can be used for private school tuition there are more White and Asian students Who succeed School size I offer a more varied curriculum and more diverse extracurricular activities I are more observers than participators I encourages participation I are more effective Differences in school 0 middle school teachers 0 are less likely to trust their students 0 more likely to believe that students abilities are fixed 0 less likely than other teachers to feel confident about their teaching ability Student at the extreme tracking practice of separating students into ability groups so that they take classes With peers at the same skill level big shlittle pond effect reason that individuals Who attend high school With high achieving peers feel worse about themselves than comparably successful individuals With lower achieving peers gifted students score 130 or higher on IQ test 0 approximately 1 in 5 kids have one of these disabilities 0 more common among boys than girls Teacher expectation 80 are accurate re ections of their students abilities 20 are self fulfilling prophecies researchers agree that the climate of the school and its classrooms are more important in uences on students achievements behavior development students perform better in school when parents are involved effective teachers are like authoritative parents student engagement the extent to which students are psychologically committed to learning and mastering the material rather than simply completing the assigned work zero tolerance a get tough approach to adolescent misbehavior that reponds seriously or excessively to the first infraction Chapter 7 Adolescents facts on leisure time At about 13 or 14 a process called crystallization begins wherein adolescents take their own talents and interests to start limiting their thinking about careers Around 18 adolescents begin learning more about certain lines of work and possibly begin training This is called specification During implementation adolescents enter the workforce and learn firsthand 0 The rise of contemporary schooling and the increasing af uence of American society in the 2rld half of the 20th century contributed to mote free time in their lives 0 American adolescents spend more than half their time in free time in leisure activities 0 industrialized countries focus more on school and developing nations focus on work 0 23 of Americans spend their leisure time watching tv or hanging with friends 0 spends less than 5 hours on hw 0 Asian countries spend 45 hours per day on hw Work 0 Premature affluence having more income than one can manage maturely especially during adolescence 0 Student worker emerged in the 20th century part time labor grew 0 Even though rates of adolescence employment has decreased I the past 15 years a large portion of teens still hold part time jobs 0 In other countries school and work are not combined 0 Retail or restaurants Is a popular job in teens Leisure time 0 Curvilinear pattern in statistical analysis a pattern of relations between 2 variables that resembles a u shaped or an inverted u shaped curve 0 Flow experience experience of high levels of both concentration and interest at the same time 0 Leisure gt work school 0 Having large amounts of leisure time increase risk for engagement in behavior PYD 0 Positive youth development goal of programs designed to facilitate healthy psychosocial development and not simply to deter problematic development 0 5 C s ofPYD O Competence 0 Confidence 0 Connection 0 Character 0 Caringcompassion 0 A 6th C will occur if you complete the 1st 5 Mfr dial 0 New media digital media typically accessed via computers smartphones or other internet based devices 0 Digital divide the fact that adolescents from different economic and cultural groups have differential access to digital technology 0 Cultivation theory a perspective on media use that emphasizes the impact media exposure has on individuals 0 Correlation 2 things vary systematically with each other 0 Causation between 2 things attribute to one another 0 Reverse causation relationship In which the correlation between 2 things is due not to the first thing causing the second but to the second causing the first 0 Spurious causation relationship In which the correlation between 2 things is due to the fact that each of them is correlated with some 3rd factor 0 Live in a media saturated environment 0 Most frequent use of internet is to play games or communicate with friends Theories of media in uence and use examine 3 different processes 0 Attitudes 0 Knowledge 0 Behavior Many observers are concerned about the high level of adolescents exposure to 0 Sex 0 Violence 0 Drug use Rates of internet harassment sexual predation by strangers and internet addiction are very low Mass media affects girls and boys body image 0 Girls Who read more magazines are more dissatisfied With their bodies 0 Girls tend to look at anorexia or bulimia as a solution 0 Boys feel more dissatisfied after seeing an ad With muscular men Chapter 8 Identity 0 3 changes 0 physical O cognitive 0 social 0 possible selves various identities an adolescent might imagine for him or herself 0 self conception collection of traits and attributes that individuals ise to describe or characterize themselves F Personality 0 five factor model 0 extraversion I outgoing and energetic O agreeableness I kind or sympathies O conscientiousness I responsibility O neuroticism I anxious or tense O openness to experience curiosity The Adolescent Identity Crisis Erikson s Theoretical Framework 1959 1964 1968 the establishment of a coherent sense of identity is the chief psychosocial crisis of adolescence The Adolescent Identity Crisis Identity versus Identity Diffusion The adolescent s identity results from a mutual recognition between the young person and society Key to resolution lies in social interactions according to Erikson Adolescents are selfabsorbed which is referred to as adolescent egocentrism Imaginary audience Adolescents feeling that they are watched constantly like actors Adolescents feel that their experiences and feelings are unique and that no one has ever felt as they do This is called the personal fable 0 A common characteristic is the illusion of invulnerability misfortune only happens to others llll39l I39 Discrimination 0 More than one possible reasons for this discrimination feelings of loss of controla depression Gender Role Development and Androgyny Androgyny Definition The combination of masculine and feminine psychological characteristics in an individual The Bem Sex Role Inventory 0 Test to measure androgyny 0 60 adjectives o 20 stereotypically feminine o 20 stereotypically masculine o 20 neutral not gender typed Individual classified as masculine feminine androgynous or undifferentiated Advantages to being Androgynous 0 more independent 0 no pressure to conform to 0 androgynous people to well in all situations than nonandrogynous people 0 high selfesteem important psychological characteristic
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