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Politics of Africa

by: Kendiz Moore

Politics of Africa AAS 341

Kendiz Moore

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This exam discusses the development of Africa
Politics of Africa
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Date Created: 08/17/16
SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF AFRICAN AMERICAN STUDIES Spring 2016 Professor Horace Campbell Politics in Africa AAS 341/PSC 341 Office: Room 211 Sims Hall SEC.M001 Class Number 31320/37851 Telephone: 443-9353 Crouse Hinds 001 Tue. and Thur. 11: 00am-12:20pm Office Hours: T – Th 9.30am-10.30am Teaching Assistant: Email: Office Hours: Thursday 1.00pm—3.00pm Office: Room 207 Sims Hall   COURSE OUTLINE The Politics of Liberation When Nelson Mandela joined the ancestors at the end of 2013, the world was forced to pay attention as  more than 70 world leaders descended on South Africa to celebrate the life of an African who inspired a  new understanding of political relations in Africa and in the world. In the celebration of this life, there was  a reconnection to the politics of liberation as the world reflected on the attempts by the peoples of South  Africa to move in a new direction. In this course we will seek to build on the lessons of popular struggles  for liberation in order to have one window into the Politics of Africa. This course will transcend liberalism  and racism and bring new concepts of truth and fractal optimism. This course seeks to critique the  conventional views of political science and represent African political relations in Africa in ways that  brings to the fore real humans and their passion for life, freedom, and the rights to human dignity. It is here  where the politics of Africa is similar to the politics of all parts of the world. Peoples everywhere seek  conditions to better their life chances for themselves and their children. The themes to be problematized in  this course will not only include formal questions of democratic representation but also the challenging  issues relating to the traditions of social transformation, climate apartheid, genocidal politics, imperial  masculinity, militarism, colonial environmental degradation and the politicization of ethnicity. We will  study the politics of healing, flexible gender relations, the politics of inclusion, palaver, reparations, peace  and justice.  1 Outside of Africa, the media representation of African politics reproduces ideas which are translated into the language of ‘tribal wars,’  ‘Afro­pessimism’  and ‘failed states.’  This course seeks to transcend media representations and represent Africans as real human beings with a passion for a clean environment, safe neighborhoods, health and peace.  The themes that will be problematized in this course will include formal questions of democratic representation but also challenging issues relating to the traditions of genocidal politics, imperial masculinity, militarism, colonial politics, transition, healing, Ubuntu, palaver, flexible gender relations, palaver and reparations.  It is in the quest to find and understand the methodological tools for repair which will direct us to an interrogation of the relationships between the pre­colonial African state and African knowledge systems. In the book African Fractals, the author notes that fractal geometry has emerged as one of the most exciting frontiers in the relationship between  indigenous knowledge,  mathematics and information technology. Whereas an understanding of fractal geometry takes us into the far reaches of “modern computing,” what is interesting is the way its patterns and basic concepts are common in African design and fundamental to African knowledge systems. This has not been adequately understood in the social sciences, in particular the study of contemporary African political systems. Significant developments in the information st economy of the 21  century have inspired new investigations into the importance of African knowledge for alternative forms of political associations. One of the many challenges is to grasp how alternative approaches to knowledge can open new directions in the study of African politics.  How are symbols and divination processes linked to a cosmology that influenced social and political relations? In what ways, was the palaver, a reflection of democratic relations in the village community? How did the matricentric production unit guarantee the autonomy of women? These questions arise in the present period as African scientists; activists, intellectuals and ordinary producers seek the ideas and organization necessary to break from domination and exploitation in order to develop new concepts of politics and community. This course will explore ways in which indigenous African knowledge systems can be applied to the study and teaching of social sciences.   Examples of these indigenous concepts are the African fractals that are fundamental to indigenous design systems in Africa, notions of societal relations (political, social, individual) and concepts of gender (flexible) and the environment (nature).  In particular, the course seeks to examine the extent to which these concepts broaden and enrich our understanding of political processes in contemporary Africa, and the role the continent plays in global political economy of the 21  century. Key texts which inform the development of the course syllabus include: African Fractals by Ron Eglash, The Healing Wisdom of Africa  by Malidome Some, and  Male Daughters, Female Husbands  by Ifi Amadiume. Throughout the course, there will be the effort to move the conceptual plane from the politics of conquest and genocide to the politics of truth and reconstruction. Because there are 54 states on the continent it would be unrealistic to cover this vast continent in one semester. Thus, the emphasis of the course will be on methodological tools, which would sharpen our analytical skills in discussion questions of genocide (Rwanda and Burundi), militarism  and warfare (yesterday and today). humanitarianism, gender relations, women in politics, imperialism, destruction of the natural environment and oil recovery, Pan Africanism and the African Union.  2 The lectures and visual presentations will draw from the material and intellectual culture of the region to provide an understanding of the dynamic of the societies COURSE REQUIREMENTS AND EVALUATION Students are required to attend all lectures, read the assigned materials, and do all other assignments.  Because the work is cumulative, it is imperative that students begin to work from the beginning of the  semester. Map Assignment I (pass/fail); Book summaries (20%); Reflection Papers (20 %); Unannounced quizzes, 5 Map Assignment II, 5 participation/attendance (5%); Group Book Presentations (5%); Midterm (20%); Final Exam (20%): Total 100% 1. Map Assignment I – Pass/Fail 2. Unannounced Quizzes and Participation 10% 3. Book Summaries ­ Students are required to write response and summaries to the assigned readings.  These will be handed in on the day of class and a grade will be assigned (20%) 4. Two Reflection Papers – (20% total) a. African Fractals or Healing Wisdom of Africa b. Gender and Politics in Contemporary Africa (useful books for this assignment are Male Daughters, Female Husbands and Gender and Genocide in Burundi) 5.  Map Assignment II, (four periods of     century)   class participation, and attendance (5%) 6. Individual Book Presentations.  Students will be divided into groups of five to present and write up  the following books: (5%) a. Adam Hochschild, King Leopold’s Ghost A Story of Greed, Terror and Heroism in Colonial Africa, Houghton Miflin, 1998. 3 b. Ike Okonta and Oronto Douglas, Where Vultures Feast: Shell, Human Rights and  Oil, Verso Books, 2003 c. Michael Maren, The Road to Hell, Free Press, 1997. d. Sembene Ousmane, Gods Bits of Wood, Anchor Books, 1970 and Nawaal Al Sadawi,  Woman at Point Zero, Zed Press, 1983. 7. Mid­term (20%) 8. Final Examination  (20%) For Graduates  Major research paper Opportunities will be offered for extra credit during the semester. There will be alternative possibilities for the final grade for all students. Graduates will write a major research paper on a subject related to what has been studied in this class. REQUIRED TEXTS (Compulsory reading for this course) Ifi Amadiume, Male Daughters, Female Husbands, Zed Press, 1987 Adam Hochschild, King Leopold’s Ghost A Story of Greed, Terror and Heroism in Colonial Africa, Houghton Miflin, 1998 Ron Eglash, African Fractals: Modern Computing and Indigenous Design, Rutgers University Press, 1999 Michael Maren, The Road to Hell, Free Press, 1997 Ike Okonta and Oronto Douglas, Where Vultures Feast: Shell, Human Rights and Oil, Verso Books, 2003 Sembene Ousmane, Gods Bits of Wood, Anchor Books, 1970 Nawaal Al Sadawi, Woman at Point Zero, Zed Press, 1983 Malidome Some, The Healing Wisdom of Africa: Finding Life Purpose Through Nature, Ritual and Community, Penguin Putman, 1999 RECOMMENDED TEXTS Patricia, Daley, Gender and Genocide in Burundi: The Searches for Peace in the Great Lakes Region, James Currey/Oxford 2008 4 Basil Davidson, Modern Africa, Longmans, 1994 Walter Rodney, How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, Howard University Press, 1978­walter/how­europe/index.htm Required and recommended texts can be purchased at the University Bookstores.  Other recommended  readings are on reserve in the Bird Library (R). OTHER READINGS All reading material not contained in the required texts is available online at E­Reserves on the University  Library Website, under instructor’s name and course number. Additionally, there will be a number of  books placed on reserve in the Department of African American Studies, MLK Library.   Supplementary Readings for the course materials will be posted on Blackboard. Students are encouraged to consult these materials to further enrich their understanding of the topics covered. SCHEDULE OF CLASSES WEEK 1 January 19: Africa in the popular imagination Hand Out Course Outline. Presentation of Map and Countries of Africa: What can we learn from  Comparative Politics? Required Reading Walter Rodney, How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, Tanzania Publishing House 1972, Chapters 5 Homework Watch the Video Basil Davidson, Africa a Voyage of Discovery Episode 1 Different But Equal  Documentary January 21: Africa and the Politics of Liberation Required Reading 5 Julius Nyerere, “The Process of Liberation,” in Freedom and Liberation, Oxford University Press, 2011,  page 103­111 Archie Mafeje, “Africanity: A Combative Ontology,” Codesria Bulletin, No. 1, 2000 R Malidome Some, The Healing Wisdom of Africa: Finding Life Purpose Through Nature, Ritual and Community, Penguin Putman, 1999, Chapters 1­6 Supplementary Readings, Horace Campbell. "Ethics and the Enterprise of Studying Africa." African Studies Review 51.3  (2008): 149­155. Horace Campbell, “Mandela and the African liberation struggle: Ubuntu and the emancipation of humans  everywhere,” Watch, THE STORY OF NELSON MANDELA ­ BBC NEWS, v=yjYm78K6aNI WEEK 2 January 26: Revolution in Tunisia and New Forms of Politics: Political Power from Below Required Reading Azadeh Shahshahani and Corinna Mullin, “The legacy of US intervention and the Tunisian  revolution: promises and challenges one year on,” Interface: a journal for and about social movements,  Volume 4 (1): 67­101(May 2012 The African Awakening: emerging Revolutions, edited by Firoze Manji, Sokari Ekine, Fahamu  Books, Oxford, 2011 , Chapters 1, 2,  4, 6,   Amy Kallander, “Tunisia’s Post­Ben Ali Challenge: A Primer” by Amy Aisen Kallander, Recommended Readings, Horace Campbell, Barack Obama and twenty-first Century Politics: A Revolutionary Moment in the United States, Pluto books, Chapter 1 January 28: Egyptian Revolution, Counter-Revolution and Importance of Tahrir Square The African Awakening: emerging Revolutions, edited by Firoze Manji, Sokari Ekine, Fahamu  Books, Oxford 2011, Chapters   8­12 Horace Campbell, “The Third Phase of the Egyptian Revolution,”  6   Esam Al­Amin, “Anatomy of Egypt Revolution: Conditions and Consequences”, February 17,  2011,Counterpunch,­of­egypt­s­revolution/ Esam Al­Amin, “The Grand Scam: Spinning Egypt’s Military Coup,”  Counterpunch, July 19, 2013 Samir Amin, “The democratic fraud and the universalist alternative,” Pambazuka November 24, 2011 _alternative.pdf Recommended readings Esam Al­Amin, “The Grand Scam: Spinning Egypt’s Military Coup,” Counterpunch, July 19, 2013 Gilbert Achcar & Nada Matta, “What Happened to the Arab Spring?” Jacobin,­arab­spring­tunisia­egypt­isis­isil­assad­syria­revolution/ Eltantawy, Nahed and Julie B. West (2011), ‘Social Media in the Egyptian Revolution: Reconsidering  Resources Mobilization Theory’, International Journal of Communications 5, Feature 1207­1224, pp. 1211­1212 Peter Hallward, “Egypt's popular revolution will change the world,” Guardian, Feb 3, 2011,­north­africa­revolution Linda Herrera, Revolution in the Age of Social Media: The Egyptian Popular Insurrection and the Internet. London and New York: Verso, 2014 Mohamed Al­Khalsan, “The Army and Economy in Egypt,” Pambazuka, January 202, WEEK 3 February 2 : Linguistic Diversity and the Challenges to the Manipulation of Ethnicity Required Reading Neville Alexander, Multilingualism, Cultural Diversity and Cyberspace, an African Perspective,­papers/Alexander_LinguisticDiversity_20071120.pdf Archie Mafeje, “The Ideology of Tribalism,” Journal of Modern African Studies, 1971   “Talking about "Tribe”: Moving from Stereotypes to Analysis,” 7 Linguistic Map of Africa Samir Amin, "Nations and Ethnic Groups" in Unequal Development. pp 27­30    Recommended Readings T.O. Ranger, The Invention of Tribalism in Zimbabwe, Mambo Press   Cheikh Anta Diop, Civilization or Barbarism, Chapters 5­8, pp 111­ 139,   February 4: Are Africans Human beings? Lessons from Genocidal economics and  actual genocide Readings, Patricia Daley, “Constructing a Paradigm of Violence: a feminist perspective on genocidal politics,” in  Gender and Genocide, Chapter 2 Philip Gourevitch, We Wish to inform you that Tomorrow we will be killed along with our families: Stories from Rwanda, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1998, Part 1 “The Minister of Rape,” See also article with the same title, New York Times Magazine, September 15, 2002,  Recommended Reading   United Nations 1948 Convention on Genocide, Assignment : Read and summarize the main points of the UN Convention on Genocide and State in your own understanding the reasons the international community did not intervene in Rwanda. Video : Triumph of Evil WEEK 4 February 9: Ontological Issues for Politics of Africa Required Reading Ron Eglash, African Fractals: Modern Computing and Indigenous Design, Rutgers University Press, 1999, Chapter 1 8 Issa Shivi, “Utu, Usawa, Uhuru, Building Blocks of Nyerere’s Political Philosophy,” in Leonhard Praeg  and Siphokazi Magadla, Ubuntu: Curating the Archive, University of Kwazulu Natal Press, 2014 Malidome Some, The Healing Wisdom of Africa: Finding Life Purpose Through Nature, Ritual and Community, Penguin Putman, 1999, Chapters 7­10 February 11 Democratic Spaces, African Architecture and Politics Required Reading Ron Eglash, African Fractals: Modern Computing and Indigenous Design, Rutgers University Press, 1999, Chapters 2, 3 and 7 Sandra Harding, Whose Science? Whose Knowledge? : Thinking from Women's Lives,  Cornell University Press, New York 1991, Chapter 1 Supplementary Readings Patricia McFadden, “Knowledge production in the Academy” Sapem, September 1997 Recursion and the importance of the concept of iterations in politics: Making a break with western concepts of knowledge based on hierarchy Required Reading Ron Eglash, African Fractals, Part 2 and 3  Recommended Reading *Assignment Due: Reflection paper on the importance of the African Fractals for the study of  African politics, or reflections from the Healing Wisdom of Africa Week 5 February 16: Pre Colonial Politics, Democratic Forms and the Palaver: Popular democracy from below Required Reading 9 Ifi Amadiume, Male Daughters, Female Husbands, Chapters 3 and 4  Mawuna Remarque KOUTONIN,  “100 African Cities Destroyed By Europeans,”­nullius/ Wamba Dia Wamba, “Experiences of Democracy in Africa: Reflections on Practices of Communalist  Palaver,” Mawazo Workshop, Makerere University, April 26­28, 1985  K Kia Bunseki Fu­Kiau, The Mbongi: An African Traditional Institution, Omenana, 1978 pages  1­50   Recommended Reading UNESCO General History of Africa, Vol. 1, pp 687 – 730 Peter Anyang' Nyongo, Popular Struggles for Democracy in Africa, Zed Books 1987, pp 96 ­ 101 February 18: Gender and Politics in Africa: Lessons from Nigeria Required Reading Ifi Amadiume, Male Daughters, Female Husbands  African Feminist Studies: 1980­2002 by Desiree Lewis, Gender and Women’s Studies For Africa  Transformation, Introduction, Recommended Readings Gender and Women’s Studies For Africa’s Transformation at WEEK 6 February 23: Politics of Domination or the History of Fascism in Africa Required Reading Davidson, Modern Africa, Chapter 6, 7 and 8   Adam Hochschild, King Leopold’s Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror and Heroism in Colonial Africa, Houghton Mifflin, 1998, Part 1 Recommended Reading 10 Tilman Dedering, “The German – Herero War of 1904: Revisionism of Genocide or Imaginary  Historiography?” Journal of Southern African Studies, Vol 19, No. 1 March 1993 “The Second World War: Prelude to Decolonization in Africa,” in the Cambridge History of Africa, Vol. 8, 1940­1975, edited by Michael Crowder, Cambridge University Press, 1984      Reflection Paper on gender and politics in Africa : Drawing from Male Daughters, Female Husbands Due FEB 23 February 25: Politics of Empire – Lessons for Africa Today Required Readings Horace Campbell, Imperialism and Anti Imperialism in Africa Today, Monthly Review, July 2015 Walter Rodney, “The Imperialist Partitioning of Africa” in Monthly Review, April 1970   Walter Rodney, How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, Tanzania Publishing House 1972, Chapters 6 Recommended Reading Basil Davidson, Modern Africa: A Social and Political History, Longmans 1994, Part 1 pages 3­43 Walter Rodney, How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, Howard University Press, Chapters 3, 4, 5 Robert Cooper, “The New Liberal Imperialism,” Observer, April 7, 2002,11581,680095,00.html Video: Africa, Part 5, The Bible and the Gun WEEK 7 March 1 Adam Hochschild, King Leopold’s Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror and Heroism in Colonial Africa, Houghton Miflin, 1998, Part 2 Class Presentation of King Leopold’s Ghost. Assignment: Summary of King Leopold’s Ghost Due March 3: Religion as Politics in Africa- 11 Required Reading Jeff Haynes, Religion and Politics in Africa, Zed Books, 1996, Chapters 1­2, 7­8  Ifi Amadiume, “Igbo and African Religious Perspectives on Religious Conscience and the Global  Economy,”  in Paul F. Knitter and Chandra Muzaffar, Subverting Greed: Religious Perspectives on the  Global Economy, Orbis Books, New York 2002 Recommended Reading Chris Hedges, American Fascists: The Christian Right and the War on America, The Free  Press, New York 2007, Chapters 1 and 4 John Mbiti, African Religions and Philosophy, Praeger, 1969 R, Chapters 1 and 2  The Ubuntu Theology of Desmond Tutu,­desmond­tutu/ Horace Campbell, “South Sudan and the Meaning of Independence,” Pambazuka News, July 14, 2011, Week 8 March 8: Secularism, Religion, Politics and Extremism in Africa Samir Amin, “The Arab Nation: Some Conclusions and Problems,” MERIP Reports,  No. 68 (Jun., 1978),  pp. 3­14 Peter Berger, “Secularism in Retreat,” The National Interest, No. 46 (Winter 1996/97), pp. 3­12 Horace Campbell, The Menace of Boko Haram and Fundamentalism in Nigeria,  Pambazuka News, June 4, 2014 Recommended Readings Errol A. Henderson, “Mistaken Identity: Testing the Clash of Civilizations Thesis in Light of Democratic  Peace Claims,” British Journal of Political Science, Vol. 34, No. 3 (Jul., 2004), pp. 539­554 Ali Mazrui, “Is Amina Wadud the Rosa Parks of Modern Islam?” in the Mazrui Newsletter, *March 10: Midterm Examination March 13-19: Midterm Break 12 Recommended Reading for Spring Break Nawal Al Sadawi, Woman at Point Zero, Zed Press, 1983 Sembene Ousmane, Gods Bits of Wood, (Novel) WEEK 10 March 22: Pan Africanism and the Independence of Ghana        Required Reading Basil Davidson, Modern Africa, Chapters 9­15  Joseph Engwenyu, “The Militant Phase in Ghanaian Politics,” (mimeo)     C.L. R. James, Kwame Nkrumah and the Ghana Revolution, Part II, Chapter 4. Recommended Reading Ali Mazrui and Michael Tidy, Nationalism and the New States of Africa, Heinemann Books,  1984, Chapters 5  Map Assignment 2 Due March 24: Women and Decolonization *Assignment Due: Class Presentation of God’s Bit of Wood and Woman at Point Zero Required Reading Sembene Ousmane, Gods Bits of Wood, (Novel) Nawaal Al Sadawi, Woman at Point Zero, Zed Press, 1983 *Friday March 25: Assignment Due: Summary of the books God’s Bit of Wood and Woman at Point Zero  Week 11 March 29: Politics of the Natural Environment: Yesterday 13 Required Reading David Harvey, Justice, Nature and the Geography of Difference, Blackwell Publishers 1996,  Chapters 6, 7 and 8   Helge Kjeshsus, Ecology and Economic Development in East Africa, Chapter 1    Malidome Some, The Healing Wisdom of Africa, Chapter 2 and 3 Rodney, How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, Chapter 5 and 6 T. Zeleza, A Modern Economic History of Africa, Codesria Books, 1993, Chapter 1     “Oil for Nothing: Multinational Corporations, Environmental Destruction, Death and Impunity in the Niger Delta.” March 31: Politics of the Extraction of African Resources Required Reading Where Vultures Feast, Final report of the Panel of Experts on the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources and Other Forms of  Wealth of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Michael Watts, Curse of the Black Gold: 50 years of Oil in the Niger Delta, Introduction US Reliance on Africa For Strategic Minerals, “Coltan: What You Should Know,” Class Presentation of Where Vultures Feast April 1 : Summary of Where Vultures Feast WEEK 12 April 5: Gas Flaring in Nigeria: What kind of Politics Required Reading 14 Ike Okonta and Oronto Douglas, Where Vultures Feast; Shell, Human Rights, and Oil in the Niger Delta, Verso Books, London 2003, Chapter 4  Michael Watts,  Resource Curse? Govermentality, Oil and Power in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, April 7: Cold War Politics and African Politics: Lessons from the Congo Required Reading Ludo de Witte, The Assassination of Patrice Lumumba, Verso Books 2001 Chapters 1­5 V.B. Thompson, Africa and Unity, pp 140­180     Herbert Weiss, “Review of Chief of Station: Congo”, in African Studies Review, Volume 51, Number  2, September 2008, pp. 143­145    Georges Nzongola­Ntalaja, The Congo: From Leopold to Kabila, Zed books, London, 2002,  Chapters 3 and 4, WEEK 13 April 12: The Politics of Militarism and Humanitarianism: Lessons from Somalia Required Readings Samir Amin, “Humanitarianism or the intonations of the people,” in Ending the crisis of Capitalism or ending capitalism, Fahamu Books, Oxford 2011 Yash Tandon, Trade is War: The West’s War Against the World,  OR Books,  New York, 2015 pages,28­ 112 Horace Campbell, “Somalia: Global war on terror and the humanitarian crisis,” Pambazuka No 545,  September 2011, Military Times, “The Secret war in Africa,”­seals­horn­of­africa/ Michael Maren, The Road to Hell, Free Press  Chapters 10­16 Recommended Readings Alex de Waal and Rakiya Omaar, "Can Military Intervention be Humanitarian”? in Middle East Report,  March­June 1994 15 April 14: Humanitarian Imperialism and African Politics- Penetrating the discourses of AID and assistance Horace Campbell,” Peace Activists Must Oppose the US Africa Command,” Concerned Africa Scholars  Bulletin,  ACAS Bulletin 78 : The Politics of Africom Horace Campbell, “Remilitarization of African societies: Analysis of the planning behind proposed US  Africa Command”, International Journal of African Renaissance Studies, June 2008  Mary Harper, ‘Getting Somalia Wrong.: Faith and War in a Shattered State,” Zed Books,  London 2012, Chapter 4 Abdul Raufu Mustapha, “States, Predation and Violence: Reconceptualizing Political Action and Political  Community in Africa,” Mimeo, Oxford University, 2003 Recommended Readings Kevin C Dunn, “The African State, Rethinking the Sovereign in International Relations Theory”, in  Africa’s Challenge to International Relations Theory, edited by Kevin Dunn and Timothy  Shaw, pages 46­63 Discussion: In light of your reading of the role of oil in Africa and the role of Shell Oil, revisit the text. Africa Command: U.S. Strategic Interests and the Role of the U.S. Class Presentation of The Road To Hell WEEK 13 April 19:  Military Intervention and Fabricating Terrorism in North Africa Required Readings Horace Campbell, Global NATO and the Catastrophic Failure in Libya, Monthly Review Press 2013 Jeremy Keenan, The Dark Sahara: America’s War on Terror in Africa, Pluto Books, 2009,  Chapters 1­6 Mahmood Mamdani, Good Muslims: Bad Muslims, Chapter 1 *Assignment Due: Summary of The Road to Hell 16 April 21: Water Resources, Energy and Democratic Politics Required Readings Wamba dia Wamba, Pan Africanism, Democracy, Social Movements and Mass Struggles in  African  Journal of  Political Science, Vol. 1, No.1, 1996  R Horace Campbell, Water Resources and Regional Cooperation in Southern Africa, Arib Pamphlet, 1997   R Issa Shivji, “Democracy and democratisation in Africa :Interrogating paradigms and practices,” Pambazuka News, November 2011, WEEK 14 April 26: New Political questions- Challenges of health in the era of Neoliberalism Required Reading Harriet Washington, Medical Apartheid: the dark history of medical experimentation on Black Americans from colonial times to the present, Doubleday, New York 2007 Chapters 12­ 15 Horace  G. Campbell, “ Ebola, the African Union and Bioeconomic Warfare : Health Questions and the  Challenges for Africa,” Counterpunch,  October 10, 2014­ the­african­union­and­bioeconomic­warfare/ C. J. Peters, J. W. LeDuc, “An Introduction to Ebola: The Virus and the Disease,” The Journal of  Infectious Diseases, Vol. 179, Supplement 1. Ebola: The Virus and the Disease (Feb., 1999), pp. ix­xvi Salih Booker, Combating HIV/AIDS in Africa: 21st Century Strategies, Susan Hunter, Black Death: Aids in Africa, Palgrave McMillan, November 2003 chapters 2&3 Susan George, “A Short History of Neo Liberalism” Recommended Readings Visit Web Site of UN AIDS 17 April 28: Ubuntu and the Politics of Truth: A Grand Palaver Required Reading Alex Boraine, A Country Unmasked, Inside South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Oxford University Press, 2001, Chapters  8,9 and 10 Allister Sparks, Beyond the Miracle, Chapter 8 Charles Fombad, “Prospects for Peace Building Through Truth Commissions in Africa,” in Alfred Nhema,  The Quest For Peace in Africa, International Books with OSSREA, 2004 WEEK 15 May 3: African Union, Reconstruction and African Politics Required Reading Great Green Wall Initiative of the Sahara and the Sahel, OSS CNED Tunis 2008 http://www.oss­­en.pdf Growing a World Wonder, Horace Campbell, “Wangari Maathai: Reclaiming the Earth” Pambazuka September 2011­maathai­reclaiming­the­earth­horace­campbell/ Cheik Anta Diop, Black Africa, The Economic and Cultural Basis for a Federated State,   Kay Matthews, Renaissance of Pan Africanism: The AU and the New Pan Africanism, in The African Union and its Institutions, edited by John Akokpari, Angela Ndinga­Muvumba, and  Tim Murithi Global Trends 2030: Alternative Worlds, Ernst & Young’s attractiveness survey, Getting down to business­_Getting_down_to_business/ $FILE/Africa_attractiveness_2013_web.pdf Institutions of the African Union Recommended Reading 18 Final Examination, May 6:00AM - 10:00AM Enter grade criterion in Grades this column (e.g.  percentage) A 94 ­100 A­ 90 ­ 93 B+ 86 ­ 89 B 83 ­  85 B­ 80 ­ 82 C+ 77 ­ 79 C 73 ­ 77 C­ 70­72 D 1  65­ 69 1,2 D­   60­64 F Below 60 19


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