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Exam 3 Study Guide

by: Natalie Notetaker

Exam 3 Study Guide 3359

Marketplace > University of Texas at Dallas > ISNS > 3359 > Exam 3 Study Guide
Natalie Notetaker

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Earthquakes and Volcanoes
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Natalie Notetaker on Wednesday August 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 3359 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Earthquakes and Volcanoes in ISNS at University of Texas at Dallas.


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Date Created: 08/17/16
EQ & V Test 3 Review topics 2014 HYPERLINK "" 62008718/ev-flash-cards/ The meteor impact at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary: what extremely rare element is very abundant in strata deposited at this time? This element is abundant in meteorites, but very rare on the Earth. ▪ Iridium Where did this meteorite impact occur? ▪ Yucatan Peninsula What is the most common type of meteorite found on Earth, even though they represent a minor abundance of all meteors? ▪ Iron Why do we care about meteorites – stony meteorites – provide a geochemical benchmark to compare Earth materials with? Has the rate of meteor bombardment increased or decreased over time ▪ Decreased What is the evidence? ▪ The evidence is seen on the Lunar Maria which is the newer part of the moon but must less cratered What was the significance of the Shoemaker-Levy 9 comet? ▪ First time humans watched large impact What happened to it? ▪ Broke up into 21 pieces and created huge explosions on Jupiter What did it teach Earthlings about comets? ▪ Getting hit by a comet would be a catastrophe to the Earth Be able to sketch a cross section of a differentiated asteroid, and label the areas we associate where the follow types of meteorites come from: stone, stone/iron mix, iron. Is this in any way similar to how we understand the structure of the Earth to be? Aline of evidence that indicates an impact may have occurred are Stishovite and Coesite (Shocked Quartz) – both are high temperature high pressure phases of the common mineral quartz – there are no know processes that account for this material occurring on the surface of the Earth, than impacts. Ultimately, what is the risk vs probability of a large meteor or comet impacting the Earth long-term vs short-term? ▪ Acertainty in long-term ▪ Not much risk in short-term What is the most notable group of animals that went extinct during the end of the Cretaceous mass extinction event? ▪ Dinosaurs What are some of the geological reasons mass extinctions occur? ▪ Rising or falling of seal level (possibly due to plate tectonics), glaciers melting, size of continents, continental position and glaciation, volcanic eruptions, change in atmospheric composition, change in climate, change in ocean composition, extraterrestrial impacts, cosmic rays, disease, excess prediation Where do the most dangerous/damaging earthquakes occur? ▪ Subduction zones What type of plate tectonic setting do these occur in? ▪ Convergent What tectonic setting produces new crust, destroys old crust? ▪ Divergent, new crust ▪ Convergent, destroys crust Where do most earthquakes occur? ▪ Plate margins Are citizens of the mid-continent of NorthAmerica at risk for a large damaging earthquake? s e▪Y Can science reliably provide short-term predictions of earthquakes? ▪ No, can’t predict quakes short-term Can it provide long term predictions? ▪ Yes thanks to seismic gaps Seismic Gaps? What is a focus/hypocenter compared to an epicenter? ▪ Focus is where the quake occurs; epicenter is land directly above it What culture developed the first 'instrument' capable of detecting earthquakes, and the direction they came from? • Chinese (Hing) What is seismic tomography, what does it attempt to map? ▪ Maps velocity structures in subsurface What are passive vs active energy sources used for seismology? ▪ Passive – set out detectors Earthquakes provide source energy for seismic tomography to image very deep portions of the earth ▪ Active – artificial seismic source ▪ i.e. TNT to vibrate ground What are the 2 groups of earthquake waves ▪ Body and surface Which is faster ▪ Body Which is the first arriver in body waves? ▪ P waves We use time delays between the first and second arrivals to determine what? ▪ The epicentral distance from an earthquake and a seismic station P arrives first, S arrives second-both body waves Can body waves pass through all media phases? ▪ P can, S cannot pass through fluids-this gave us evidence the outer core is liquid. What is the most dangerous type of ground to build on with regards to earthquakes? ▪ Unconsolidated sentiments, water saturated What is a fault? ▪ It is a fracture surface along which motion occurs What force opposes motion of a fracture surface? ▪ Friction opposes movement Earthquake magnitude is? ▪ Aquantifiable measure of Earthquake energy, the Richter scale is commonly reported to compare magnitudes. What is the Subjective scale that relates the unquantifiable observations of people? ▪ Mercalli scale Earthquake waves do not travel direct paths in the body of the Earth, they what? ▪ May refract, reflect, speed up or slow down depending on the materials they are passing through How can man deal with earthquakes, mitigate the damage caused by earthquakes? ▪ Can reduce risk by building lower, different material Can there be earthquakes in North Texas? s e▪Y Earth's magnetic field protects the surface from the solar wind and cosmic radiation. How do we know about changes to the Earths magnetic field over history? ▪ Magnetic reversals, polar wander, difference between geographic North and Magnetic North. Is plate tectonics a widely accepted model? s e▪Y Who first came up with the idea of continental drift? Was his idea accepted? What are some lines of evidence he pointed out? ▪ Wegner came up with it when he saw coal deposits, glaciation, age of rocks, rock structures far away Why was his idea not accepted at the time, even though he had a lot of evidence to support it? ▪ He could not conceive of a viable mechanism to explain the shifting of continents on the Earth's surface. His idea was later a central part of plate tectonic theory. Which layer is plastic and hotter compared to the layer which is cooler and brittle? ▪ Asthenosphere is plastic and hot ▪ Lithosphere is brittle and cool Details about the 3 plate margin settings, and intraplate settings. Why can't continental crust be sub ducted? ▪ Continental crust to too buoyant to sub duct it directly (can sub duct its sediments) Volcanic eruption case studies: What killed most people as a result of the Tambora 1815 eruption? ▪ Famine, weird weather Is Mt. Vesuvius a threat in modern times? ▪ Yes because of huge population near it What volcanic process was responsible for the deaths from the Mt. Palee eruption? ▪ Pyroclastic flows obliterated town near Palee How was 'Samson' able to survive the eruption? Why did he live when so many others perished? What about he is he most often remembered for? ▪ Lockdown in jail; remembered for surviving eruption and for being in circus as sideshow; other survivor was a shoe cobbler Why is the Valles-Toledo caldera of Northern New Mexico scientifically important? ▪ First place that people realized calderas can come back to life The type locality of resurgent doming, or a resurgent caldera? What are some of the bad things associated with large volcanic eruptions? Think about the atmospheric effects. ▪ Atmospheric effect (S02 cooling, CO2 warming), lava and pyroclastic flows locally What are some of the good aspects of volcanic eruptions? ▪ Fertile land and new land even Do we see evidence for volcanic processes on other bodies within our solar system? ▪ Yes on other moons and planets What are the most common gasses that result from volcanic eruptions? ▪ H2O, CO2, SO2 How can ash eruptions be dangerous? ▪ Bury landscape in feet of debris and pyroclasts are a danger to planes What are xenoliths, and why are they important? ▪ Bodies of rock brought to surface from interior What is volcanic glass, why important? ▪ Quickly cooled lava; it is more of an indication of what made up the lava What is a caldera, how does it differ from a crater? ▪ Acaldera is a large depression made because of volcanic activity resulting a large cavity created underground when a magma chamber and lava gets emptied, creating pressure and the over ground rocks collapse to create a large depression (collapse feature) ▪ Acrater is a bowl-like structure at top of a volcano around the opening used for eruption of magma and lava, resulting of sinking in of the rocks because of high pressure (surface dip) What influences the explosively of an eruption? ▪ Viscosity – may be low or high; controls whether magma flows easily or piles up ▪ Composition – may be small, medium or large; greater volume means more intense eruption ▪ Volatile content – may be low, medium or high; may ooze out harmlessly or explode What tectonic settings do we commonly see volcanism? ▪ Spreading centers What setting is volcanism rarely observed? ▪ Transform boundaries End member lavas: Basalt is hotter, less viscous, has lower silica and volatile content; Rhyolite is cooler, more viscous, higher silica content and volatile content. Ocean floor composed of basalt, so spreading centers/divergent plate margins produce basaltic composition crust. Where are Rhyolitic lavas produced? ▪ Continental-oceanic boundaires. These are cooler and more viscous, produce more violent eruptions Was the Earth ever entirely molten? s e▪Y Where can/do intraplate hot spot volcanoes form (those not associated with plate boundary processes)? • Hot spots are independent of lithosphere type and can form in oceanic and continental plates (in ocean or on land) Hawaii is a good example of a hot spot volcano, although the model explaining its presence is subject to debate. What is mantle plume theory? What does it say, how does it explain the presence of Large Igneous Provinces? • Explains Large Igneous Provinces by lots of lava erupted very quickly Are mass extinction events common in Earth history, and is it likely more will occur in the future? ▪ Mass extinctions are common and are likely to occur in the future Has plate tectonics had any effect on past mass extinctions? ▪ Differing plate positions, latitudes, temperatures Can volcanic gases play a role in mass extinctions? ▪ Gasses change climate, cooling is the worst offender There is an inverse relationship between the magnitude and severity of events. Bad/big events are less common than smaller events What is the age of the Earth, how can we calculate a numerical age? ▪ Earth is about 4.6 billion years old ▪ Radioactive decay or isotopic dating How long do individual species persist on the Earth? ▪ 1 – 10 million years What are some characteristics of animals that enter the fossil record? How is it that some fossils were preserved, while others were not?Are the any special conditions that promote preservation of fossils? ▪ Hard parts are preserved ▪ Quick burial to prevent scavenging ▪ Little oxygen burial so it doesn’t oxidate the body What would the Earth look like if Plate tectonics and volcanism had not occurred over geologic history? ▪ Asmooth marble (erosion wears down everything) What was the biggest danger posed as a result of volcanic eruption in Iceland couple of years ago? ▪ Has glaciers which help in the violence of volcano (water to steam causes pyroclast) and pyroclastic ash was a huge danger Can we generally predict the type of volcanic products, and compositions of lavas based on the tectonic setting in which they occur, or are these random from place to place? ▪ Yes, we can depending on plate tectonic setting, subduction zones produce highly volatile melts with lots of silica, spreading ridges produce lower silica melts that tend to be much more depleted in volatiles, intraplate settings ▪ Convergent (intermediate, andesites) ▪ Divergent (basalt) ▪ Intraplate is random, depending on crust magma moving through


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