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School Psychology Final Exam

by: Joanne Notetaker

School Psychology Final Exam 830

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Joanne Notetaker

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About this Document

May 11, 2016 - Spring 2016 semester notes of Final exam
School Psychology
Study Guide
Psychology, final
50 ?




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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Joanne Notetaker on Wednesday August 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 830 at Rutgers University taught by Haboush/Riggs-Skean in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see School Psychology in 300 at Rutgers University.


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Date Created: 08/17/16
              School Psychology Final Exam Study Guide                                    Spring 2016  IDEIA and SECTION 504: Difference between 504 & IDEIA  IDEIA :  ● Originally enacted by Congress in 1975 to make sure that children with  disabilities had the opportunity to receive a free appropriate public education (FAPE). ● Revised every 7 years ● In 2004, IDEA became IDEIA, (Individuals with Disabilities Improvement  Act) ● Must affect educational performance ● No requirement for child to progress ● Must reevaluate child at least every 3 years ● Multidisciplinary Team must provide full comprehensive evaluation Section 504:  ● Protects qualified individuals with disabilities. Under this law, individuals with  disabilities are defined as persons with a physical or mental impairment which  substantially limits one or more major life activities. ● Doesn’t receive funding under IDEIA ● Substantially different from IDEIA because no need for multidisciplinary team to  provide evaluation  ● Know the main IDEIA disability categories we covered in class ­ Autism: significantly impacts verbal & nonverbal communication and social  interaction.  ­ Deaf Blindness: both together, does not count as more than one disability   ­ Deafness  ­ Emotional Disturbance: Inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal  relationships with peers and teachers, inappropriate behaviors/feelings, pervasive mood  of unhappiness or depression. ­ Hearing Impairment  ­ Intellectual Disability  ­ Multiple Disabilities  ­ Orthopaedic Impairment  ­ Other Health Impairment: “chronically ill”, has limited strength/alertness,  ADHD and Tourette’s fall under this category.  ­ Specific Learning Disability: disorder in one or more of the basic psychological  processes involved in understanding or using language, spoken or written. (Problems  listening, writing, math).  ­ Traumatic Brain Injury  ­ Visual impairment, including blindness ● Know the role of the school psychologist under IDEIA ­ Full comprehensive evaluation required by multidisciplinary team ­ Requires informed and written consent from parent/s ­ Requires re­evaluation of each child, if conditions warrant a re­evaluation, or if  the child’s parent or teacher requests a re­evaluation, but at least once every 3 years ­ Provides for independent evaluation at district expense if parents disagree with  first evaluation ­ Re­evaluation not required before significant change in placement   ● Know the main features of IDEIA   ­ Zero Reject: no child with disabilities may be excluded from a public education.  The requirement to provide special education to all students with disabilities is absolute  between the ages of 6 and 17. ­ Nondiscriminatory Identification & Evaluation: Schools must use nonbiased,  multifactored methods of evaluation to determine whether a child has a disability and, if  so, whether special education is needed. ­ Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE): All children with disabilities,  regardless of the type or severity of their disability, shall receive a free, appropriate  public education. This education must be provided at public expense—that is, without  cost to the child’s parents. An individualized education program (IEP) must be developed and implemented to meet the unique needs of each student with a disability. The IEP  specifies the child’s unique educational needs, states present levels of performance,  identifies measurable annual goals and short­term objectives, and describes the specific  special education and related services that will be provided to help the child attain those  goals and benefit from education. ­ Least Restrictive Environment (LRE): IDEA creates a presumption in favor of  inclusion in the regular classroom by requiring that a student’s IEP contain a justification  and explanation of the extent, if any, to which a child will not participate with  nondisabled peers in the general academic curriculum, extracurricular activities, and  other nonacademic activities (e.g., lunch, recess, transportation, dances). To ensure that  each student with disabilities is educated in the least restrictive environment appropriate  for her needs, school districts must provide a continuum of placement and service  alternatives. ­ Due Process Safeguards: Schools must provide due process safeguards to  protect the rights of children with disabilities and their parents. Parental consent must be  obtained for initial and all subsequent evaluations and placement decisions regarding  special education. Schools must maintain the confidentiality of all records pertaining to a  child with disabilities and make those records available to the parents. ­ Parent and Student Participation and Shared Decision Making:  Schools must collaborate with parents and students with disabilities in the design and implementation  of special education services. The parents’ (and, whenever appropriate, the student’s)  input and wishes must be considered in IEP goals and objectives, related­service needs,  and placement decisions. ● Know the steps that are involved in evaluating a child under IDEIA ­ Step 1: Child is identified as possibly needing special education and related  services. ­ Step 2: Child is evaluated. Does the child have a disability? Specific educational  needs?  ­ What special education services and related services are needed? ­ Step 3: Eligibility is decided   ­ Step 4: Child is found eligible for services must write an IEP within 30 days ­ Step 5: schedule IEP meeting  ­ Step 6: IEP meeting is held and the IEP is written  ­ Step 7: After the IEP is written services are provided ­ Step 8: Progress is measured and reported to parents  ­ Step 9: IEP is reviewed  ­ Step 10: Child is reevaluated at least every 3 years ● How eligibility is decided   ­ Eligibility for services under Section 504, requires the existence of an  identifiable physical or mental condition (e.g., asthma, broken leg, diabetes, etc…) •The condition must substantially limit a major life activity.  Major life activities include: walking, seeing, hearing, speaking, breathing, learning, working, and caring for oneself. •The school district determines whether a particular impairment “substantially limits” a  major life activity. ­ IDEIA MUST affect educational performance  What are accommodations:  Common 504 Accommodations  ● Provide extra time on tests and quizzes ● Preferential seating ● Use of calculator ● Use of tape recorder ● Enlarge print ● Use of alpha­smart ● Provide extra set of textbooks for home APA Ethics:  ● Three parts: ­ Preamble (introduction) ­ General principles: Five Aspirational goals ­ Beneficence­­­ do no harm ­ Responsibility­­­ to clients and society ­ Integrity­­­ honesty & accuracy in their work ­ Justice­­­ fairness, equal quality of services ­ Respect­­­ the dignity & worth of all people Ethical Standards (required) ● Assist psychologists in systematic decision making, rather than reacting  emotionally ● Obtain consultation from other psychologists all throughout one’s career  ● Most ethical dilemmas are not black and white ● Make known any conflicts Consent for minors:   ● Written consent for children under 18 is required ● Requirements for consent: informed, voluntary, competent Confidentiality: ● Child’s counseling is confidential ● Difficult to maintain in schools ● Legally, parent, not child must give written consent to release information about  counseling ● Discuss limits of confidentiality at start of counseling   Exceptions to confidentiality for minors: ● Threat to self­­­ ideation, intent, plans ● Threat to others ­­­ “duty to protect” intended victim ● “Reasonable suspicion” of abuse ­­­ mandatory state reporting ­­­ physical  discipline by parents IS legal Confidentiality In Schools: ● School psychologists require written consent from parents to share information  with teachers ● SP’s can provide non­confidential information to enhance class performance ● Unlike SP, other school personnel are not bound by confidentiality (i.e., Teacher’s Room) Multiple relationships: ● Multiple relationships not forbidden, but problematic ● Sexual relationship with past and present clients are forbidden    Relationship between law & ethics: Ethics:  ● Guidelines for expected conduct  ● Intended to guide appropriate practice of psychology ● Main goal is to protect the welfare of the public, especially clients served by  psychologists (i.e., kids) ● Secondary goal is to protect reputation of the profession ● Guide psychologist’s decision making  Law: ● Ethics are not enforceable by law  ● However, they influence legal regulation such as licensing law  ● Failure to adhere may result in:  ○ loss of professional membership  ○ loss of license to practice  ○ basis of civil malpractice suit  Case Vignette  ● You are Dr. Fabulous, school psychologist ● Part of your role includes teacher consultation ● A ninth grade teacher asks you to develop an intervention for a small group of  students frequently “off task” ● “Off task” refers to students who speak while the teacher is talking, make  sarcastic jokes, call out, text, fail to pay attention, and use put downs (i.e., “This is  stupid”) Challenges in schools ● Confidentiality is difficult to maintain in school ­­­why? ○ Cultural Competence & Diversity: Why is it important?   Cultural Competence:   “The ability to think, feel, and act in ways that acknowledge, respect,  and build upon ethnic, sociocultural, and linguistic diversity.” ­ Lynch and Hanson, 1998 ­ Awareness: assumptions, values, biases  ­ Understanding: worldview of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) clients ­ Knowledge: cultural differences, assessment and intervention strategies ­ Skills: providing assessment and intervention services ­ Important to develop given an increasingly diverse population ­ Benefits children by improving cross­cultural communication and ensuring that  consultation, intervention, and assessments are appropriately designed to meet student,  staff, and parental needs Diversity: The condition of having or being composed of differing elements: variety; especially  the inclusion of different types of people (as people of different races or cultures) in a group or  organization.” Demographics of US population vs. School Psychologists   US Population School Psychologists White 72% White 92% Latino 16% Latino 2.99% Black 12% Black 1.94% Asian .2% Asian .94% Am Indian .9% Am Indian .82% Terms : Culture/race/ethnicity    Culture  is the set of ideas, behaviors, attitudes, and traditions that exist within large groups of  people (usually of a common religion, family, or something similar) and is communicated from  one generation to another through language  Race : refers to the concept of dividing people into populations or groups on the basis of various  sets of physical characteristics. (Biologically determined traits) ● Members comprise different ethnicities and cultures Ethnicity: Group that shares a common history and culture, values, behaviors ● These features cause members to have a shared identity.  ● More narrow concept than race ● It is similar to culture but members of same ethnic group may have different  cultural experiences depending on degree of acculturation Stages of acculturation   ● Conformity ● Dissonance ● Resistance & Immersion ● Introspection ● Synthesis Non­biased assessment   ● Test bias­ test is biased if it systematically differentiates between groups based on variable other than what test is designed to measure (ex. Race, culture) Disproportionality­­­what it means, why it's important, and significant trends   ● Disproportionality­ extent to which memberships in given group affects  probability of being placed in a specific disability category ● It’s a problem because special education doesn’t  lead to high quality educational  opportunities ● CLD make fewer academic gains and are less likely to exit special ed classes ● “Double edged sword” Unequal school discipline practices: Because of the lack of culturally relevant instruction,  misunderstandings often occur which leads to disciplinary action. (More white  teachers/instructors in positions to discipline then the student population­­disproportionate).  Factors influencing the achievement gap   ● Teacher bias and Perception ● Grades reflected by GPA, major predictor of teacher perception Culturally relevant instruction   ● Cultural mismatch­ lack of cultural competence ● Seen as early as elementary school ● Shifts away from “Why can’t black boys behave themselves?” to “How can my  teaching support black male success?” How "diversity" in schools maintains segregation: Lack of culturally relevant curriculum,  interpersonal bias, racism and systemic bias. (Classrooms are not equal?) School Discipline  ● Manifest Determination ­ Must be done to determine if the behavior was a function of the disability ­ Sometimes done to move a student to an out of district placement ­ Done each time there are removals from school for 10 or more days ● How are discipline rates related to achievement? Disciplinary action often  results in time out of the classroom and further perpetuates the achievement gap. Counseling: Pros & Cons of school counseling Pros of school counseling: ● School allows you to work in the child’s world (natural setting) ● Can receive immediate feedback from teachers and more easily observe the  interaction between child and teacher ● Complete cohort of kids in school allows you to make comparisons across  children ● Can coordinate a variety of services in the school  ● Long­term follow up is possible ● You are readily accessible in the event of a crisis  Cons of school counseling: ● Finding a good “fit” between educational goals and counseling goals ● Finding effective ways to involve teachers and parents while maintaining  confidentiality ● Managing disruptions due to changes in school schedule, teacher’s preferences,  fire drills ● Maintaining a secure, sound­proof, private environment to conduct counseling  and store records ● Confidentiality ● Your visibility: pros & cons  Goals of school counseling:  ● Alleviate child’s emotional & cognitive distress  ● Change child’s behavior ● Assist w/ child’s self­understanding ● Help them meet current developmental tasks      ● Support environmental changes ● Promote positive fit between child & school  (Tharinger & Stafford, 1995) ● Develop secure attachment experience for child (attachment theory) Know what's meant by "related service":  ­ Counseling is a “related service”  ­ Related services are provided to students with disabilities when required for student to benefit  from educational programs. It includes but isn’t limited to OT, speech, transportation, school  nurse, services, and counseling.   Cognitive Testing:  Define testing & assessment ● Testing: is finding out how well something works.(More specific, testing one  thing) ● Assessment: the evaluation or estimation of the nature, quality, or ability of  someone or something. Theories of (multiple) intelligences: Was developed in 1983 by Dr. Howard Gardner, professor of education at Harvard University. It  suggests that the traditional notion of intelligence, based on I.Q. testing, is far too limited.  Disproportionality:  ● More concern in sp.ed. about over than under­representation ● Many stereotypes, confusion, misunderstandings ● Underlying assumption: All groups should be represented in sp ed proportionate  to population proportions   What factors contribute to effective instruction? ● Professional training on working with diverse students (age, gender identity,  ethnicity, culture, religion, disability, language and SES)  Characteristics of effective instruction:  Misuse of IQ tests & racial segregation:   ● Poor performance on a test may attach a stigma to children and thereby adversely  affect their performance and self respect ● The tests may invite discriminating practices from parents, teachers, and elders in  the society ● Administering a test biased in favor of the middle class and higher class  populations may underestimate the IQ of children coming from disadvantaged sections of the society ● Intelligence tests do not capture creative potentialities and practical side of  intelligence, and they also do not relate much to success in life. Intelligence can be a  potential factor for achievement in various spheres of life ● It is suggested that one should guard against erroneous practices associated with  intelligence tests and take the help of trained psychologists to analyze an individual’s  strengths and weaknesses Misuse of Racial segregation: Use of drawings & Rorschach: Rorschach: is a psychological test in which subjects’ perceptions of inkblots are recorded and  then analyzed using psychological interpretation, complex algorithms, or both.    School Violence, School Climate, Trauma School violence: a physical or verbal altercation on the way to school, on the way home from  school, or at a school­sponsored event that can cause physical or psychological harm to another  individual, school, or community.  School Climate: is a broad, multifaceted concept that involves many aspects of the student’s  educational experience.  Trauma: an overwhelming amount of stress that exceeds one’s ability to cope or integrate the  emotions involved with that experience  Contributing risk factors Trauma­­­­DSM diagnosis ● Any event that’s a threat to a child or another person’s safety that results in a child experiencing strong feelings of terror and helplessness ● Child’s usual coping ability is overwhelmed ● Person’s response involved intense fear, terror and helplessness (in kids= more  agitated/ with disruptive behavior) ● Trauma is persistently reexperienced through dreams, ruminating thoughts,  repetitive play, flashbacks ● Symptom Clusters: ○ Reexperiencing (reliving)­ recurrent and intrusive recollections of trauma through nightmares, flashbacks, obsessional thoughts, repetitive play ○ Avoidance­ persistent avoidance of stimuli associated w/ trauma,  including thoughts, feelings, memories ■ Dissociation ■ Constricted affect ○ Increased Arousal­ difficulty falling asleep, irritability,  hypervigilance, exaggerated startle response How do kids w/trauma histories present in school? ● Child may be mistakenly thought to have ADHD, ODD, or Conduct Disorder ● Impulsive ● Restless ● Clingy ● Easily reactive and aggressive w/ peers ● Mistrustful ● Withdrawn ● Daydream/dissociate ● Sexually inappropriate What does research say about importance of school climate:  ● Top­down: how the administration handles the day­to­day has an effect on the  entire school  ● School connectedness is important factor in dropout prevention, decreasing  drug/alcohol abuse, truancy, early sexual behaviors, violence and risky behaviors.  ● Also positively related to healthy self­esteem, self­efficacy, optimism, positive  peer relationship . Better overall grades and improvement in students’ overall  functioning. ● Negatively related to development of conduct problems, antisocial behavior,  depression, anxiety, emotional distress and suicidality.  NASP’S Recommended steps for responding to traumatic events:   Depression Stats ● Major depressive disorder affects approximately 14.8 million American adults, or  about 6.7 percent of the U.S. population age 18 and older, in a given year. (Archives of  General Psychiatry, 2005 Jun; 62(6): 617­27) While major depressive disorder can develop at any age, the median age at onset is 32.  (U.S. Census Bureau Population Estimates by Demographic Characteristics, 2005) Major depressive disorder is more prevalent in women than in men. (Journal of the  American Medical Association, 2003; Jun 18; 289(23): 3095­105) As many as one in 33 children and one in eight adolescents have clinical depression.  (Center for Mental Health Services, U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, 1996) People with depression are four times as likely to develop a heart attack than those  without a history of the illness. After a heart attack, they are at a significantly increased  risk of death or second heart attack. (National Institute of Mental Health, 1998 Symptoms ● Difficulty concentrating, remember embering details, and making decisions  ● Fatigue and decreased energy ● Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, and/or helplessness ● Feelings of hopelessness and/or pessimism ● Insomnia, early­morning wakefulness, or excessive sleeping ● Irritability, restlessness ● Loss of interest in activities or hobbies once pleasurable, including sex ● Overeating or appetite loss ● Persistent aches or pains, headaches, cramps, or digestive problems that do not  ease even with treatment ● Persistent sad, anxious, or "empty" feelings ● Thoughts of suicide, suicide attempts Suicide risk factors ● One or more prior suicide attempts  ● Family history of mental disorder or substance abuse ● Family history of suicide ● Family violence ● Physical or sexual abuse ● Keeping firearms in the home ● Chronic physical illness, including chronic pain ● Incarceration ● Exposure to the suicidal behavior of others Developmental factors: ● Biological ● Genetic ● Environmental influences ● Childhood events ● Developmental events Treatment ● Psychotherapy  ● Antidepressants (SSRI, SNRI, TCA, MAOI)  ● Exercise   Types of Disabilities (see above under IDEA for specifics mentioned in class) ● Mobility and Physical Impairments ● Spinal Cord Disability ● Head injuries (Brain Disability) ● Vision Disability  ● Hearing Disability ● Cognitive and Learning Disabilities  ● Psychological Disorders ● Invisible Disabilities What is the referral process? Phase One: Recognition  ● Important to call a meeting with the parents or guardians  ● The teacher should provide examples of the students’ work and or anecdotal  classroom notes regarding the student’s needs.  Phase two: Pre­referral  ● To identify, develop, and implement alternative education strategies for students  who have recognized problems in the classroom before the student is referred to special  education  ● Conducted by a Student Centered Team (a.k.a. Early Intervention Team),  intervention assistance team, student support team, teacher assistance team, or  instructional support team.  ● Consists of the teacher, the parents/guardians, an administrator, other general  education teachers, nurse, guidance counselor, and any other adult involved in the  education of the student.  Phase three: Referral for Special Education Evaluation ­ Must obtain consent from the parent(s) or legal guardian(s) to begin the  evaluation phase of the referral process  ● School personnel (including general education teachers, special education  teachers, counselors, administrators, etc.) ● Child’s parent(s) or legal guardian (s) ● Any other person involved in the education or care of the child Phase four: Special Education Evaluation ● School district is required to complete the evaluation within 60 days of the  referral date. ● Evaluation is conducted by a multidisciplinary team that will consist of  individuals who can bring different perspectives and expertise to the evaluation.  Examples of Team Members include: ● Education Diagnostician ● Special Educators ● General Educators ● Parent(s) or Legal Guardian(s) ● Related Service Providers ● Medical Doctors Formal evaluations that measure: ● Intelligence ● Achievement ● Behavioral ● Disability­specific issues ● Medical Assessments may not be biased in regard to race, culture, language, or disability.  Phase six: IEP Meeting (IEP and LRE)  ● The individualized Education Program (IEP) is a legal contract between the  parents and the school district that describes the special education services to be provided by the local education agency which is the local school district.  Phase seven: IEP Implementation Phase eight: Reevaluation ­­education­referral­process/ LRE: Least Restrictive Environment as to “maximum extent appropriate, children with  disabilities, including children in public or private institutions or other care facilities  Inclusion: Child Find: is to discover whether your child has special learning needs, to identify what those  needs are, and to provide the programs and services which will best address them Legal rights:  Main Studies:  ● Ortiz & Flanagan (2002): Our own culture influences the way we view the world  and other people. Greater variability within groups than between them. 


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