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MIdterm Study Guide HIS 178 (History of Modern Middle East)

by: Michael Camal

MIdterm Study Guide HIS 178 (History of Modern Middle East) HIS 178

Marketplace > University of Rhode Island > History > HIS 178 > MIdterm Study Guide HIS 178 History of Modern Middle East
Michael Camal

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About this Document

Notes for midterm
History of The Modern Middle East
Alan Verskin
Study Guide
history, middle, east, Modern
50 ?




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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michael Camal on Friday August 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIS 178 at University of Rhode Island taught by Alan Verskin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see History of The Modern Middle East in History at University of Rhode Island.


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Date Created: 08/19/16
Study Guide Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Wahhab (Born sometime between 1691 and 1703) · Creator and spreader of Wahhabism · Practice or movement of purging Islam of impurities · Wanted to bring back ideologies and practices of the original prophet Muhammad · Preach in Arabia in the early 18 century · Followers of this called themselves Wahabis Theodor Hertzl (Lived from 1860-1904) · German journalist, wasn’t Jewish · Dreyfus case inspired him to write Der Judenstaat · Became aware of unfairness to Jews which is why he wrote the book Der Judenstaat (Written in 1896) · Written by Theodore Hertzl from Germany · Translated to “The Jewish State” · Book sparked Zionism and brought attention to it even though he is not Jewish David Ben Gurion (Came to Palestine in 1905) · First prime minister of Yishuv party · One of the first Jews to come to Palestine · Established community for Jews in Palestine · Opposed white paper policy and British policy Committee of Union and Progress (1907) · Various Ottoman Revolutionary groups (political party) · Headquarters in Paris · Main objective is to overthrow Abdul Hammid II Hussain-Mcmahon Correspondence (1915-1916) · During WWI · Exchange of letters between Hussein bin Ali (Sharif of Mecca) and Sir Henry McMahon (British High Commissioner of Egypt · If Arabs helped fight Ottomans, Britain would recognize Arab independence “in limits and boundaries proposed by Sharif of Mecca) except where France had interests · Contraction to Balfour Declaration Treaty of Severs (1920) · Ottoman Peace settlement · Central Powers signed and admitted defeat · Beginning of partitioning off Ottoman Empire, eventual collapse · Ottoman Empire cut into crazy-quilt pattern · All Arab provinces under British and French control · Capitulations reinstated Haj Amin al-Husayni (Appointed Mufti-figurehead in 1920) · Became president of supreme Muslim council · Became leader of Muslim Nationalist movement · Titles given by Herbert Samuel due to the opposing views of the rival family (Nashabi) · Nashibi was opposed to the British doctrine which is why they gave him power. Hasan al Banna (Established Muslim brotherhood in 1928) · Grew brotherhood by talking about Islamic revival and opposed secularization · Wanted Islam to rule government. · Criticized by Free Officers Society Yassar Arafat (1929-2004) · Head of Fatah and Palestine liberation organization · Fatah is a paramilitary group · Both had goal of liberating homeland (Jerusalem) · Fatah wanted left wing policies Sherif Husain of Mecca (1931-death date) · British don’t want the sultan to call for Jihad, so the British look for an ally and find Sherif Husain of Mecca, · He is not a big influence, but is the best Britain can do · Britain leader McMahon promises Sherif Husain territory if Britain wins as long as he publically sides with them National Pact of 1943 · Unwritten pact where Christians promised to abandon dependence on France · Muslims promised to continue to seek for a unified Arab state with Syria · Temporary leading to unified national movement · Let to first truly independent government of Lebanon · Revised in 1985 by Lebanon due to Syrian pressure Rosewater Revolution (Took place in 1952) · Lebanese president Vishara al-Khuri ordered general Shihab of Maronite army to cease national strike of president · General Shihab declined orders because he would have to kill civilians · As a result, Vishara stepped down because the General wouldn’t back him · General Shihab became prime minister until a new president was elected · New president elected is Camille Shamun · Called rosewater because it was a coup de ta but there was no actual fighting First Palestine War (1947-1948) · Israel declaration of independence was claimed · Civil war in Palestine July 23 Uprising (1952) · When free officer’s society staged a coup de ta to overthrow Egyptian government · Almost bloodless, barely any resistance · Nasser lead it and took power shortly after · Overthrew King Farouk because of his corruption misuse of power King Husain (Succeeded father to become king in 1953) · Agreed with westernization, had british relations that the civilians did not like · Civilians didn’t like how Britain backed the King so the king chose a general Glubb · Exiled the general, put the blame on the general · 1957 put Jordan in police state due to nationalist socialist movements in the middle east · United States backed King Husain · 1970-1971 King Husain stops civil war, from that war black September forms Black September (1970-1971) · Civil war in Jordan 1970-1971 · After king Hussein suppressed the people that went against him and killed them, the remaining survivors fled and formed Black September in other countries · Assassinated King Husain’s prime minister in 1971 British mandate for Palestine () · White paper policies · After receiving backlash from Jews Britain took matter to UN · UN decided to split Palestine into 7 parts · Jews were for it and Palestine’s were not, the agreement did not happen · Lead to 1948 war and Israel gaining independence established The New Jahiliyya (started in 20 century) · Revival of the concept of Jahiliyya · Ignorance to Islam, Sayyid Qutb supported the idea, putting things before Muhammad · Signifies domination of man over man, worshiping of mortals


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