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URI / Chemistry / CHM 228 / What is the disadvantages of sublimation process?

What is the disadvantages of sublimation process?

What is the disadvantages of sublimation process?

Description

School: University of Rhode Island
Department: Chemistry
Course: Organic Chemistry 2
Professor: Ralph salvatore
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: organic, orgo, Chemistry, UNE, and lecture2
Cost: 25
Name: UNE Online Organic Chemistry 2 Lecture Notes All Chapters
Description: These notes (like my organic chemistry 1 bundle) are detailed, neat and thorough. My notes were a huge help to me, so I hope they benefit you as well. I just recently passed this class and it took me only a little under 4 weeks to complete it. Good luck!
Uploaded: 08/19/2016
53 Pages 32 Views 2 Unlocks
Reviews


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6/20 Module 1Don't forget about the age old question of What do empiricists believe?

Separation & PurificationWe also discuss several other topics like What does two free variables mean?

*extraction

-2 main uses:

  1. Remove orgo compound from rxn mix
  2. Remove impurities from orgo compound that’s dissolved in an organic solvent

  • Liq-liq extraction: distribution of a solute b/t 2 immiscible liq
  • Generally one solvent is H2O, in which most organic solvents are not soluble
  • Separatory funnel used for extraction

If you want to learn more check out When does eclipse occur?

 We also discuss several other topics like What is another name for bone cells?

  • Never drain both layers thru stopcock
  • Top layer must be the less dense solution
  • “k” is distribution coefficient

We also discuss several other topics like What happens when glucose is low?

  • If k > 1.5 for orgo sub, it can be extracted from H2O
  • More efficient to do multiple extractions with smaller volume than one big extraction
  • Cl hydrocarbons tend to be more dense than H2O
  • Drying agent is an anhydrous chem compound that binds w H2O (MgSO4 is best usually)
  • Small amounts solvent can be boiked away but large amounts should be distributed & collected or removed w roto

*centrifugeDon't forget about the age old question of Process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors is called?

- takes advantage of centrifugal force

-denser phase forced to bottom

-common uses:

  1. Recover solid after crystallization
  2. Separate finely divided solid from liq
  3. Separate 2 immiscible solids

*recrystallization

- common to purify solid orgo comp

- Slow formation of crystalline solid

- stages:

  1. Hot saturated sol cools
  2. Becomes sipersat as crystal nuclei forms
  3. Nuclei stick to container
  4. Other molecules add to crystal lattice
  5. Crystal growth is exo

-7 steps: 1. Choose solvent 2. Dissolve solvent 3. Decolorize solution 4. Remove solid impurities 5. Crystalize solute 6. Collect and wash crystal 7.dry product

-ideal solvent bp < compound mp & moderately volatile

-use polar in nonpolar & vice versa to recrystallize

-vacuum filtration faster than gravity filtration

*sublimation

- purify organic solid by vaporizing & condensing without going thru an intermediate state

-clean process b/c no solvent used

-heat usually needed (disadvantage)

*Distilation

- total vapor pressure = external pressure

- purity of distillate depends on # vapor/condense cycles

-simple distillation has 1 vap/condense cycle

-fractional distillation is process of repeated vaporization & condensation

-1 theoretical plate = 1 vap/condense cycle

-must proceed at slow rate

- very steep ↑ in tem

6/20 Module #2

Purification continued..

*vacuum distillation

-distillation under reduced pressure

-used to distill high boiling or heat sensitive comp

-less efficient than frac. Distillation

*steam distillation

-distillation of H2O (steam) & an orgo comp or mix

-orgo comp mustbe immiscible in H2O

-components of immiscible mix boil at ↓ temp

-bp of liq will be ↓ than bp of any components of the mix

-component ↓vp ↓bp results in greater amount of distillate collected

*Chromatography

-exploit differences in participating behavior b/t mobile phase & stationary phase to separate components of mix

-mobile is liq or gas ; stationary is solid or liq

-mix to be separated is placed on stat phase

-diff component move thru he absorbent of diff rate b/c of:

  1. Physicl diff (size or vp etc)
  2. Diff interactions w stat phase (absorptivity, solubility etc)

*Column chromatography

-separate & purify components of mix

-absorbent (stat phase) contained in glass column

-comp to be separated placed on top of column & then mobile phase (solv) added

-gravity filtration the solv flows down column

-flash column the solv is forced down by air pressure

*Gravity column chromatography

-dissolving & adsorbtion is an equi process

-non polar comp comes off the column more rapidly than polar comp

-adsorbent selectively absorbs colored comps

-common adsorbents: silica gel, SiO2 & alumina, Al2O3

-larger mesh # = smaller particle size

-smaller particle used for flash & larger particle used for gravity

-action of solvent used to effect the separation of a mix of comps

-if components of mix are colored, the diff colors are collected in a clean flask as theyre eluted off the column

-colorless usually collected in small fractions (5-7m)

-more efficient to collect many small fractions to reduce # of “trash” fractions

*Thin Layer Chromatography

--TLC separates components of a mix by exploiting interactions of each component with the solvent, with TLC plate & molec weight of each component

-TLC plate: adsorbent coated on a piece of glass or plastic which contains a fluorescent indicator

-Solvent moves up plate carrying components with it

-more polar component remains closer to baseline

-simple, quick inexpensive & only requires small sample

-used  to: check purity, determine # of components, follow separation of column chromatography & and follow course of a rxn

*gas chromatography

-used to: check purity of volatile liq, check identity of unknown substance by comparing GC’s & analyze component of mix for presence or absence of a substance

-efficient separation depends on: volatility, polarity, temp of column, polarity of column packing materials, flow rate of carrier gas & length of column

-if components don’t separate : change column temp, ↑ temp during a run (tremp ramp)

-packed column contains finely divided solid support & usually made of stainless steel or glass

-capillary column are long and flexible, usually made fused-silica

-thermal conductivity detector (TCD) can’t be used w capillary but the material can be recovered

-Flame ionization detector (FID) can be used w capillary but material us totally destroyed

-RT (retention time) is it takes a compound to elute the column

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