Public Speaking Review
Public Speaking Review COMM 1000
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Claire Miller on Friday August 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 1000 at Auburn University taught by Jennifer Johnson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Public Speaking in Journalism and Mass Communications at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 08/19/16
Study Guide – Chapters 1-16 Chapter 1 – Speaking in Public • Similarities/Differences between Public speaking and Conversation o Similarities: Organizing your thoughts logically Tailoring your message to your audience Telling a story for maximum impact Adapting to listener feedback o Differences: Public speaking is more highly structured Public speaking requires more formal language Public speaking requires a different method of delivery • Dealing with Nervousness o Stage fright: anxiety over the prospect of giving a speech in front of an audience Nervousness is normal o Adrenaline: a hormone releases into the bloodstream in response to physical or mental stress Positive nervousness: controlled nervousness that helps energize a speaker for her presentation o Acquire speaking experience o Prepare, prepare, prepare o Think positively Use the power of visualization o o Know that most nervousness is not visible o Don’t expect perfection • The Speech Communication Process Speaker: The person who is presenting the oral message o o Message: Whatever a speaker communicates to someone else o Channel: the means by which the message is communicated o Listener: the person who receives the speaker’s message Frame of reference: the sum of a person’s knowledge, experience, goals, values o and attitudes. No two people can have the exact same frame of reference o Feedback: the messages, usually nonverbal, sent from a listener to a speaker o Interference: anything that impedes the communication of a message. Interference can be external or internal to listeners. o Situation: the time and place in which speech communication occurs • Cultural Diversity Speechmaking becomes more complex as cultural diversity increases o Part of it stems from the differences in language The meanings attached to gestures, facial expressions, and other nonverbal signals also vary from culture to culture Study Guide – Chapters 1-16 Public speakers must take into account the cultural differences between themselves and their audiences without ethnocentrisms • Ethnocentrism: the belief that one’s own group or culture is superior to all other groups or cultures Chapter 2 – Ethics and Public Speaking • Guidelines for Ethical Speaking o Make sure your goals are ethically sound o Be fully prepared for each speech o Be honest in what you say Avoid name-calling and other forms of abusive language o o Put ethical principles into practice • Ethics: the branch of philosophy that deals with issues of right and wrong in human affairs • Ethical decisions: sound ethical decisions involve weighing a potential course of action against a set of ethical standards or guidelines • Types of Plagiarism o Plagiarism: presenting another person’s language or ideas as one’s own Global Plagiarism: stealing a speech entirely from a single source and passing it o off as one’s own o Patchwork Plagiarism: stealing ideas or language from two or three sources and passing them off as one’s own Incremental plagiarism: failing to give credit for particular parts of a speech that o are borrowed from other people o Paraphrase: to restate or summarize an author’s ideas in one’s own words • Ethical Listening Be courteous and attentive o o Avoid prejudging the speaker o Maintain the free and open expression of ideas Chapter 3 – Listening • Hearing vs. Listening o Hearing: the vibration of sound waves on the eardrums and firing of electrochemical impulses in the brain o Listening: paying attention to, and making sense of what we hear • Types of Listening o Appreciative: listening for pleasure or enjoyment Empathic: listening to provide emotional support for the speaker o o Comprehensive: listening to understand the message of the speaker o Critical: listening to evaluate a message for purposes of accepting or rejecting it • Causes for Poor Listening Study Guide – Chapters 1-16 o Spare “brain time”: the difference between the rate at which most people talk (120-150 words/min) and the rate at which the brain can process language (400-800 words/min) o Not concentrating o Listening too hard o Jumping to conclusions Focusing on delivery and personal appearance o • Good Listening Habits o Take listening seriously o Active listening: giving undivided attention to a speaker in a genuine effort to understand the speaker’s point of view o Resist distractions o Don’t be diverted by appearance or delivery o Suspend judgement Focus your listening o Listen for main points Listen for evidence Listen for technique Develop note-taking skills o Key word outline: an outline that briefly notes a speaker’s main points and supporting evidence in rough outline form Chapter 4 – Selecting a Topic and Purpose • Brainstorming for Topics o Personal Inventory: make a quick inventory of your experiences, interests, hobbies, skills beliefs, etc. Clustering: make columns on a sheet of paper with titles like People, Places, o Things, Events, Processes, Concepts, Problems, Plans and Policies then write down the first couple things that come to mind for each column o Reference Search: Browse through an encyclopedia or a periodical database until something catches your attention o Internet Search • Determining General and Specific Purpose o General purpose: the broad goal of a speech Specific Purpose: a single infinitive phrase that states precisely what a speaker o hopes to accomplish in his or her speech • What is the Central Idea? o Central Idea: a one-sentence statement that sums up or encapsulates the major ideas of a speech o Residual message: what a speaker wants the audience to remember after it has forgotten everything else in a speech • The central idea: Should be expressed in a full sentence o Study Guide – Chapters 1-16 o Should not be in the form of a question o Should avoid figurative language Should not be vague or overly general o Chapter 5 –Analyzing theAudience • Audience-Centeredness: keeping the audience foremost in mind at every step of the speech preparation and presentation o Identification: a process which speakers seek to create a bond with the audience by emphasizing common values, goals, and experiences • SituationalAudienceAnalysis: audience analysis that focuses on situational factors such as the size of the audience, the physical setting for the speech, and the disposition of the audience toward the topic, the speaker, and the occasion • Adapting to theAudience o Assess how your audience is likely to respond to what you say in your speech Adjust what you say to make it as clear, appropriate, and convincing as possible o Chapter 6 – Gathering Materials • How to Gather Material Librarians, Catalogue, Periodicals, Newspapers, Reference Works, Search o Engines, Specialized Research Resources • Evaluating Internet Documents o Authorship: is the author clearly identified? Is the author qualified? If so, is this information fair and unbiased? o Sponsoring Organization: an organization that, in the absence of a clearly identified author, is responsible for the content of the document on the internet o Recency: Make sure the information is not outdated, check for copyright dates • Interviewing o Before: Define the purpose of the interview, decide whom to interview, arrange the interview, decide whether to record the interview, prepare your questions o During: Dress appropriately and be on time, set up the recorder if you are using one, keep the interview on track, listen carefully, don’t overstay your welcome o After: Review your notes as soon as possible, transcribe your notes, • Tips for Research (Start early, Make prelim Bibliography, take good notes, separate entry for each note, distinguish among quotes and paraphrases and your own ideas) Chapter 7 – Supporting Your Ideas • Examples: a specific case used to illustrate or to represent a group of people, ideas, conditions, experiences, or the like Brief examples: a specific case referred to in passing to illustrate a point o o Extended example: a story, narrative, or anecdote developed at some length to illustrate a point o Hypothetical example: an example that describes an imaginary or fictitious situation Study Guide – Chapters 1-16 o Use examples to: clarify your ideas, reinforce your ideas, personalize your ideas • Statistics: numerical data Mean: the average value of a group of numbers o o Median: the middle number in a group of numbers arranged from highest to lowest o Mode: the number that occurs to most frequently in a group of number Use statistics: to quantify your ideas, sparingly, with visual aids o • Testimony: quotations or paraphrases used to support a point o Expert testimony: testimony from people who are recognized as experts in their fields Peer testimony: testimony from ordinary people with first hand experience or o insight on a topic o Direct quotation: testimony that is presented word for word o Paraphrase: to restate or summarize a source’s ideas in one’s own words Quoting out of context: quoting a statement in such a way as to distort its o meaning by removing the statement from the words or phrases surrounding it • Oral Citations o You need to identify some form of: The book, magazine, newspaper or web document you are citing The author or sponsoring organization of the document The author’s qualifications with regard to the topic The date on which the document was published, posted, or updated Chapter 8 – Organizing the Body of the Speech • Main Points: the major points developed in the body of a speech. Most speeches contain from 2 to 5 main points • Strategic Order o Spatial: main points follow a directional pattern o Causal: main points show a cause-effect relationship o Chronological: the main points follow a time pattern Problem-solution: the first main point deals with the existence of a problem and o the second main point presents the solution to the problem o Topical: the main points divide into logical and consistent subtopics • Supporting Materials: the materials used to support a speaker’s ideas. Three main types: examples, statistics, and testimony • Connectives: a word or phrase that connects the ideas of a speech and indicates the relationship between them o Transitions:Aword or phrase that indicates when a speaker has finished one thought and is moving on to another o Internal previews:Astatement in the body of the speech that lets the audience know what the speaker is going to discuss nest o Internal summaries:Astatement in the body of the speech that summarizes the speaker’s preceding point or points Study Guide – Chapters 1-16 o Signposts: a very brief statement that indicates where a speaker is in the speech or that focuses attention on key ideas Chapter 9 – Beginning and Ending the Speech • The Introduction: o What is needed within intro: Get the attention of your audience: relate the topic to your audience, state the importance of your topic, startle the audience, arouse curiosity, question the audience Reveal the topic Establish your credibility and goodwill • Credibility: the audience’s perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic Preview the body of the speech • Preview statement: a statement in the introduction that identifies the main points to be discussed in the body o Ways to begin Rhetorical question, tell a story • Conclusion o Let the audience know you are ending the speech o Reinforce the audience’s understanding of, or commitment to, the central idea Summarize, end with a quote, make a dramatic statement, refer to the introduction o Crescendo ending: a conclusion in which the speech builds to a zenith of power and intensity o Dissolve ending: a conclusion that generates emotional appeal by fading step by step to a dramatic final statement Chapter 10- Outlining the Speech • Preparation Outline: a detailed outline developed during the process of the speech preparation that includes the title, specific purpose, central idea, introduction, main points, subpoints, connectives, conclusion and bibliography of a speech • Guidelines o Specific purpose, central idea, introduction, body, conclusion and pattern) • Write main points and sub points in full sentence • Legible and Brief • Give yourself Cues Chapter 11 – Using Language • Meaning of Words o Denotative vs. connotative o Denotative: The literal or dictionary meaning of a word Study Guide – Chapters 1-16 o Connotative: The meaning suggested by the associations or emotions triggered by a word or phrase • Accurate Language o When is doubt about the correct word usage consult a dictionary or thesaurus • Clear Language o Use familiar words, choose concrete words, eliminate cluster. Concrete words: words that refer to tangible objects o o Abstract words: words that refer to ideas or concepts o Cluster: discourse that takes many more words than necessary to express an idea • Vivid Language Imagery: use of vivid language to create mental images of objects, actions, ideas o o Simile: an explicit comparison using “like” or “as” o Avoid clichés o Metaphor: an implicit comparison NOT using “like” or “as” Parallelism: the similar arrangement of a pair or series or related words, phrases o or sentences o Repetition: reiteration of the same words or set of words at the beginning or end of successive clauses Alliteration: repetition of the initial consonant sound of close or adjoining words o o Antithesis: the juxtaposition of contrasting ideas, usually in parallel structure • Appropriate Language o Appropriateness to the occasion, audience, topic and the speaker • Inclusive Language: language that doesn’t stereotype, demean, or patronize people on the basis of gender, race, religion, disability, sexual orientation or other factors o Avoid the generic “he”: the use of “he” to refer to both men and women o Avoid stereotyping jobs and social roles by gender Use names that groups use to identify themselves o Chapter 12 – Delivery • Methods of Delivery Impromptu: a speech delivered with little to no immediate preparation o o Extemporaneous: a carefully prepared and rehearsed speech that is presented from a brief set of notes o Manuscript: a speech that is written out word for word and read to the audience • Speaker’s Voice o Volume: loudness or softness of the speaker’s voice o Pitch: the highness or lowness of the speaker’s voice o Inflections: changes in the pitch or tone of the speaker’s voice Monotone: a constant pitch or tone of voice o o Rate: the speed at which the person speaks o Pauses: a momentary break in the vocal delivery of the speech o Vocalized pause: vocalizations such as “uh,” “er,” “like,” and “um.” Study Guide – Chapters 1-16 o Vocal variety: changes in the speaker’s rate, pitch, and volume that give the voice variety and expressiveness Pronunciation: the accepted standard if sound and rhythm for words in a given o language o Articulation: the physical production of particular speech sounds o Dialect: a variety of a language distinguished by variation of accent, grammar, or vocabulary • Non-verbal Delivery o Kinesics: the study of body motions as a systematic mode of communication o Personal appearance Movement o o Gestures: motions of a speaker’s hands or arms during a speech o Eye contact: direct visual contact with the eyes of another person • Audience Questions Preparing for the Q&Asession o Formulate answers to possible questions Practice the delivery of your answers o Managing the Q&ASession Approach questions with a positive attitude Listen carefully Direct answers to entire audience Be honest and straightforward Stay on track Chapter 13 – Using VisualAids • Objects • Models: an object usually built to scale, that represents another object in detail • Photographs • Drawings • Graphs: a visual aid used to show statistical trends and patterns Line graph: uses one or more lines to show changes in statistics over time or o space o Pie graph: highlights segments of a circle to show simple distribution patterns o Bar graph: uses vertical or horizontal bars to show comparisons among two or more items • Charts: summarizes a large block of information, usually in list form • Transparencies: a visual aid drawn, written, or printed on a sheet of clear acetate and shown with an overhead projector • Video • Multimedia • Speaker • Guidelines for Preparing and Presenting Prepare in advance o Study Guide – Chapters 1-16 o Keep visual aids simple o Make sure visual aids are large enough Use fonts that are easy to read o o Use a limited number of fonts o Use color effectively o Avoid using the chalkboard Display visual aids where listeners can see them o o Avoid passing visual aids among the audience o Display visual aids only while discussing them o Talk to your audience, not your visual aid Explain visual aids clearly and concisely o o Practice with your visual aids Chapter 14 – Speaking to Inform • Types of Informative: a speech designed to convey knowledge and understanding o Objects: anything that is visible, tangible and stable in form o Processes: a systematic series of actions that leads to specific result or product o Events: anything that happens or is regarded as happening Concepts: a belief, theory, idea, notion, principle, or the like o • Don’t overestimate what audience knows • Relate subject to audience and don’t be too technical or abstract • Personalize ideas Chapter 15 • What is Persuasion: the process of creating, reinforcing, or changing a person’s beliefs or actions • Challenges of Persuasive Speaking: • TargetAudience: portion that speaker most wants to persuade • Questions of Fact: question about truth or falsity of an assertion • Questions of Value: Question about worth, rightness, morality etc of an idea/action • Questions of Policy: Question about whether a specific course of action should or shouldn’t be taken • Know How Questions of Fact and Value are organized: usually topically • Know the Goal of Questions of Policy: passive agreement/immediate action • There is NO need in arguing for a policy unless you can show a need for it (need, plan and practicality) • Organization of Question of Policy o Problem-Solution order Problem-Cause-Solution order o o Comparative advantages order o Monroe’s motivated sequence: seeks immediate action, five steps are: attention, need, satisfaction, and visualization Chapter 16 Study Guide – Chapters 1-16 • Credibility: the audience’s perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic. • Factors of Credibility o Competence: how an audience regards a speaker’s intelligence, expertise and knowledge of the subject o Character: how an audience regards a speaker’s sincerity, trustworthiness, and concern for the well-being of the audience • Types of Credibility o Initial: the speaker’s credibility before she or he starts to speak o Derived: the speaker’s credibility produced by everything she or he says or does during the speech o Terminal: the credibility of a speaker at the end of the speech • Ways to Enhance Credibility o Explain your competence Establish common ground with your audience o o Deliver your speeches fluently, expressively, and with conviction • Evidence: supporting material used to prove or disprove something • Tips for Evidence Use specific evidence o o Use novel evidence o Use evidence from credible sources o Make clear the point of your evidence • Reasoning from Specific Instances: reasoning that moves from particular facts to a general conclusion • Reasoning from Principle: reasoning the moves from a general principle to a specific conclusion Ex: The US Constitution states all citizens should have right to vote,African- o Americans are US Citizens,African-Americans should have right to vote • Causal Reasoning: seeks to establish the relationship between cause and effect • Analogical Reasoning: where speaker compares two similar cases and infers what is true for 1 case is also true for 2 case • Fallacies: error in reasoning • Types of fallacies o Red Herring: a fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion o Ad Hominem: a fallacy that attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute o Either-Or: a fallacy that forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more that two alternatives exist o Bandwagon: a fallacy that assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable o Slippery Slope: a fallacy that assumes that taking a first step with lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented Study Guide – Chapters 1-16 • Appealing to Emotions (Pathos) o Pathos: the name used byAristotle for emotional appeal o Use emotional language o Develop vivid examples o Speak with sincerity and conviction
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