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Geography 112, Week 10

by: Jennifer Martinez

Geography 112, Week 10 Geog 112

Jennifer Martinez
GPA 3.2

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About this Document

These notes cover the Middle East
Worls Regional Geography
John E. Wright
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jennifer Martinez on Saturday August 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Geog 112 at New Mexico State University taught by John E. Wright in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Worls Regional Geography in Geography at New Mexico State University.


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Date Created: 08/20/16
GEOGRAPHY 112G – EXAM #2 STUDY GUIDE th Exam is on Thursday, March 10  in class Review: Wednesday, March 9 , 5:30 in our classroom Key Terms: What invasions of the Middle East continue to cause anger in the region? Crusades, Ottoman Turks, England/France, U.S., creation of the state of Israel is seen by  many Arabs as an invasion and occupation.  Percent of world oil in Middle East –66% Percent of world oil in Saudi Arabia – 25% Percent of world oil in USA –2%(1.8) OPEC: what is it and what countries belong? Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries­an oil cartel middle east and North  African countries, Indonesia, Nigeria, Venezuela. What did King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia do to prepare for when the oil runs out? Built a great university of science and technology called KAUST. Countries in the Middle East – study the map in the PowerPoint There will be two map questions Nations/ethnic groups of the Middle East Arabs, Persians, Jews, Kurbs Languages of the Middle East Arabic, Farsi, Hebrew, Kurdish, French What demographic factor is holding back the growth of Middle East economies most?  Women not working, or not working very much  In what Middle East country is it illegal for women to drive? Saudi Arabia 1 Hydraulic Civilizations Arid/dry environments, control water = control society. Las Cruces is one Jordan River diversions and Dead Sea Irrigation withdrawals to grow food are killing dead sea Petra represents what about Jordan?   Openness to the outside world terrorism Why might Jordan be seen as a role model for the Middle East? Building an economy without oil, recognizing the right of Israel to exist, fighting  ISIS/ISIL. Amman, Jordan and refugees Capital of Jordan, Refugees from Palestine, Iraq, Syria Persian/Arabian Gulf Separates Saudi Arabia and Iran Qur'an  Holy book of Islam, means “recitation of god” “People of the Book” (Abrahamic religions) Jews, Christians, Muslim = Monotheistic Religions Five Pillars of Islam 1.) Haji­ Pilgrimage to Mecca 2.) Repeat the basic greed 3.) Pray facing Mecca Five times a day 4.) Ramadan­ holy month of fasting 5.) Generosity to the poor Sunni and Shia Muslims (why are they different and which countries are majority Shia  and what region of Iraq) Different view of who should lead the faith after the Prophet’s death. Shia believe it  should have been some related to the Prophet. Sunnis believed it can be anyone of virtue.  Majority Shia countries­ Iran, Iraq, Bahrain. Southern Iraq is a majority Shia region (next to Iran). Islamization Spread of Islam by Arabs beginning in the 7 century. Percent of world’s Muslims in the Middle East 20% 2 Coptic Christians  Common in Egypt, first era to become Christian after Palestine. Necropolis “City of the Dead”­ the Pyramids, Cemeteries House of Saud Royal family of Saudi Arabia Ottoman Empire Turkish empire, controlled Middle East from 1300­1918 ISIL and their goals Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant, terrorist army trying to reclaim the old caliphate and  create an empire. Which Middle East countries are now fighting ISIS/ISIL and why? Egypt­ because of beheadings of Christians in Libya. Jordan­ because one of their pilot was murdered by ISIS/ISIL Saudi Arabia­ threat of Islam, more concerned Yemen Yemen (home of al Qaeda on Arabian Peninsula) A terrorist threat to Saudi Arabia Persia Iran Farsi Language of Iran Ayatollah Khomeini Religious leader of 1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran Hassan Rouhani and the Iran nuclear deal with the US Current leader of Iran, supports the nuclear deal to flow down production of nuclear  weapons in exchange for the lifting of US economic Sanctions, a moderate.  “Axis of Evil” countries (according to former President George W. Bush)  Iraq, Iran, North Korea Countries are not allies Saddam Hussein Dead. Former dictator of Iraq, invaded Kuwait in 1991 3 Three nations fighting in Iraq and what each wants geopolitically What does each “nation” want and fear? In what part of Iraq is each group dominant? Sunni Arabs: Wants to return to power, fear Shia revenge for Saddam Hussein’s  dictorship. Dominant in central Iraq Shia Arabs: Want shared power with Sunnis, fear another dictorship. Dominant in Southern Iraq, strong religious ties with Iran  Kurds: want their own country called Kurdistan, fear being killed by Arabs.  Kuwait (why is it a strong ally of the United States) U.S helped it free it from Saddam Hussein Osama bin Laden – once the leader of al­Qaeda Once supported him in the Mujahideen army against the Soviet Union.  Reasons why bin Laden turned against the USA Fail of the U.S. to rebuild Afghanistan after the Soviet Union was thrown out; US  military bases in Saudi Arabia; U.S support for Israel; Policies of western countries;  western secular society.  Balfour Declaration of 1917 British Statement that Jews should have a homeland in Palestine. Zionism Belief some Jews that god promised them a homeland in Palestine. When and why was Israel Created? 1948, To provide Jews a safe homeland after the holocaust to create a Judeo­ Christian  democracy in the Middle East. Intifada Palestine Arab uprising against Israel  PLO Palestine Liberation Organization, terrorist group in the past.  Six Day War 1967, Israel invaded by Egypt, Syria, and Jordan. Israel won.  Occupied Territories: areas claimed by Israel after the Six Day War –  1.) West Bank­ Now Palestinian Territory 4 2.) Gaza Strip­ Now Palestinian Territory 3.) East Jerusalem­ Palestinians 4.) Golan Heights­ Syria  5.) Sinai Peninsula­ Now part of Egypt again Hamas Palestinian political party governs the Gaza Strip terrorist in part  Hezbollah Terrorist group attacking Israel, operates out of Lebanon, funded by Iran.   “Two State Solution” (what the main barriers to implementing this?) Create a Jewish state and Palestine State separate the groups to achieve peace. Barriers: Who gets the land? Who controls Jerusalem? Illegal Israeli settlements in the West Bank.  PTSD Many Arabs do not recognize the right of Israel to exist How does a reliance on Middle East oil influence U.S. policies in that region? U.S fights wars for oil.  Supports King and Dictators Vulnerable to OPEC control on oil prices What are the effects of rising U.S. oil and gas production? Lower gasoline prices Reduces Power of OPEC and Middle East leaders Hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”) environmental Impacts? Boom and bust cycles­ small U.S oil companies going bankruptcy.  What might the effects be of the U.S. using energy sources other than oil and gas? Reduces the political power of OPEC, the middle east, and Russia. Strengthen U.S security  Reduces carbon dioxide emissions and perhaps slows climate change. Creates jobs in new energy sectors.  5


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