HIST 110A - Exam 3(FINAL)
HIST 110A - Exam 3(FINAL) HIST 110A
Cal State Fullerton
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This 30 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caru on Sunday August 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 110A at California State University - Fullerton taught by M. Walia in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.
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Date Created: 08/21/16
1. Justinian ~ R. 527 565 AD ○ Married to Theodora ■ May have been a prostitute before Justinian ■ Died of cancer ■ 20 years younger than Justinian ■ Empress ~ ruled alongside Justinian and gave him advice ○ Created law code > current laws were contradictory; too many laws ■ Grabs the best lawyers(10) to work for 10 years to separate the good laws and combine them with new ones ● He helped them because he was knowledgeable ■ Called luris corpus civilis(Body of Civil Law) ■ 5,000 pages long > Roman Law based on reason and equity ○ Religious man who loved Jesus > wanted to build a cathedral to honor Jesus ■ Gets the best architects and craftsmen ■ Hagia Sophia(Holy Wisdom) took 5 years to build and a lot of tax money ■ When he walks in and looks at it, he says, “Oh Solomon, I have outdone you.” ■ Had many mosaics(tile art) made of gold, silver, and ivory that had scenes from the bible ■ Had a dome inside ~ made of solid gold; diameter of 100 ft; appears to float in midair ○ Tried to reconquer West ■ Couldn’t do it because it was too expensive ■ Got a few areas temporarily 2. Heraclius ~ R. 610 641 AD ○ emperor /general of Constantinople ○ Plans counterattack against Persia ○ Gets 70,000 men on ships in Black Sea ○ Lands in Persian Empire ■ Burns and destroys it ○ Battle of Nineveh ■ Persian army is destroyed ■ Heraclius says that if they don’t sign a peace treaty, he will burn their capital ■ Fought 28 years ■ 630 AD ~ sign treaty > go back to old borders ○ Both areas are weak and tired ~ vulnerable to Arab invasion 3. Mohamed ~ B. 570 AD ○ “The Perfect Man” ○ Born in Mecca in Quraysh Clan(business clan) ○ Father died and mother died while he was young ■ Raised by uncle ○ Illiterate; was a camel driver > led camels from Mecca to Byzantine Empire to sell things > bought new things > return and sell new things ○ “AlAmin” ~ “Trustworthy One” ○ Average height, dark hair, pale skin ○ At 25, a 40 year old woman(Khadijah) is a widow who asks him for marriage > he says yes ○ Had six daughters ○ About 610 AD ~ 40 years old; begins thinking about the meaning of life in a cave every night ■ An angel(Gabriel) appears to him > sent by Allah(god) > says “Recite! In the name of your lord” ~ messages from god written in bible ○ Begins telling people there’s only one god and that Islam is the true religion > only a few convert ○ 622 AD ~ people from Medina come to him to ask him to be their leader ■ “The Hijrah” ~ “The Move/Emigration” ■ Muslim calendar begins in 622 AD ○ Begins receiving political messages from god after moving ○ Civil War ~ Mecca vs. Medina ■ 624 AD ~ Battle of Badr ● 900(Mecca) vs 300(Medina) > Medina wins; 15 die from Medina and 70 die from Mecca ● Turning point ~ people are convinced that God must have helped Medina > begin converting ● 630 AD ~ Mohammed and men enter Mecca as conquerors ● Destroy idols in Kaaba 4. Sharia ○ Islamic Law ~ combination of Quran(Islamic holy book) and Hadith(sayings of Mohammed) ○ Divides things by those that are prohibited and those that are permitted ○ Prohibited ■ Alcohol > whipping ■ Gambling > whipping ■ Adultery > death ■ Homosexuality > death ■ Fornication > whipping ○ Whatever leads to sin is sinful ○ Best way to prevent adultery/fornication is gender segregation ○ If you follow sharia, you go to heaven; if not, you go to hell ■ Heaven = eternal delight ■ Hell = fire 70 times hotter than the hottest fire on Earth; your skin burns off; you can only drink smelly, burning water ○ Say Abraham, Moses, Jesus Christ, and Peter are all Muslims ○ Believe the bible has been corrupted/altered ○ Believe Jesus is a prophet, but not God; don’t believe in trinity; don’t believe he was crucified or resurrected 5. Ibn Sina ~ D. 1025 AD ○ Wrote medical encyclopedia(The Canon) ■ 99 volumes ■ Became dominant medical book in schools ■ Honored God(99 names) by making it 99 volumes ○ First to do autopsies 6. Razi ~ D. 927 AD ○ Persian ○ First to use stitches ■ Prevented gangrene infection > pus ■ Made from animal guts ○ Discovered measles ~ harmless ○ Discovered smallpox ~ looked like measles at first ○ Could tell difference between measles and smallpox ■ put people with smallpox in quarantine 7. Harun alRashid ~ R. 786 809 AD ○ Caliph of Baghdad/Iraq during Muslim Golden Age ○ Lived in palace with 1,000 rooms ■ Each room had a concubine ○ Liked Aristotle ■ 1000 AD ~ decided to bring Aristotle into the Quran ■ Difficult because Aristotle believed: ● No personal god ● World was not created it has always existed ● No afterlife 8. Hamid alGhazali ○ “Proof of Islam” ○ Wrote a book criticizing Aristotle: The Incoherence of the Philosophers ■ If you read Greek philosophy, you will become an atheist ○ There are no laws of nature ■ Made people less likely to study science ○ 1200 AD ~ Muslim Golden Age is over; because of his book, people begin burning Greek literature ■ Greeks believed in reason > science; no science = no reason 9. Boniface ○ “Apostle to the Germans” ○ 723 AD ~ travels to southern Germany and chops down sacred tree(supposedly had powers ~ Germans try to attack him with axes, but they bounce off his head) ○ Several of his friends were murdered > sawed in half ○ 732 AD ~ becomes archbishop ○ 738 AD ~ creates monasteries and appoints 4 bishops ○ When he died, he became Saint Boniface 10. Clovis ~ R. 482 511 AD ○ Worships German gods ○ Clotilda(wife) is Catholic and keeps trying to convert him ○ 496 AD ~ losing battle and calls upon Jesus for help > wins battle and takes 3,000 men to Rheims to be baptized in the cathedral ■ Whole country must convert too ○ Founder of Merovingian Dynasty ○ Has 3 sons > divides land into 3 equal parts, but only one(oldest) is king > sons split it again when they had kids ○ Mental illness ran in the family due to inbreeding 11. Pepin III ○ Carolingian who rules France without the title of “king” ○ 751 ~ “Pepin the Short”(4’10”) travels to Rome to ask Pope Zachary if it’s right that he has the role of king, but not the title ○ Pope says that he will make him King Pepin III ○ 754 AD ~ church and state get along very well ○ Lombards(Germans) threaten Pope > Pope calls on Pepin > Pepin returns to Italy to defeat the Lombards 12. Charlemagne ~ R. 774 814 AD) ○ “Charles the Great” ○ 6’4” and very muscular; strawberry blonde ○ Has 4 wives throughout his life and 5 concubines ○ Had 20 children ○ Conquers land to bring everyone together ■ France, Belgium, Holland, N. Spain, Switzerland ○ Very religious > goes to mass every day > wants to spread Catholicism everywhere ○ N. Germans(Saxons) refused to convert with the rest of the country> charlemagne invades, burns their crops, and kills their animals > invades 19 times to make them convert ○ 800 AD ~ Christmas; Charlemagne goes to St. Peter’s cathedral in a toga > Pope puts a crown on him and says “All hail Charlemagne, Emperor of Rome” > gives him a lot of power over Carolingian Empire 13. Vikings ○ Savages from Norway and Denmark ○ 800 AD ~ invade England ○ Looking to plunder > go to churches and monasteries ○ Kill, rape, enslave ○ Also invade Ireland ○ Used long boats ■ 150 ft long ■ 17 MPH ■ Dragon carved at front ■ Don’t need deep water ~ can sail anywhere ○ Worship German gods ○ Carry horn and blow it before arriving ○ Typically don’t stay in areas they conquer ○ 830 AD ~ Vikings attack France and Germany ○ Attack Spain ○ Destroy government wherever they go 14. Feudalism ○ 900 AD ~ emergency government that forms in order to protect from the invasions ○ Lord owns a large piece of land(fief) ○ Fief has private army of knights ○ Vassal may live on fief if they swear an oath of loyalty ■ Given some land and animals > must give crops/animals ○ Vassal may leave if they don’t like it(in some places) ■ Vassals who are not free(serfs) have no rights and can’t leave ○ Lord has big, beautiful house(manor) ○ Causes problems 15. Otto I ○ 955 AD ~ Germany is invaded by Magyars ○ Duke who defeats the Magyars ○ 961 AD ~ Pope makes Otto “Emperor of the Romans” > becomes Otto I ○ Land he rules: Holy Roman Empire(Germany) ○ Creates churchstate conflict ○ Otto decides to make bishops and abbots(heads of monasteries) his vassals ■ Tells them to collect taxes, collect soldiers, and and run courts for him ○ Church is dominated by state ○ To be a bishop/abbot, you must go through ceremony(investiture) ■ Pope carries out ceremony > places hat on bishop’s head; places ring on abbot’s left hand ■ Otto says he’ll do the investiture ceremony > called layinvestiture when done by a king ■ Kings in other countries start doing it too 16. Gregory VII ~ R. 1073 1085 AD ○ Doesn’t like lay investiture > says only he will do it ○ Henry IV(King of HRE) says he’ll keep doing it ○ 1075 AD ~ Henry IV says he doesn’t recognize Gregory as Pope and spreads insults ○ 1076 AD ~ Gregory excommunicates and deposes Henry ■ Henry is kicked out of church > will go to hell ■ Henry is fired as king ■ Will be permanent unless Henry apologizes ○ 1077 AD ~ Henry and Gregory meet in mountains in Northern Italy ■ Pope makes Henry wait barefoot in the snow for three days ■ Henry finally meets him and cries ■ Pope allows him back in church and renames him as King 17. Frederick Barbarossa ~ R. 1152 1190 AD ○ German king who doesn’t like church; may have been secret atheist ○ Said he is the only person in HRE who can mint coins ○ Builds toll roads ~ he gets the money ○ Conquers half of Italy ○ Begins doing lay investitures ○ Uses Roman Law 18. Philip Augustus ○ French King who wants to divorce his wife(Ingeborg) ○ Gets new, younger wife(Agnes) ○ 1199 ~ Pope Innocent III says Philip will take back old wife > Philip refuses ○ Pope places France under an interdict(church won’t hold weddings, baptisms, funerals) ○ People of France get angry ~ Philip gives in(1200 AD) 19. King John ○ King of England ○ 1205 AD ~ archbishop of Canterbury dies ■ Pope should’ve chosen new archbishop, but John chooses one ○ 1209 AD ~ Innocent places England under an interdict ■ John doesn’t give in ○ 1210 AD ~ Pope deposes and excommunicates John ■ John doesn’t care ■ People of England are angry ○ 1213 ~ John gives in ■ Pope chooses archbishop ■ Pope says John will become his vassal 20. Cistercians ○ Order of monks created in 1098 AD ○ Began in Cisteaux, France ○ Called “white monks” because they wore white robes ○ Difficult to be one ■ Prayer ~ first at 3:45 AM ■ Silence ~ can only talk if something important happens ■ Manual labor ~ often make brandy and furniture to get $ for monastery ■ Seclusion ~ avoid human contact to not lose focus on God ○ By 1300 there were 1800 Cistercian monks > many people loved the idea of being a monk and serving God 21. St. Francis ~ 1181 1221 AD ○ Born as Francis of Assisi ○ Wasn’t always religious > had money and drank/partied ○ In countryside > goes past old church > hears voice say, “repair my home” ○ Francis was supposed to take over father’s business > chooses church > father disowns him > Francis says he has a new home ○ Reads New Testament and decides to live in poverty and tell poorest people(lepers) a message that God loves them > hugs and kisses them ○ Wants Pope’s approval of his work > makes them monks(Franciscans) ○ Dies in 40s ○ Was given stigmata(cuts that Jesus suffered) ○ Becomes Saint Francis 22. Peter Waldo ○ Lyons, France ○ Followers of Waldo practice Waldensianism ○ Waldo reads Old Testament and sees apostolic poverty ○ Waldo says followers of Jesus should be poor > leaves wife and gives away possessions ○ Travels around France preaching ○ Church tells him he can’t preach because he’s not a priest > he continues ○ 1184 ~ Waldo is excommunicated ■ He and followers go to Alps ○ Calls church “House of Lies” > they say he’s following Satan ○ Translated New Testament into French ○ Opposed death penalty ○ Opposed swearing oaths 23. Cathari ○ “Bringers of Light” ○ Lived near Toulouse ○ 1170 AD ~ many Cathari ■ Dualism there are two gods(1 good and 1 bad) ● Lucifer bad god ○ Created physical world ○ Put souls of angels in human bodies ○ Cathari dislike the physical world so much that they wouldn’t eat animal products(vegans) and avoided all sexual activity ■ Many Cathari gave in and got married and had kids ■ Perfecti Cathari who stuck to the rules ■ Some hated the physical world so much that many even committed suicide ● Jehovah good god ○ Created the spiritual world ○ Sent us Jesus Christ(phantom) to free the angels from human bones ○ 1208 ~ Pope sends someone(legate) to talk to the Cathari ■ Invites Cathari to return to church ■ Cathari shove spear through the legate and lift him up ■ Pope says we must annihilate them > creates army of Catholic knights ○ 1209 ~ Catholic knights attack ■ Cathari have many castles ■ War lasts for 20 years ■ Church says convert or die ■ Burn perfecti > tie them up and put wood around them; gives them a taste of hell 24. Inquisition ○ Created in 1233 AD ○ Run by Dominican monks ○ People can turn someone in, in secret ○ Receive summons ■ Can’t have a lawyer ■ Test through torture ■ If you confess, there’s no right of appeal ○ First time = public humiliation ○ Second time = relapsed heretic ■ Tortured until you confess ■ Found guilty = burn to death ○ 2% death rate 25. Gerbert of Aurillac ~ 946 1003 AD ○ Goes from France to Spain ○ Discovers Quadrivium ~ four subjects Greeks taught in school(geometry, arithmetic, music, astronomy) ○ Discovers abacus being used ○ Finds arabic numbers ○ Becomes teacher when he goes back to France > taught at Cathedral school(Rheims) ○ 9991003 ~ becomes Pope Sylvester II 26. Thomas Aquinas ~ 1225 1274 AD ○ Known as the “Dumb Ox” ○ “Baptized Aristotle” ○ Wrote Summa Theologica 20 volumes ○ Can use reason to know what god is like ○ Formed characteristics of God: ■ All knowing ■ All good ■ All powerful ○ Must prove God exists through reason ■ Develops 5 powers ○ Church begins using his ideas > Thomas becomes “official thinker” of Catholic Church > St. Thomas 27. Robert Grosseteste ○ Franciscan monk ○ Professor at Oxford taught physics ○ Created the early version of the scientific method ■ Make observations > collect data > develop hypothesis > test it(do it again if you fail) 28. Manzikert ○ Battle between Turks and Byzantine Empire ○ The turks wanted to spread Islam and invaded the byzantine empire ○ Diogenes sent an army to Manzikert ○ Began with 40,000 men > some left > only 20,000 ○ Turks on top of hill ○ Byzantine army enters vallery > arrows are thrown at them and boulders rolled down ○ 8,000 byzantine died ○ Captured King Diogenes(treated nicely) and held for ransom 29. Osman ○ Governor of one of the 10 districts of the byzantine empire ○ Conquered the other 9 districts ○ Tall 6’6” ○ Liked to kill people with his bare hands ○ New type of Turk ~ creates Ottoman Empire ○ Calls himself sultan ~ R 1292 1326 ○ Religious ○ Turkey considers him the creator of the country 30. Murad I ~ R. 1362 1384 AD ○ Sultan of ottoman empire ○ Orthodox Christian ○ Conquered a big chunk of southeastern europe(bulgaria, serbia, albania) ○ Battle of Kossovo ■ Against King Lazar(Serbia) ■ Goes to watch the fight himself ■ Traitor in Serbian army general Vuk Brankouitch ● Told 12,000 men to leave the battle ■ Turks win ■ Lazar dies in battle ○ Decides to young men from conquered areas as slavesoldiers(janissaries) 31. Janissaries ○ Slavesoldiers from areas conquered by Turks 32. Aztecs ○ Spoke the language Nahuatal ○ Built their city on top of lakes ○ It was called Tenochtitlan(Mexico City) ○ Population of 200,000 people ○ First people to eat the tomato and turkey ○ Diet was corn, beans, and squash ○ Created an alliance with their neighbors triple alliance ○ Wanted to sacrifice people they captured because they believed that their gods wanted human blood ■ Mainly for the god of the sun and soil ■ Sacrifices took place on top of the temple ■ Pulled out the person’s beating heart ■ After, they would toss the body to the bottom of the steps so people could eat them(cannibals) ■ Sacrificed on special religious occasions ○ Created temple mayor ○ For four days, sacrifices occurred nonstop 80,000 people were sacrificed 33. Incas ○ First people to cultivate potatoes and US cocaine ○ Diet included peanuts, peppers, and potatoes ○ Eat guinea pigs ○ Took over ecuador and bolivia ○ Had 13,000 miles of road and tremendous amounts of gold and silver ○ The most unfree society that ever existed ○ There was no private property everything belonged to the emperor ○ Spies everywhere ○ If someone was discovered as disloyal, they would take you to the top of a mountain, gouge out your eyes, and toss you off the cliff 34. Black Death ~ 1347 ○ People from italy doing business got sick and returned home ○ In 3 years, it spread from southern to northern europe ○ Two types: bubonic plague and pneumonic plague ○ Bubonic plague ■ Nosebleed, purple bumps, hot, thirsty, giant boils ■ Died after about 10 days unless the boils were popped ■ People would heat up metal and stab the boils ■ 90% death rate ■ Spread by fleas on black rats ● People played with rats ○ Pneumonic ■ Airborne version ■ Die within 12 hours ■ Symptom: go blind and have a fever ■ Death rate = 99.99% ■ 3035% of population died ■ Buried all of the sick people in open graves ● Attracted animals > dug up graves and ate the bodies ● Wolves, bears, etc ■ Only occurred in humans ■ More prevalent in cities ■ 50% death in Paris ■ 13501400 ~ comes back 5 more times 35. John Wycliffe ~ 1328 1384 AD ○ Professor of theology at Oxford ○ Was a Catholic priest ○ While teaching, he spread ideas about church ○ Believes in predestination ~ church taught that we have freel will ○ Said #1 authority is the Bible ~ church said #1 authority is the Pope ○ Church believed in transubstantiation ~ Wycliffe said it was symbolic ○ 1381 ~ fired from Oxford > becomes very hostile to the church ○ Said Pope is the antichrist ○ First to translate bible into English(Wycliffe bible) 36. Jan Hus ~ D. 1415 ○ From Czech Republic(rule by HRE at the time) ~ Prague ○ 1390 ~ traveled to England with other students > discovered Wycliffe’s writings > bring it back ○ Professor of philosophy at University of Prague ○ Agrees with Wycliffe on everything except transubstantiation ○ 1410 ~ Pope declares war on Naples > gets money by selling indulgences ○ Said Jesus taught us to love our enemies, but the church is killing them ○ 1412 ~ excommunicated; goes into hiding to avoid being arrested ○ 1414 ~ Church holds Council of Constance > tells Jan he’ll get safe passage > arrives and is immediately thrown in dungeon > question him > he says if they can prove(from the Bible) that the Pope is the #1 authority, he’ll change his view > they can’t > sentence him to burn > smiles and sings songs as the flames near him because he will go to heaven and be united with Christ > says “Lord Jesus, have mercy on my soul” 37. Indulgences ○ You either go to heaven or to hell ○ No one goes directly to heaven > we all have some in in us > must first go to purgatory to burn off your sins ○ Church sells these “certificates” that take off time in purgatory ○ Money used to hire mercenaries to fight HRE ○ Money is also used to build cathedrals and palaces(for archbishops and cardinals) 38. Mehmet II (the Conqueror) ○ 1451 ~ becomes sultan of the Turks ○ Wants to be the one to finally take Constantinople ○ Gets together an army of 100,000 men ○ All walls are gone except for inner wall(40 ft high, 15 ft thick) ○ Has 600 lb cannonballs made ○ April of 1453 ~ ready to attack ○ Wall is 1100 years old and covered in dust > cannonballs cause dust to fly off > when the dust settles, they see that the wall is barely affected ○ Try using ladders to climb the wall > defenders dump hot oil on them, shoot them, etc ○ Turks take a week off from attacking ○ Turks attack and get through the wall ○ Rides in on a white horse > goes to Hagia Sophia > says to remove all crosses and turn it into a mosque Themes: 1. Relationship of the Church and State in Western Europe from Pepin III until Innocent III ○ Carolingians rule France without the title of “King” current rule Pepin the Short ○ Pepin travels to Rome to ask Pope Zachary if it’s right for him to have the role of king, but not the title ○ Pope says he will make him King Pepin III ○ Church and state get along very well ○ Lombards threaten Pope > Pope calls on Pepin > Pepin defeats them ○ Charlemagne is very religious and goes to Mass every day > wants to spread Catholicism everywhere ○ 800 AD ~ Christmas; Charlemagne goes to St. Peter’s cathedral in a toga > Pope puts a crown on him and says “All hail Charlemagne, Emperor of Rome” > gives him a lot of power over Carolingian Empire ○ 961 AD ~ Pope makes Otto Emperor of the Romans after he defeats the Magyars ○ Otto decides to make bishops and abbots his vassals > has them collect taxes, collect soldiers, and run courts for him ○ Otto decides he will do the investiture ceremony to make people bishops and abbots > called lay investiture when carried out by a king ○ Leads to kings in other countries carrying out lay investitures too ○ Pope Gregory VII doesn’t like lay investiture and says only he will do it ○ Henry IV says keeps doing lay investiture and says he doesn’t recognize Gregory as Pope and spreads insults ○ Gregory excommunicates and deposes Henry > permanent unless Henry apologizes ○ 1077 ~ Henry and Gregory meet in mountains in Northern Italy ○ Pope makes Henry wait barefoot in the snow for three days ○ Henry finally meets him and cries ○ Pope allows him back in the church and renames him as king ○ Frederick Barbarrosa is a German king who doesn’t like the church > starts doing lay investitures ○ Pope Innocent III deliberately tries to lower power of the state ○ Philip Augustus wants to divorce Ingeborg for Agnes, a younger woman ○ Pope says Philip will take back his old wife > Philip refuses > Pope places France under an interdict ○ People of France get angry and Philip finally gives in ○ King John of England chooses a new archbishop of Canterbury, a choice that should’ve been the Pope’s ○ Innocent places England under an interdict ○ John doesn’t give in ○ Pope deposes and excommunicates John > John doesn’t care ○ People of England get angry and John gives in ○ Pope chooses archbishop and says John will become his vassal 2. Development of Islam ○ People who practice it are muslims ○ 500 AD ~ Arabia ■ Mostly sand; had oases ~ towns built on them(ex. Medina and Mecca) ○ Majority of people at the time practiced polytheism ○ Mecca ~ major place of worship ○ Traveled to Kaaba, a place made of black rock, on a pilgrimage to worship their favorite god ○ Mohammed was born in Mecca and worked as a camel driver ○ At 40 years old, he begins thinking about the meaning of life in a cave every night ○ An angel(Gabriel) appears to him; he was sent by allah(god) and says, “Recite! In the name of your lord” ○ Mohammed begins telling people there’s only one god and that Islam is the true religion ~ only a few convert ■ Could lose job and support of clan if you convert ○ 622 AD ~ people from Medina come to him to ask him to be their leader ○ Begins receiving political messages from god after moving ○ Civil war breaks out between mecca and medina ○ Mecca(900) and 300(Medina) fight in Battle of Badr ○ Medina wins > people are convinced that God must have helped Medina and begin converting ○ Mohammed and men enter Mecca as conquerors > destroy idols in Kaaba ○ Quran ■ Islamic holy book ■ 114 chapters(Surahs) ■ Arranged from longest chapter to shortest ○ 5 Pillars of Islam ■ Profession of Faith “There is no God, but God, and Mohammed is his prophet” ■ Pray 5 times a day(specific times) ■ Fasting Ramadan ~ don’t drink or eat from sunrise to sunset during this time of the month ■ Charity 2.5% of everything you own ■ Pilgrimage travel to Mecca once in your lifetime ○ Hadith ■ Sayings of mohammed ■ 6 major collections ■ Each hadith must have a chain of transmission to prove that it was said by Mohammed ■ Quran and Hadith combined to form Islamic Law = Sharia ● Divides things by those that are prohibited and those that are permitted ● Permits alcohol, gambling, adultery, homosexuality, and fornification ● “Whatever leads to sin is sinful” ● Prevented adultery/fornification by gender segregation ○ The Afterlife ■ If you follow Sharia, you go to heaven ○ Say Abraham, Moses, Jesus Christ, and Peter are all Muslims ○ The bible has been corrupted/altered ○ Believe Jesus is a prophet, but not God; don’t believe in trinity; don’t believe he was crucified or resurrected ○ Conquered many lands and spread Islam wherever they went 3. Islam’s Golden Age ○ Built capital for caliph in Baghdad ■ Had garbage disposal, hospitals, etc = clean ■ Palace with 1,000 rooms for Harun AlRashid ○ Great writings ■ Arabian Nights ○ Tried to bring back teachings of Aristotle ■ Difficult because Aristotle believed there was no personal God, the World was not created(it always existed), and that there was no afterlife ○ Hamid alGhazal wrote Proof of Islam ■ Criticized Aristotle: The Incoherence of the Philosophers ■ Said that if you read Greek philosophy, you will become an atheist ■ Said there are no laws of nature ■ Made people less likely to study science ■ By the end of the golden age, people began burning Greek literature; no longer believed in science, so they didn’t believe in reason 4. Catholic Church’s contributions to intellectual life during the High Middle Ages ○ Scholasticism ~ attempt to combine Catholicism with Aristotle ○ Gerbert of Aurillac became a teacher using the quadrivium ○ Thomas Aquinas brought back reason and formed the three characteristics of God
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