Biology 101G, Wek 6 Notes
Biology 101G, Wek 6 Notes Biology 101G
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jennifer Martinez on Sunday August 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 101G at New Mexico State University taught by Dr. Avis James in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Human Biology in Biology at New Mexico State University.
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Date Created: 08/21/16
BIOL101. Chapter7. ReviewQuestions. A hypothesis is a statement that A. can be changed throughout the experiment. B. can be avidly accepted by scientists. C. can be tested and proven true. D. can be tested and proven false. E. precedes a theory. Where are the most reliable scientific results published? A. in the daily news B. in science magazines C. in science journals D. on scientific websites E. in peer-reviewed scientific journals Observations used as scientific evidence should NOT include A. peer-reviewed scientific literature. B. previous data generated. C. observations about past work. D. anecdotal evidence. E. other people’s data. A hypothesis can be everything EXCEPT A. proven true. B. not supported. C. supported. D. falsifiable. E. testable. All of the following are true of a scientific hypothesis EXCEPT A. it is an opinion. B. it is an educated guess to explain an observation. C. there must be a way to test the hypothesis. D. there must exist a possibility of obtaining a result that could prove your hypothesis wrong. E. there must exist a possibility of obtaining a result that could support your hypothesis. Which of the following places the steps of the scientific process in the correct order? A. experiment→questions→hypothesis→read literature→conclusions B. questions→experiment→read literature→hypothesis→conclusions C. read literature→experiment→questions→conclusion→hypothesis D. questions→read literature→hypothesis→experiment→conclusions E. read literature→questions→experiment→hypothesis→conclusions Why can’t science answer questions about the existence of a supernatural being? A scientific hypothesis must have two very important features. What are they? Why do scientists say that a hypothesis is “supported” and never say that a hypothesis has been “proven”? What are the steps used in the process of a scientific study? A. making initial observations that generate questions, studying the literature, generating hypotheses that are both testable and falsifiable, testing the hypothesis with experiments and analyzing the data, and making conclusions that are supported by data B. generating hypotheses, conducting experiments, researching literature, making conclusions supported by the literature, and analyzing data C. making initial observations that generate questions, generating hypotheses, studying the literature, conducting experiments based on literature, and making conclusions supported by data D. generating hypotheses based on published literature, testing hypotheses, and making conclusions supported by data E. None of the above. I notice that all the students in my class seem very drowsy 45 minutes into my class period. Knowing that it could not possibly be my lecture putting them to sleep, I consider other factors such as the fact that my class is at 2:35pm, a time when I think manypeople drowsy. What type of evidence am I collecting in making this observation? A. experimental B. anecdotal C. peer reviewed D. coincidental E. untestable If the results of an experiment contradict the hypothesis, you have _____ the hypothesis. A. supported B. falsified C. proved D. failed E. verified A hypothesis must be ____ and _____. A. logical; verifiable B. logical; falsifiable C. testable; logical D. irrefutable; testable E. testable; falsifiable A controlled experiment describes the use of A. separate control and experimental groups. B. precise measurements. C. accurate and careful measurements. D. more than one variable changing separately. E. careful testing of the hypothesis. In a controlled experiment, the control and experimental groups differ in the A. environmental variable. B. controlled variable. C. independent variable. D. dependent variable. E. result. A placebo is given to the: A. dependent group. B. control group. C. independent group. D. experimental group. E. variable group. You finish a research project and submit your findings to a journal for peer review. The reviewers decide that they do not think your experimental results were convincing enough to support or disprove your hypothesis. What is your next step? A. cry B. formulate a new hypothesis that better fits your data C. design and carry out more experiments to support or disprove your hypothesis D. reanalyze your data E. fix your results so they better fit your hypothesis A controlled experiment must A. have a dependent variable. B. have an independent variable. C. be falsifiable. D. be repeatable. E. All of the above. Use the following information to answer the following 3 questions. A scientific study looked at the effect of tanning beds on DNA damage. The scientists took skin cells and exposed them to UV radiation (the type used in indoor tanning beds) for different lengths of time: some for 1 minute, some for 5 minutes, some for 15 minutes, and some for 30 minutes. They then looked for signs of DNA damage and compared the results to cells that had never been exposed to UV light. 1.What is the independent variable in this experiment? A. the number of skin cells B. the type of light C. the length of time the cells are exposedto UV light D. the untreated cells E. the amount of DNA damage in the cells 2. What is the control in this experiment? A. the number of skin cells B. the type of light C. the length of time the cells are exposedto UV light D. the untreated cells E. the amount of DNA damage in the cells 3. What is the independent variable in this experiment? A. the number of skin cells B. the type oflight C. the length of time the cells are exposedto UV light D. the untreated cells E. the amount of DNA damage in the cells Which is NOT an everyday(non-scientific) theory? A. If you carry and umbrella it won’t rain. B. Evolution occurs by natural selection. C. The freezer is the best place for valuables. D. Wearing bright clothes cheers one up. E. 3000 subjects perform better after a full night’s sleep. A hypothesis is A. an idea that has been rigorously tested and never been disproven. B. an idea that has been rigorously tested and only been disproven a few times. C. an idea that can be tested and falsified. D. an opinion. E. an idea based on a person’s experience or knowledge. A scientific theory A. is a hypothesis that has been upheld by many experiments. B. is an uneducated guess. C. has not been tested. D. is an educated guess. E. can never be proven wrong. I observe that squirrels that live in the southeastern United States are much thinner than squirrels that live in the northeastern part of the country. I theorize that this is because the squirrels that live in the northeast have greater fat reserves for the winter months when food is scarce. Is this a scientific theory? A. Yes, it is a good educated guess. B. Yes, I am taking into consideration physiological reasons for their larger size, so it’s scientific. C. No, it’s just a hypothesis; it has not been proven to be true through extensive experimentation or quantification. D. No, it cannot be proven true. E. Yes, I theorized it so it qualifies as a theory. An idea that has been examined numerous times and has never been falsified may be called a A. theory. D. conundrum. B. hypothesis. E. ideology. C. conclusion. In everyday usage, the word “theory” is used to mean an untested idea. Which of the following scientific terms is most similar to the everyday usage of “theory”? A. concept D. hypothesis B. conclusion E. theory C. observation In a scientific study evaluating the beneficial effects of caffeine on the elderly, whowould be the best subjects to test? A. elderly men and women D. elderly men B. elderly women E. teenagers C. pregnant women Statistical significance : A. indicates a high likelihood that your results are due to your treatment versus due to chance. B. is more likely to be reliable if you have a small sample size versus a large sample size. C. is a requirement of the data from a scientific experiment. D. indicates that the hypothesis should be rejected. E. depends on large data sets. Increasing sample size increases A. the control group. B. the experimental group. C. randomness. D. reliability of data. E. variation. A significant result from a scientific study indicates A. a statistical error. B. it occurred by chance. C. a positive result. D. a negative result. E. a non-random result. Experiments with a small sample size are ____ likely to produce statistically significant results than experiments with a large sample size. You are reviewing the results of five similar experiments, but each had a different sample size. Which of the following experiments has the most reliable results? A. the experiment with a sample size of 10 B. the experiment with a sample size of 100 C. the experiment with a sample size of 1000 D. the experiment with a sample size of 10,000 E. the experiment with a sample size of 100,000 Scientific studies involving a subjectively assessed benefit (i.e., caffeine and enhanced memory recall) can be complicated by A. too few observations. B. improper controls. C. poor subject selection. D. side effects from the drug. E. All of the above. A correlation in a scientific study indicates A. insufficient data. B. a cause and effect between variables. C. a clear link between two variables. D. a possible link between two variables. E. the necessity for a new hypothesis. A negative correlation in a scientific study means A. one variable causes a change in another variable. B. one variable is linked to another variable. C. one variable increases while the other decreases. D. there is no link between the variables studied. E. both variables decrease proportionately. A positive correlation in a scientific study means A. both variables increase proportionately. B. one variable is linked to another variable. C. one variable increases while the other decreases. D. there is a link between the variables studied. E. both variables decrease proportionately. You are a researcher studying alcohol intake and smoking. You find that as alcohol intake increases, the number of cigarettes smoked also increases. Which of the following is an appropriate conclusion? A. Alcohol consumption causes smoking. B. Smoking causes alcohol consumption. C. Alcohol consumption and smoking are not related. D. Alcohol consumption and smoking are correlated. E. No appropriate conclusions can be drawn from this study. You read an article in the newspaper that says people who consume large amounts of red meat show an increased risk of having a heart attack. Is it correct, then, to say that red meat causes heart attacks? Why or why not? If not, what would be an appropriate conclusion? Peer review means what in relation to scientific journals? A. Review by specialists in the field B. Review by the editor C. Review by top scientists D. Review by an editorial board E. Review by people of the same age, gender,and ethnicity Why do some media reports about scientific discoveries end up being exaggerations? A. Findings can be misunderstood and misinterpreted. B. Some studies are not done using the proper controls or scientific method, so they are unreliable; however, journalists often do not realize the distinction. C. Media reports can come from sources that are not peer reviewed. D. Media agencies may sensationalize news to draw more attention. E. All of the above. Epidemiologists A. study the incidence of diseases and risk factors in populations. B. investigate skin diseases. C. perform clinical trials on health issues. D. examine autopsy data. E. assess cancer treatments and survival outcomes. The study of the incidence of disease in a population that cannot be directly manipulated is called A. an experiment. B. population biology. C. evolutionary biology. D. epidemiology. E. systemic biology. Do epidemiologists perform planned scientific experiments with rigorous controlled experimentation? A. Yes, they work in labs and perform lab experiments to prove their hypothesis. B. Yes, they use the standard scientific method. C. No, they only form a hypothesis but do not analyze or compile any data. D. No, they examine data that have already been compiled and look for patterns. E. No, they only do uncontrolled experiments. An epidemiologist looks at a compilation of studies done at a medical center in which they have catalogued the lifestyle and habits of thousands of women. When she looks at the women in this group who have contracted breast cancer versus those who are healthy, she finds that women who have breast cancer drink more milk then those who do not have cancer. Does this mean drinking milk causes breast cancer? A. Yes, if there is a correlation between the two, milk causescancer. B. Yes, an epidemiologist uses statistics to look at populations, so it is not a coincidence. C. No, just because there is a correlation, it does not mean that milk is the cause of the cancer. D. No, it’s just a coincidence; correlations never indicate a cause-and-effect relationship. E. None of the above. BIOL101. Chapter2. ReviewQuestions. Nucleotides are composed of A. sugar, phosphate group, and a base. B. sugar, amino acid, and a base. C. lipid, phosphate group, and base. D. ribose, phosphate group, and an amino acid. E. deoxyribose, lipid, and a base. When a plant bends toward sunlight, the bending is an example of which characteristic of life? A. growth B. reproduction C. responding to their environment D. obtaining and using energy E. maintaining a stable internal environment Which functional trait does a mule NOT share with all living organisms? A. growth B. reproduction C. responding to their environment D. obtaining and using energy E. maintaining a stable internal environment Name the five functional traits of all living organisms. Whether or not viruses are alive is frequently debated. Name one characteristic of viruses that makes them similar to other living organisms and one characteristic that challenges our understanding of life. Which of these is NOT a necessary characteristic of life? A. ability to grow B. ability to move around in the environment C. ability to reproduce D. ability to respond to stimuli E. ability to use energy Maintaining a separate and distinct internal environment from the external environment is called A. life. B. cell exclusion. C. metabolism. D. hydrophobicity. E. homeostasis. Cyanobacteria A. first evolved about 2.5 billion years ago. B. are sensitive to extreme conditions. C. added carbon dioxide to Earth’s early atmosphere. D. are multicellular organisms. E. require a warm environment to grow. Describe what happens when phospholipids are put into water. How do they arrange themselves? Hydrophobic means A. not quite alive, like a virus. B. something that will not dissolve in water. C. water loving. D. a solute. E. something with a negative charge. What is the basic structural unit of life? A. membranes B. molecules C. cells D. organisms E. atoms Which is a scientific explanation of the originsof life: A. Theistic Evolution. B. Young Earth Creation. C. Atheistic Evolution. D. Flat earthers. When was the earth formed? A. 10,000 years ago. B. 100,000 years ago. C. 4.5 billion years ago. D. 10,000 billion years ago. E. 1,000 years ago. In the Miller and Urey experiments the scientists made an apparatus that simulated the early atmosphere. Which is true about the experiments? A. The major component of the atmosphere is Oxygen, much like today. B. The scientists were able to re-create first life because they produced a replicating (reproducing) life form. C. The scientists could not reproduce their experiments and thus rejected their hypothesis. D. Many amino acids that humans use in their body were created in their apparatus. Ribozymes are: A. self-replicating strands of RNA. B. DNA in a lipid (fat) membrane that can reproduce. C. the building blocks of DNA D. An enzyme that builds DNA. Please review notes on Dr. Boecklen’s lecture.
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