Study Guide for Fundamentals Quiz
Study Guide for Fundamentals Quiz
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by ljackson60 Notetaker on Monday August 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Lara Dahl in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 54 views.
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Date Created: 08/22/16
STUDY GUIDE: FUNDAMENTALS Chapter 1 Rhythm, Meter and Tempo Define the following: Rhythm: The actual arrangement of durations long and short notes in a particular melody or some musical passage. Beat: Basic unit of measurement for time in music definition, and example would be tapping a foot to the beat. Accent: The difference between a strong beat that is emphasized over the weak beat. Meter: Simply the pattern of strong and weak beats. Measure: Each occurrence of a repeating patter of accented beats is a measure. Duple meter: Meter when beats are grouped into twos or fours. (ONE two/ ONE, two) Triple meter: Meter when beats are grouped in threes. (ONE two three/ ONE two three) Syncopation: The moving of accents in a foreground rhythm away from their normal position in background meter. Can occur when an accent is placed in between beats ONE and two. Tempo: Largo (slow), adagio (slow), andante (one the slow side, not too slow), moderato (moderate), allegro (fast) , presto (very fast), prestissimo (slow to fast) Accelerando (increase in speed), ritardando (gradual decrease) Movements of a composition are generally referred to by their tempo marking Chapter 2 Pitch, Dynamics and Tone Color Pitch (Frequency): Quality of sound, low pitches result from long vibrating elements, high pitches from short ones. Dynamics (Amplitude): Pianissimo (very soft), piano (soft), mezzopiano (mediumsoft), mezzoforte (medium loud), forte (loud), fortissimo (very loud) Crescendo (growing loud), decrescendo/diminuendo (becoming soft), subito, piu, meno Tone color (Timbre): the sound and general quality different instruments and voices produce. Instruments (orchestra families), Categorized by the way the sound is produced Strings: Taut strings are attached to a hollow box of air that resonates to amplify the string sound. Include: Violins, Violas, Cellos, Double bass, and Harps Woodwinds: Series of spaced out holes are bored in a tube, which players open or close with their fingers or with a lever. Include: Flutes, Clarinets, Oboes, Piccolos, Recorders, English horn, Bassoon, and Saxophone Brass: Players lips vibrate against a small cupshaped mouthpiece of metal and this vibrates air within a long, coiled brass tube. Include: Trumpets, French horn, Trombone, and Tuba. Percussion: Sound is produced by something being struck. Include: Timpani Keyboard Instruments Include: Piano, Harpsichord, and Organ. Piano: Tuned strings are stuck by feltcovered hammers, activated by a keyboard to produce sound. Harpsichord: Similar to the piano it has a set of tuned strings that activate from a keyboard, but with a simpler action. Ensembles: String quartet: Includes: about thirty to thirtysix violins, twelve violas, ten to twelve cellos, and eight double basses. Chapter 3 Scales and Melody Intervals: The distance between two pitches in terms of highness and lowness. Half step: The distance between any two successive notes on the chromatic scale. Whole step: Equivalent to two half steps on the chromatic scale. Octave: A series of eight notes occupying the interval between the smallest note and the highest similar note. Diatonic scale: Seven note musical scale with 5 whole steps and 2 half steps. Major – The “home pitch” starts with C as the center. Minor – The “home pitch” starts with A. Chromatic scale: 12 note musical scale with all pitches separated by a half step. Total scales possible: 12 major scales, 12 minor scales, total of 24 diatonic scales available Sharp: Higher in pitch by a half step. Flat: Lower in pitch by a half step Natural: A note is natural when it is neither flat nor sharp. Melody: An organized series of pitches played in a certain rhythm. Tune: A simple, easily sing able, catchy melody like a Christmas carol. Sequence – The duplication of a phrase at two ore more different pitch levels. Cadence – Term for the stopping point or pauses in music. Motive: Distinctive fragment of melody that is easily recognizable. Theme: The basic subject matter of longer pieces of music or the topic. Chapter 4 Harmony, Texture, Tonality and Mode Harmony: Different pitches playing at the same time. Consonance: Chords that sound at rest, octaves are most consonant of intervals. Dissonance: Chords that sound tense, half steps are the most dissonant. Textures: They way various sounds and melodic lines occur together in music and how they interact or blend with each other. Monophony: Simplest texture, a single melody playing by itself. Homophony: One very interesting melody combines with less prominent sounds. Polyphony: Two or more independent melodies are played at the same time. Imitative – Various melodic lines sounding together using the same or similar melodies that usually come ones after the other. NonImitative – Melodic lines are different from one another. Modality: The different ways of organizing the diatonic scale. Major (happy) vs. Minor (sad) Modulation: Changes of key, changes of the home pitch to produce an emotional effect. Chapter 5 Musical Form and Musical Style Form: The organization of the elements of music; one of many standardized formal patterns that composers have used over the centuries. To identify form, must rely on memory! Form contributes to emotional effect of the piece, not just purely intellectual/structural Repetition and contrast: Used to keep a listener’s attention throughout a piece of music. “A” is the element of repetition and “B” is the element of contrast. ABA form: The first section is usually repeated after “B” in this form of music. ABC form: Each section of music is its own piece and there no repetition of sections. Style: The combination of qualities that make a work distinctive. Genres: General category of music determined by the number and kind of instruments/voices involved, function, and form (ie. concerto, suite, overture, cantata, symphony, quartet, lied, opera, hymn, program symphony, song cycle, sonata, etc). Explains what type of composition it is. Do not confuse genre with form. Sometimes a form can be the same thing as a genre, such as a fugue, but generally these are two different terms.
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