Exam 2 Info - COMM 2320
Exam 2 Info - COMM 2320 COMM 2320
Popular in Fundamentals of Media Production
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Communication
This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ailia Owen on Tuesday March 24, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 2320 at University of Houston taught by Craig Warren Crowe in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 391 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Media Production in Communication at University of Houston.
Reviews for Exam 2 Info - COMM 2320
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/24/15
CH 5 Directing most complex 32415 1151 PM DIRECTING total visualization 0 Take a script and transform it into exciting images and sound 0 What type of soundsounds 0 Script has idea of what types of shots are to be used but the director may change 0 Use of camera shots 0 Multiple camera Timing n Running time how long a program lasts call out shots so you stay within time restraint n Timing in production n Ontheair timing stand by callers news Production switching Director s commands standby ready take cues Liveontape record like you are live can cut and redo Livetotape record like you are live no redo s 0 Single camera One looks like many mixing up shots and composition a Master shots medium shots between 2 actors I Inserts close ups of same action in different perspective a Cutaways other actor responding to dialogue or objects being referred to Continuity make sure clothing and things are consistent positioning a People specialize in keeping continuity Amount of drink in glass length of cigarette Shooting ratios minutes shot to used in final production bigger ratio more expensive when using film U 31 a 51 more for narratives n 1001 Terminology Understands Composition Image qualities Transition devices 0 Relations of time and space 0 Work with crew and actors has a lot of influence over who is hired 0 Suggestions to producer on crew Organize the production shoot script based on budget 0 Specific types of shots transition devices sound effects 0 Shots are continuous recordings of action 0 Based on directors aesthetic approach 000 AESTH ETIC APPROACHES Realism content more then form 0 Depicts the world as it is o Illusion of reality maintain what is real in the world 0 Can be fictional Modernism form more then function 0 Less objectivity feelings of ambiguity o More emotion and subjectivity Postmodernism audience involvement over artists form and content 0 World of unbelievability scifi Create a new world unique to that movie Aesthetic tendencies 0 Function why is something expressed 0 Form how is it expressed 0 Content what is expressed VISUALIZATION shoot because you have thought about how you want it to look 0 Types of shots 0 Long shot LS far away shows a lot of information where we are Wide shot not as long a Establishing shot n The shining LS used to create sense of fear and ominous 0 Medium shot MS 2 people talking to each other Wait up usually can be head to toe n Attention to dialogue 0 Close shotclose up CSCU close on a face or object is center of attention 0 Extreme close up Example shots ofjust an eye Camera angle 0 Point of view POVovertheshoulder OS looking over a shoulder to someone I m talking to More intimacy o Reverseangle set up responses of dialogue between 2 people 0 Lowangle positioned low looking up at something Feeling of inferiority being looked down upon 0 Highangle positioned high looking down on something Feel bigger more important then what is being looked at 0 Overhead shot helicopter Looking down in a long shot environment a At street neighborhood a Establish where we are Camera movement 0 Pan shot camera moves side to side Camera stationary a On shoulder of someone or a tripod o Tilt shot angles up and down Human or tripod Varying angle 0 Pedestal shot special tripod where camera stayed perpendicular and moves up an down Same angle 0 Zoom shot from wide shot to CU or CU to wide shot Most overused o Dolly shot changes perspective of what is being looked at Tracks or wheels to move camera Frequently used in narrativesdramas 0 Trucking shot camera stationary on tripod with wheels Not as smooth as dolly I Has different look a Can truck while walking 0 Tracking shot involve moving tripod with camera moving 0 Craneboom shot sense of flying through something gopro on someone s head or on a stick Used in concert performance videos Can get in close to performer but not interfering with audiences view 0 Composing shots the way images are built in a frame type of camera shot movement and balance TIME BIGGEST DIFFICULTY 0 Frame dimension Aspect ratio width to height driven by projection screen dimensions a 4X3 square height big concern and 16X9 rectangle width big concern used in film TV a 1331 and 1852351 FILM Essential areacritical area critical to aspect ratio I Where action needs to take place where majority of audience will see it guide frame Rule of thirds divide frame into thirds horizontally and vertically to balance frames n Foreground n Midground a Background a To maintain proportionality 0 Symmetry is ok to violate rule of thirds Symmetrical balanced Asymmetrical unbalanced needs to be intentional 0 Closure space Openclosed frames a Open frame gt someone walks on gt closed frame gt closed until that person leaves gt open again Depth background to make more 3 dimensional O Perspective making things not flat Frame movement action and camera movement in one direction or opposing be consistent I Action tends to go in one direction 0 Switching directions can be disturbing to viewers Image qualities blurry purposeful has to have clear meaning a Clear images Scale keeping proportionality between objects Shape Speed of motion a Slow motion brings attention Complicated by time ever changing Combining shots duration of clips or shots multicamera mostly 0 00000 Straight cuttake Fade Dissolve 1 view to another Wipe graphical separator from one side to another Defocus clear to blurry to clear Swish pan fast Can do in single camera environment Special effects 0 0 Split screen have to think about composition Superimposition how to position actions to be able to layer images on top of each other compositing Names over images Keying Chroma key green screen Green room virtual environment Matte old time green screen Psycho shot house without background then edited desired background onto shot Negative image reversals Freeze frame Digital transitions DIRECTING editing involves director Scene construction series of shots Continuity editing creating flow Pace and rhythm speed and duration Compression and expansion of time Screen directionality directional glances 0 Sounds in relation to direction actors look consistent 180 rule consistency of axis action 0 keep action on one line of interest 0 never shoot cameras at opposing directions 0 all on one side of the line SOUND AND IMAGE INTERACTION OnOff screen source is visible or not Commentative no obvious visual source music Actual created from visual source Synchronous matched visual movement Asynchronous movement not matched to visual 0 Comedy 0 Baby opens mouth and barks Parallel blends with visual 0 Walking hear footsteps Gravel wood Contrapuntal contradicts Composing images for prerecorded music 0 Editing to preselected music 0 Composing original music Composing music for prerecorded images 0 Intensify the Action dramatic tension Establish the period or location music from 605 Set atmosphere or mood Stimulate screen emotion Fill dead air fills silence OOOO Production coordination 0 Production meetings crew day to day issues and solving 0 Casting pick actors for rolls 0 Rehearsals solve problems that come up to make sure things go on schedule and in budget Performer and camera blocking practice movement before shoot CH 6 Audio and Sound 32415 1151 PM Aesthetics of audio Realism realistic sounds in relation to images 0 Stimulate and illusion of reality 0 Reinforcing temporal and spatial continuity Modernism 0 Sounds independent of visuals 0 Abstract music to cover up sounds of natural events 0 Postmodernism o Emotionally involved with audience 0 Comediessci fi WHAT IS AUDIO Waves of energy analog vibrations o How it exists between us and source 0 Transducers convert one form of energy into another form 0 Electrical signal to digital Electrical current analog copy 0 Converted into a digital sound 0 Covert electrical energy into computer language 3 TYPES OF MICROPHONES and placements transducers vary between different types of mics Dynamic moving coil copper coil moves up and down a magnetized rod analog vibrations cross membrane Mylar vibrates 0 Handheld mics on camera draws energy from camera 0 Desk mics on camera 0 Shotgun off camera Ribbon foil suspended in magnetic field piece of gold best conducer suspended in magnetized field Some require power some don t 0 Sound stages replicate voice very closely to original source 0 Most expensive 60008000 can be 12000 0 Stand mics on and off camera Condenser two charged plates Mylar in front of one plate then another piece in between the 2 plates then back plate better quality then dynamic 0 Need power supply Lavaliere lav on camera Shotgun off camera Other off camera mics 0 Boom fish pole giraffe perambulator large base long arms can control used in studio 0 Hanging 0 Prop mics o Concealed lavs Wireless RFradio frequency transmitter and receiver needs to be plugged in o VHF lower cost wider use Problems with interference o UHF designed for radio and TV Can have more then 1 channel 0 Ultra UHF above the UHF band digital A bunch of different channels Interference something disturbs or disrupts transmission 0 Other wireless devices can interfere 0 Metal structures can block The best mic for the situation match the sound aesthetics and the different mic characteristics PICKUP PA39ITERNS how mics hear Omnidirectional dynamic o Sphere around it Bidirectional 2 heads side by side half spheres left and right side Unidirectional shotguns lavaliere Cardioid more focused point lavaliere Super cardioid more pointedtail SOUNDSIGNAL CONTROL Distortion unwanted change in a signal 0 Loudnesshigh level of recording 0 Noise unwanted addition to the signal 0 Ambient environmental can control 0 System equipment cheap equipment gives more noise 0 Signal to noise ratio desired sound to unwanted system sound SOUND INTENSITY MEASURMENT indication of volume or loudness of a sound signal 0 Volume unit meter VU 0 Electric volt meter that reads voltage shifts in sound intensity 0 dB decibel units of sound intensity 0 Peak program meter PPM 0 Measures electrical signals at peaks in sound intensity Red light signifies hitting peak 0 Lightemitting diodes LED 0 Measures instantaneous peak voltages Green yellow red hit peak CABLES still necessary 0 Professional have 2 conductor wire lines a ground and grounded shield reduces possibility of unwanted noise 0 Balanced less noise 0 XLR 3 cables 1 power 1 audio signal 1 grounded Nonprofessional 1 conductor wire and grounded shield o Unbalanced more noise 0 RCA redwhite cable plugged into TV and sound system Run into problems when using this type of cable for mics MIXING 0 Audio console combine sounds from several different sources 0 Faderssliders control signal levels volume 0 Commands o Fade inout gradual raise or lower 0 Segue fade of 1 signal immediately fade up of another Crossfade fade out of 1 signal while another fades in Open mic faderslider switched on Cut sound faderslider switched off Sound up and under fade up then lowered under another 0000 SOUND PERSPECTIVE the relationship of sound to space that parallels that of a picture 0 3 dimensions hasn t been possible up until recently to replicate actual 3 dimension sound 0 Leftright o Updown 0 Front of or behind 0 Stereo sound 0 Left right center 0 Surround sound 0 Left right center front or behind Dolby Digital 51 and 61 1 subwoofer bass is floor underneath aspect to surround sound 0 Speakers and channels 51 5 of speakers 1 subwoofer CH 7 Lighting 32415 1151 PM LIGHTING post complex 0 Paint with light Emphasize and dramatize Mood or Impression Aesthetics 0 Realist enhances illusion of reality Light from an actual source 0 Modernist creates dynamic visual impressions Abstract or subjective emotional criteria 0 Postmodernist mixes lighting styles LIGHT AND COLOR light emits color temperature 0 Kelvin K color temperature measurement 0 White light composed of equal amounts of all colors visible to the human eye rainbow Sunlight 5400 K can go up to 9000 K 0 Hard with harsh shadows 0 Tungsten 32003600 K light kit 0 Quartz 0 Carbon Arc 5800 K carbon filimate o Intense light close to sunlight replicate 0 Metal Halide light 5400 K 0 High intensity use in outdoor locations 0 Fluorescent 3200 K gases in it electricity excites gases and they each emit a certain color of light that s why they have different shades often they blink rapidly sometimes unviewable to the human eye 0 Phosphorescence various colors 0 Noise emitters audible vibrations 0 White balance video cameras only LIGHTING INSTRUMENTS 2categories o Directness Hardness Harsh shadows o Indirectness Soft Diffused shadows 0 Spotlights light is emitted in a narrow intense beam hard harsh shadows direct 0 Closed face Fresnel lens focuses light 0 Open face Ellipsoidal mirrorreflector focuses light behind the light a Can slide bulb closer or farther from reflector to change the narrowness or broadness of the spotlight Floodlights diffusespread light indirect o Scoops o Broads 0 Soft lights 0 Strip lights 0 Portable light 0 kits SOD2000 watts mixed wattage o quartz mixed 34003600 K 0 Open lul 0 Closed Ari Mounting devices 0 Grid what lighting is hung on in ceiling Cclamps mount lights to grid 0 Stands Shaping devices 0 Barndoors Screen Scrims Diffusors Flags black or white fabric aluminum on side of light to block or shape light 0 Gels color transparencies OOOO 0 Cookies put in front of light some form of metal with shapes cut out to shape the light LIGHT CONTROL STUDIO 0 Patch panel electricalpower distribution via plugs cords and circuits onoff Dimmer board circuits controlled by faders that reduces light intensity dims or intensifies effects color temperature 0 Inverse square law lighting law 0 Move light source away intensity dims by half 0 Move light source towards intensity increases by half LIGHT CONTROL LOCATION lighting takes the most power in a production 0 Power find enough and the right current don t exceed AMPage or else it will blow breaker Light intensity measurement 0 Footcandle light produced by a candle at one foot away Light meter measured in footcandle adjust by inverse square law 0 Light source 3 point lighting scenario mix flood light and spotlight 0 Key light often a spotlight first one you set up 0 Fill light used to smooth out harsh shadows produced by key light 2nd to set up often a floodlight Set up on opposite side of spotlight May seem to flatten subject 0 Back light separation 3rd to set up Set up behind subject Separate subject from background ight to see effectively and to control shadows LIGHT SET UP 0 Control shadows effective in setting a mood 0 Cross key 2 key lights no fill 0 Different directions 0 Moving subjects complex 0 Low key Chiaroscuro pool Mix of high and low lighting angles to produce different shadowing effects 0 High key Notan news A lot of light directly pointed at subject 0 Lighting plots grid 0 Drawing in types of lights you want at different locations along the grid 0 Can do for locations as well 0 Single vs multiple camera will influence lighting plot and design 0 Digital camera low light sensitive 0 Can use less light 0 Light for effect CH 8 Camera 32415 1151 PM CAMERA 0 Obtain the best possible visuals 0 Basic framing 0 Composition 0 Movement 0 Controllingunderstanding the camera and lens CAMERA PLACEMENT Framing arrangement of action and objects 0 Essential area 4X3 square or 16X9 rectangle o Lookspace how position actors and objects actor facing sideways and open space in front of them within the frame 0 Walkspace lead room in front of actor walking on frame 0 Headroom amount of space between top of subjects head and top of frame 0 Positioning 180 rule related to action keeping consistent direction camera on one side of line action on the other and Rule of Thirds 3 lines diving horizontally and vertically foreground midground background illusion of 3 dimensions Pan right to left Tilt camera up and down on angle Dolly no angle change move camera Pedestal no angle change up and down Crane shot POV flying shot in air sweeping effect Close up close to subject Medium shot 2 people having conversation waist up Two shot 0 Long shot long or deep endzone to endzone 0 Wide shot width and wide landscape 0 Movement start and end with camera in stationary position 0 Dolly camera mount shot wheels or tracks most used 0 Zoom shot changes the focal length of the lens LS to CU o Truckarcsemicircle tripod o Pantilt left right up down at angle 0 Pedestal up down no angle handheld camera rarely used OOOOOOO CAMERA MOUNTS Body 0 Steadicam JR around waist with an arm 0 Glidecam single pole with weight at bottom 0 Bodycam back pack like on suspended cable Allows handheld feel with steady camera Tripods good one 10002000 0 Fluid head 0 Spreader stabilizes legs 3 legs on individual legs of 0 High hat small tripod close to the ground Dollies very expensive and heavy usually renter o Pedestalhitchhiker has capability to move you and camera up and down 0 Crab Elemac Chapman cart you sit on wheels move 360 degrees usually on tracks 0 Special mounts 0 Tyler helicopter shot mounts fro cars and mobile devices Steadies camera in any vehicle 0 Crane long arm to put camera in air CAMERA LENS tube with 1 pieces of glass that focus and frame an image 0 Curved o Concave in o Convex out 0 Focal point where light coming into the lens to an intersection point at optical center of lens 0 Focal length distance from the optical center of lens front to center focal point moves with different lens 0 Wide angle short focal length 0 Narrow lens long focal length LENS PERSPECTIVE 0 Variable focal length 0 Change or zoom from one focal length to another 0 Wideangle short focus lengths wide view o Telephoto long focal length narrow view 0 Focal length measured in MM 8mm200mm TV 1218mm 0 Field of view 0 Exact dimensions of the image framed o Shorter wide angle 0 Longer telephoto 0 Image depth range of distances that an object will appear in focus 0 Depth of field range of focus on focal plane 0 Focus distance distance of subject from focal plane 0 Lens aperture opening which light can pass 0 Iris measured in fstops n 1 14 2 28 4 56 8 11 16 22 a lower f stop more light open a higher f stop less light closed VIDEO CAMERA Lensbodyviewfinder 0 Lens gathers light and image 0 Body pickup chips CCD charge couple devices and a VTR recording unit 0 Viewfinder and tally light see image and frame it 0 Camera chain 0 Camera Power supply Sync generator allows cameras to be used in switch feed Camera control unit CCU open and close iris adjust color value white balance from different location not on camera 0 Encoder to record video signal 0 SDHD standard definition high definition OOO CAMERA TYPES Video 0 Studio stay in studio look like handheld camera hooked to CCU chain 0 Electronic cinema red camera video camera used to record large frame sizes used for filmatic style 0 Field like studio used in sports Mobile TV production 0 Handheld various sizes 0 8mm 0 16mm 0 35mm 72mm IMAX
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'