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UGA - GEOG 1111 - Class Notes - Geography 1111 Lecture 3 & 4 Notes

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UGA - GEOG 1111 - Class Notes - Geography 1111 Lecture 3 & 4 Notes

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background image Geography 1111 Lecture 3 Notes Earth and Sun Relationships Greater than (>) 99% of Earth’s energy is from the sun
The amount (intensity) of sunlight striking the Earth varies:
Spatially: over space or area with latitude Temporally: over time with the seasons (day length) 
and between day and night
These variations cause an unequal heating of the 
Earth’s surface with derives the ocean currents and 
forms wind
In turn, energy is transported across the globe Earth Movements:  o Rotation: the spinning of the Earth on its axis It makes one turn about every 24 hours defining day & 
Meaning the same side of the planet is not always
facing the sun making solar intensity vary
The Earth turns counterclockwise when viewed 
above the North Pole and the atmosphere rotates 
with the Earth
o held by force of gravity A circle of illumination forms between the area of 
light (daytime) and dark (nighttime).
Revolution: movement of the Earth in its orbit around the  Sun It makes one orbit every 365.2422 days (365 days, 5.8 
Commonly called 1 calendar year It is a counterclockwise orbit, when viewed above the 
North Pole
o The orbit is elliptical, so at one time of the year it  is closer to the Sun than the opposite end of the 
orbit and solar intensity varies
o These 2 points are known as: 1. Perihelion: when the Earth and Sun are  closest to each other About 1.47 X 108 km or 91,500,000 
miles apart, which occurs on January
o  Thus a little higher solar  intensity 2. Aphelion: when the Earth and Sun are the  furthest apart
background image About 1.52 X 108 km or 94,500,000 
miles apart), which occurs on July 4
o Thus a little lower solar  intensity Earth’s Seasons: o Seasons are due to Earth’s orientation to the Sun and thus the varying angle the Sun’s rays strike the Earth’s surface o Why they occur: Revolution Rotation Tilt of the Earth on its Axis Axial Parallelism Sphericity Inclination of the axis: Earth’s orientation to the Sun as a  result of the tilt on it’s axis Currently 23.5° from a perpendicular to the plane of the 
Its revolution around the Sun and its daily rotation on its
axis are also major factors
Axial Parallelism: the orientation of the North Pole of the  Earth toward a specific star The fact that the Earth is a sphere (its sphericity) are 
also factors controlling solar intensity at the surface
o Inclination of the axis, axial parallelism, and the shape of the  Earth’s orbit (revolution) change over long periods of time This can be seen by the varying solar intensity with day 
length and with varying seasons
Summer has: o Longer days
o Higher solar altitude
o More intense sunlight and more energy
Winter has: o Shorter days
o Lower solar altitude
o Less intense sunlight and less energy
Solar Altitude (SA): the angle of the Sun above the horizon  at any given latitude Ex: At a SA of 90°, the sun is “directly overhead”, and 
yields the potentially maximum solar intensity
Solstices and Equinoxes o The 5 factors above (Revolution, Rotation, etc.…) cause the  seasons with 4 days of particular interest: The 2 Solstices and the 2 Equinoxes
background image March Equinox o Start of Spring in Northern Hemisphere 
o Start of Fall in Southern Hemisphere
June Solstice o Start of Summer in Northern Hemisphere
o Start of Winter in Southern Hemisphere
September Equinox o Start of Fall in Northern Hemisphere
o Start of Spring in Southern Hemisphere
December Solstice o Start of Winter in Northern Hemisphere
o Start of Summer in Southern Hemisphere
o The Sun is never directly overhead (SA = 90°) outside 23.5°  North or South Latitude (the Tropic of Cancer and Capricorn) o Northern Hemisphere Winter = Southern Hemisphere, etc. Climatological Seasons: o Winter: Dec, Jan, and Feb
o Spring: Mar, Apr, and May
o Summer: Jun, Jul, and Aug
o Fall: Sep, Oct, and Nov

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School: University of Georgia
Department: Geography
Course: Intro to Physical Geography
Professor: Hopkins
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: geography, 1111, Hopkins, uga, University, Of, Georgia, Lecture, 3, and, 4, and 8-17
Name: Geography 1111 Lecture 3 & 4 Notes 8-17
Description: This is a filled in copy of the Lecture 3 & 4 notes that we took on 8-17.
Uploaded: 08/22/2016
7 Pages 49 Views 39 Unlocks
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