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Test Upload

by: Rebecca Notetaker

Test Upload Test Webinar

Rebecca Notetaker

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This is the test upload for the webinar
Test Webinar
Study Guide
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This 29 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rebecca Notetaker on Monday August 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Test Webinar at Mississippi State University taught by Rebecca in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Test Webinar in Study Setup at Mississippi State University.


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Date Created: 08/22/16
Chapter  1:  The  Microbial  World   The  microbes:   •  What  is  microbiology?     – Microbiology  is  the  ______________.   – Microbes  are  forms  of  life  too  small  to  be  seen  with   the  _________   (bacteria,  fungi,  algae,  pro▯sts).   – The  field  examines  how  microbes  interact  with   _________   ,  with  _________  ,  and  how  they  can  be   used  BY  humans  (among  other  aspects).   The  microbes:   •  If  microbiology  is  the  study  of  life,  what  is  the  basis   for  life?   – _________     – Growth   – _________     – Gene▯c  varia▯on/evolu▯on   – _________  /adapta▯on  to  the  external  environment   – _________   (maintaining  internal  organiza▯on  and   order,  usually  by  expending  energy)   The  microbes:   •  So  if  that’s  life,  what  _________  (major  units)   are  needed  for  it  to  happen?   The  microbes:   •  Polypep▯des  can  serve   many  purposes,  but  one   of  the  most  important  is   the  func▯on  of  enzymes   as  _________  of   chemical  reac▯ons.   The  microbes:   •  _________  (DNA/RNA)  are  also   cri▯cal  as  storehouses  of   gene▯c  informa▯on.   •  In  the  1970s,  DNA  sequencing   was  used  to  compare   sequences  of  _________   _________  in  different   organisms.   •  This  led  to  a  new  scheme  of   organizing  life  into  three   domains:  _________   ,   _________  ,  and  _________  .   The  microbes:   •  Each  of  the  thee  domains  has  some  similari▯es   and  some  _________  to  the  others.   ease  of  doing  these  DNA  sequence  examina▯ons.  Be  sure  to  watch  the  anima▯on  on     this  method  available  at  the  textbook  website  and  to  read  Toolbox  1.1  for  more  informa▯on!   The  microbes:   •  What  about  viruses?   –  Technically,  viruses  aren’t   considered  to  be   _________   .   –  They  don’t  replicate  outside   of  a  host  cell.   –  They  (usually)  have  li▯le  to  no   biochemical  ac▯vity  outside  of   a  host  cell.   –  They  are  inert  and _________   outside  of  a  host  cell.   –  Microbiology  s▯ll  studies   viruses,  though,  since  they  are   too  small  to  be  seen  with  the   _________   .   Microbial  gene▯cs:   •  What  can  studying  the  gene▯cs   of  microbes  teach  us  about  the   evolu▯on  of  life  on  Earth?   – The  very  early  environment  on   Earth  was  dras▯cally  different   than  it  is  today.   •  _________  in  the  atmosphere   •  Surface  was  a  soup  of  liquid   chemicals   – This  early  atmosphere  and   environment  led  to  the  ini▯al   synthesis  of  the  first  forms  of   _________   (and  their  use  in   primi▯ve  single-­‐celled  life).   Microbial  gene▯cs:   •  But  molecules  alone  aren’t  life—so  how  did   early  _________  change  into  the  four   _________   of  cells  today?   – Early  iron-­‐containing  surfaces  may  have  helped   provide  the  right  environments  by  “s▯cking”  the   molecules  to  their  surfaces.   – But  any  early  life  would  s▯ll  need  to  have   _________  _________  ,  the  ability  to  _________   biochemical  reac▯ons,  and  a  way  of  _________   the  cell  interior  from  the  external  environment.   Are  there  molecules  or  structures  that  might   sa▯sfy  those  requirements?   Microbial  gene▯cs:   •  Some  _________  have   the  ability  to   _________  reac▯ons   (these  are  known  as   _________  ,  a   combina▯on  of   ribonucleic  acid  and   enzymes)   – This  means  RNA  could   serve  the  dual  purpose   of  _________   informa▯on  storage   reac▯ons!  ___   Microbial  gene▯cs:   •  But  what  about  separa▯ng  interior  from  exterior?   –  A  single  lipid  layer  known  as  a  _________  may  have  been  an   early  form  of  plasma  membrane.   –  This  could  have  formed  a  crude  way  of  separa▯ng  interior   contents  from  the  external  environment.   Microbial  gene▯cs:   •  So  then,  the  basic  idea  of   how  microbial  life  arose   on  Earth  is:   – Early  condi▯ons  formed   _________   and _________   .   – These  came  together  into  a   _________   using  RNA  for   storing  gene▯c  info  and   coding.   – Primi▯ve  cells  eventually   changed  from  using   _________   to _________   instead  for  storing  their   gene▯c  informa▯on.   Microbial  gene▯cs:   •  So  then  when/how  did  eukaryotes  appear?   –  _________  :  Primi▯ve  prokaryo▯c  microbes  ingested  other   microbes,  star▯ng  a  symbio▯c  rela▯onship,  forming  the  first   basic  eukaryotes.   •  Ingested  microbes  that  could  use  _________  for  a  respiratory  process  to   produce  _________  became  _________  .   •  Ingested  microbes  that  could  fix  _________  anic  molecules  using   light  energy  became  _________  .   Microbial  gene▯cs:   •  Bacteria  (and  humans)  today   use  double-­‐stranded  DNA  (not   single-­‐stranded  RNA)  for   storage  of  gene▯c  informa▯on.   Why  the  change?   – dsDNA  provides  a  ‘backup   copy’  of  the  gene▯c   informa▯on  in  case  of  a   problem.   – DNA  is  more _________   than   RNA.   Microbial  gene▯cs:   •  Can  studying  the  gene▯cs   of  microbes  help  us  to   USE  them  to  benefit   humans?  YES!   – By  altering  the _________   of  microbes,  we  can  mass-­‐ produce  molecules  that   humans  want.   – A  classic  example  of  this  is   the  produc▯on  of  human   _________   by  inser▯ng  the   gene  into  E.  coli  cells  (done   in  1978  by  Genentech  in   San  Francisco).   Microbial  metabolism  and  ecology:   •  How  do  microbes  get  energy  and  interact  with  the   world  around  them?   –  It  depends  on  if  a  m_________   (inges▯ng  preformed   organic  molecules)  or _________   (producing  organic  molecules).   –  Early  oxygen-­‐producing  autotrophs  helped  change  the  Earth’s  early   atmosphere  over  ▯me.   Microbial  metabolism  and  ecology:   •  Regardless  of  how  they   GET  organic  molecules,   they  are  then  broken   down  by  microbes  to   harness  chemical  energy   (ATP).   –  _________   doesn’t  need   oxygen  but  doesn’t  yield   much  energy  for   microbes.   –  __________________     does  require  oxygen  but   yields  MUCH  more   energy!   Microbial  metabolism  and  ecology:   •  Microbes  can  also  help  in  _________   _________  as  they  interact  with  the   environment.   – This  is  a  process  by  which  inorganic  molecules  are   cycled  to  organic  molecules  and  back  again.   Microbial  metabolism  and  ecology:   •  BUT  be  careful!  One  of  the  biggest  mistakes  a   student  can  make  when  studying  microbes  is   thinking  of  them  as  individual  cells/popula▯ons.   •  Microbes  live  in  _________  in  nature,  with  many   different  members  forming  a  _________   _________  and  _________  .   – Microbes  in  the  intes▯nes   – Plaque  on  teeth   – Slime  on  rocks  on  beaches   Discovery  of  Microbes   •  _________     –  Developed  first  compound  microscope;  first  to   describe  cells,  though  never  observed  single   celled  organisms;  findings  published  in  1665   •  _________     –  _________     –  Improved  microscope  to  observe  single   celled  organisms   –  Died  from  bacteria  he  was  observing   Microbes  and  disease:   •  How  are  microbes  associated  with  disease?   – We  didn’t  always  believe  that  microbes  caused  disease   or  existed  around  us  unseen.   – Even  when  microbes  were  known  to  exist,  people   thought  they  could  spontaneously  form  as  life  from   nonliving  ma▯er  (the  _________  _________  theory).   – It  took  the  work  of  many  people  to  debunk  these   ideas,  including:     •  Francesco  Redi   •  Lazzaro  Spallanzani   •  Louis  Pasteur     •  Robert  Koch   •  _________  :  1626-­‐97;  showed  meat  had  to  be  exposed   to  flies  for  maggots  to  appear   •  __________________   :  1729-­‐99;  showed  sealed  flask   of  sterile  meat  did  not  produce  microbes   Microbes  and  disease:   •  _________  performed  a  simple  yet  elegant   experiment  to  disprove  spontaneous   genera▯on  theory  in  the  late  1800s.   Microbes  and  disease:   •  _________  determined   Bacillus  anthracis  and   Mycobacterium   tuberculosis  were  the   causes  of  anthrax  and   tuberculosis  (respec▯vely).   •  His  work  with  anthrax   helped  sheep  herders  and   ca▯le  ranchers  avoid   costly  animal  losses.   Microbes  and  disease:   •  The  basic  rules  Koch   established  made  it   possible  for  others  to   determine  which   _________  caused  which   _________   .  They  are  s▯ll  in   use  to  this  day.   •  These  rules  (_________  )   will  be  discussed  in  more   detail  in  Chapter  18.   •  Modern day application of Koch’s postulates –  _________  1984 –  _________  _________  causative agent of stomach ulcers Microbes  and  disease:   •  Humanity’s  interac▯on   with  infec▯ous  diseases   is  always  _________  .   •  Some▯mes  cultural/ economic  differences   can  mean  differences  in   _________  (lack  of   malaria  in  the  United   States  versus  Africa).   Microbes  and  disease:   –  In  the  twen▯eth  century,  we  have   seen  a  drama▯c  drop  in  U.S.  deaths   from  _________     –  Preven▯on  of  infec▯on  through   •  Use  of  ________  oseph  Lister)   •  Sanita▯on  improvements   (sewage  treatment)   •  Food/water  safety   (pasteuriza▯on)   •  Personal  hygiene  improvements   •  _________     –  Treatment  of  infec▯ons   (_________   !)  


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