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USF - QMB 2011 - Class Notes - Week 1

Created by: Madison Czerepak Elite Notetaker

USF - QMB 2011 - Class Notes - Week 1

School: University of South Florida
Department: Quantitative Methods
Course: Bio II- Biological Diversity
Professor: Chantale Begin
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: darwin and evolution
Name: Biodiversity Chapter 22 notes
Description: For anyone who has not bought the book or does not want to buy the book, i will be posting notes for every chapter that you can use to study with.
Uploaded: 08/23/2016
0 5 3 47 Reviews
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background image Evolution­descent with modification/ states that earth’s many species are   descendants of ancestral species that were different from present day species due to a 
change in genetic composition
Two ways to view evolution ­ Pattern: data from scientific disciplines such as biology, geology, physics, and  chemistry ­ Process: mechanisms that produce the change The Darwin Revolution challenged traditional views of a young Earth inhabited by unchanging species Scala Naturae/ Classification of species ­ Scala naturae­ scale of nature is a theory (created by aristotle) that each  form of life is perfect and unchanging it is consistent with the old testament 
account of creation
­ Organisms match their environment because the creator made it that way
Carolous Linnaeus­developed a binomial format for naming a species ­ Genus + Species
­ Example: Homo sapiens = humans
­ Based on the pattern of creation Ideas Change Over Time Paleontology­ the study of fossils and the remains organisms from the  past ­ Fossils usually appear in sedimentary rock
­ Strata­different layers of the rock 
Georges Cuvier noticed that from one layer to the next, some species  appeared while others disappeared ( extinction must have occurred) ­ He theorized that each boundary between strata represented a  catastrophic event James Hutton and Charles Lyell believed that Earth’s geologic processes  are operating today as in the past and at the same rate ­ Processes are slow and continuous rather than sudden events
­ Darwin took this and theorized that processes could produce substantial 
biological change over time Lamarck’s Hypothesis of Evolution Lamarck believed that evolutionary change explained patterns in fossils  and their match to their environments ­ He is known not for the above but for his incorrect hypothesis that stated  that parts of the body that are used become stronger and larger while parts that 
are not used deteriorate and do not show up in the next generation
Darwin Rejected this idea but he did think that the evolutionary process of  variation made things inherit acquired characteristics
background image Descent with modification by natural selection explains adaptations of organisms, unity, and the diversity of life Darwin’s research and the voyage of the beagle Darwin observed plants and animals around the south american coast ­ He noticed that species in the tropic areas resembled species in  temperate regions ­ He found fossils of ocean organisms in the Andes, which led him to  believe that the earth changes and is more than a few thousand years old 
( people used to believe that the Earth was 6,000 years old)
­ The mocking birds of the galapagos were very similar but had their own  unique characteristics that seemed to match their environments  Darwin focus on adaptation Adaptations are inherited characteristics that enhance survival ­ Darwin predicted that species on galapagos evolved from those on the  south american mainland ­ He studied finches beaks and discovered natural selection­process in  which individuals that have certain traits survive more and reproduce more, 
therefore they pass on their traits to offspring
1845 he published the origin of species which made 3 observations about  evolution, which were descent with modification, unity, and diversity ­ Descendants of ancestral organisms lived in various habitats, so they  gradually got modifications to fit the environment  ­ Over time descent with modification led to the diversity we see today Artificial, Natural Selection, and Adaptation Artificial selection­ selecting and breeding individuals that possess desired traits ­ Pets, livestock, crops look little like their wild ancestors because of this
­ Darwin believed that this could occur in nature through natural selection
Natural Selection­process in which individuals that have certain traits  survive and reproduce more than those who don't  ­ Over time Natural selection increases match between organisms and their environments ­ Environmental change, migration, and natural selection result in  adaptations, sometimes even a new species Evolution is supported by a lot of scientific evidence Direct observations, homology, fossil record, and biogeography all support evolution Direct observations

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School: University of South Florida
Department: Quantitative Methods
Course: Bio II- Biological Diversity
Professor: Chantale Begin
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: darwin and evolution
Name: Biodiversity Chapter 22 notes
Description: For anyone who has not bought the book or does not want to buy the book, i will be posting notes for every chapter that you can use to study with.
Uploaded: 08/23/2016
3 Pages 24 Views 19 Unlocks
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  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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