Study Guide- Exam #1 (Ch1&2)
Study Guide- Exam #1 (Ch1&2) PSYC 1101
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hanna Notetaker on Thursday August 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Kara A. Dyckman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 174 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 08/25/16
Psych 1101 Exam #1 Study Guide- Ch1&2 Chapter 1 Psychology: The scientific study of behavior and mental processes Psychological Professions: Split into two categories- Basic Research (gathering info) and Applied Research (applying info gathered) 4 Goals of Psychology: 1.Describe- Report observations 2.Explain- Understand why 3.Predict- Predict future behaviors 4.Control- Change the behavior Roots of Psychology Plato: Nature (Knowledge exists in soul before birth) Aristotle: Nurture (Knowledge through experience) Rene Descartes: Dualism (mind and body two separate entities) Gustav Fechner: Physiological psychology (study of physical ability to sense stimuli) Wilhelm Wundt: “father of psychology” Perspectives in Psychology (8) Psychoanalytic: Conflicts in desire and societal expectations influence behavior Behavioral: Behaviors that can be seen and measured Humanistic: People naturally change for the better Cognitive: Thoughts and emotions Evolutionary: Behavior and mental processes influenced by evolution Biological: Utilizes physiology to explain behavior and mental processes Sociocultural: Roles we play in society; Social interactions Biopsychosocial: Examines biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors Science and Psychology Curiosity: Think Skepticism: Is it true or not? Humility: Accept you are wrong Pseudoscience Coincidence; ex: numerology, astrology Scientific Method 1. Hypothesis 2. Experiment 3. Analyze Data 4. Publish Results: Others will read and expand results Research Variable: Anything that can change Population: Members of the group you’re testing Sample: Part of a population Informed Consent: Researchers inform you of what you will do Debriefing: Because there could be bias, researchers don’t tell you everything until the study is over Descriptive Methods Describe what is already happening >Naturalistic Observation: No interference >Laboratory Observation: Some degree of control, but no other interference >Case Study: Study of one person individually >Survey: Participants fill out info, which researchers combine to find general conclusion *Cannot state cause and effect; Only describes Correlational Analysis A way to examine relationships among variables Descriptive research only Correlation does not prove causation Scatterplots are used to express the relationship between the two variables You do not know the direction of the relationship, only the cofactors Ex: Low self-esteem can cause depression OR depression can cause low self-esteem Psychological Research Experiment: Manipulates a variable of interest to uncover cause-and-effect relationships Independent Variable: What is being manipulated Dependent Variable: What is being measured Random Assignment: Participants have an equal chance of being chosen for each group, but there is control for other variables/ interferences Experimental Method Placebo: Fake treatment, given to the control group, that has no benefit but is given as if it does Experimental Research: Experimental Method Double-blind study: Neither the researcher nor the participants know what treatment is being administered to who Experimenter Bias: Researchers’ expectations influence the study’s outcome Ethics in Psychological Research Institutional Review Board (IRB): Professional group that reviews the safety of participants Common Ethical Guidelines (7) 1.Rights and well-being of participants weighed against the study’s value 2.Informed Consent 3.Deception must be justified: Due to potential bias, researches can withhold info at the beginning of the study but must disclose everything at the study’s conclusion 4.Participants can leave the study at any time (everything is completely voluntary) 5.Participants are protected from risks (IRB) 6.Researcher must debrief participants 7.Data must remain confidential Animal Research: Used to attempt to draw conclusions not obtainable through human research; Avoid exposure to unnecessary pain Chapter 2 Neuroscience The study of the brain and nervous system Biological Psychology Studies how the brain and other biological systems influence human behavior Phrenology and Ablation Phrenology: Pseudoscience (pseudo = false): Coincidence; Has no actual scientific reasoning; Bumps on your skull determine what characteristics you have Ablation: This is where a certain part of your brain is removed in order to see how you do certain tasks/functions without it Looking at Brain Structure CAT: This is a type of x-ray best used for observing bones. MRI: This produces a clearer image than an x-ray. It is used to observe the brain. Watching Brain Activity EEG: Electrodes are placed on a person’s head, and electrical activity from the brain is measured while the person is doing a certain task PET: Radioactive tracers are used to check the body for certain diseases Functional MRI- fMRI: A person’s brain activity (in response to stimuli) can be observed while they’re in a MRI machine. Components of a Neuron The cell body is also known as the soma. Dendrites (branches off the cell body/soma): Receives information Axon (only one axon per neuron; goes the opposite direction of the dendrites): Messages go from the cell body to the terminal buds Nodes of Ranvier: Gaps between the myelin sheath Myelin Sheath: Most of our neurons are myelinated; Speeds up communication; Insulates one neuron from another Terminal Buds: Transmits messages to other neurons Synapse: The gap between the end of one neuron (terminal buds) and the beginning of another neuron (dendrites) Glia Cells Glia: “Glue” of the nervous system- provides cohesion and support for neurons Communications Within Neurons Neurons only have two options: They can either fire an action potential or not fire one. Outside the neuron: Sodium and Chlorine ions (Na+ and Cl-) Inside the neuron: Potassium ions (K+) 1.At rest: The neuron is more negative on the inside (inside= -70mv) 2.Depolarization: Becoming less negative >Some channels open up, allowing the sodium ions to go inside the neuron 3.Threshold of Activation: -55mv 4.Action Potential (AP) >At the threshold, more sodium channels begin to open, which will allow more Na+ to go inside the neuron. This will cause the inside of the neuron to become more positive for a short amount of time. >The exchange of ions, the movement of sodium ions into the neuron, occurs all the way down the axon. It only occurs at the nodes of Ranvier (the gaps between the myelin sheath). 5.AP reaches the terminal buds/buttons >Neurotransmitters (chemicals) are released into the synapse and bind to the receiving dendrites. The Supporting Systems Needed to carry out orders and send important information received from outside stimuli Consists of the Central Nervous System (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Spinal Cord: Communication between the brain and PNS Sensory Neurons: Brings information from the environment to the brain and spinal cord Motor Neurons: Information from the brain and spinal cord sent to muscles or glands Interneurons: Neurons that connect to other neurons Reflex Arc: Sensory and motor neurons cause a reflex action The Brain Consists of two hemispheres: the right and the left >Right Hemisphere: Controls left side of the body; Integrates information >Left Hemisphere: Controls right side of the brain; Processes sequential information >Contralateral: Right controls the left, left controls the right 4 Lobes of the Brain >Frontal: Decision making part of the brain -Motor Cortex (Located at the back of the frontal lobe): Stimuli causes muscles move- Finer movements contain larger cortical areas >Parietal: Sensory and spatial information -Somatosensory Cortex (Located at the front of the Parietal Lobe): Receives information when you feel something >Occipital: Processes visual information >Temporal: Processes auditory information and language Language Areas and the Brain >Language is located on the left side of the brain: Broca’s Area and Wernicke Area Hemispherectomy >Half of the brain is surgically removed; Only occurs at rare instances Callostomies >The right and left sides of the brain are disconnected at the corpus callosum, which is a band of axons that connect the two hemispheres Mini Quiz 1. Which side of the brain are the language areas located? A. Left B. Right 2. Explain action potential. 3. What are the four goals of psychology? 4. Descriptive research can state cause-and-effect relationships. A. True B. False 5. What are the 4 lobes of the brain? Explain their function. 6. What is the purpose of the institutional review board? 7. Psychological professions are based on what two research? 8. Cell Body ______ a. Also referred as the soma 9. Synapse _______ b. Speeds communication 10. Axon ______ c. Transmits messages to other neurons 11. Dendrites _______ d. Receives information 12. Terminal Buds ______ e. Gaps between the myelin sheath 13. Nodes of Ranvier ______ f. Messages go from the cell body to the terminal buds 14. Myelin Sheath ________ g. The gap between the end of one neuron (terminal buds) and the beginning of another neuron (dendrites) 15. _____ Neither the researcher nor the participants know what treatment is being administered to who A. Placebo B. Experimenter’s Bias C. Random Assignment D. Double-Blind Study Answers (Ch1) 1. A (Ch2) 2. Action Potential: At the threshold, more sodium channels begin to open, which will allow more Na+ to go inside the neuron. The exchange of ions, the movement of sodium ions into the neuron, occurs all the way down the axon. It only occurs at the nodes of Ranvier (the gaps between the myelin sheath). (Ch1) 3. Describe, Explain, Predict, Control (Ch1) 4.B (Experimental research uncovers cause-and-effect relationships) (Ch2) 5. Frontal: Decision making Parietal: Sensory and spatial information Occipital: Processes visual information Temporal: Processes auditory information and language (Ch1) 6. Reviews safety of participants; protects participants (Ch1) 7. Basic Research and Applied Research (Ch2) 8. A (Ch2) 9. G (Ch2) 10. F (Ch2) 11. D (Ch2) 12. C (Ch2) 13. E (Ch2) 14. B (Ch1) 15. D
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