Aug 25, 2016
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• The quiz is over chapter 1
• You should get between 13-15 of the quiz questions correct
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Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental process/mind • Behavior – moving, taking physiological responses, expressions, non-visible but measurable actions
• Mental processes
▪ Aka addiction to phone, exercise, etc.
▪ Not all drugs and alcohol
• Behavior is difficult to predict
o Meehl’s maxim
▪ The best predictor of future behavior is past behavior
o Behavior is predicted by multiple predictors
o People affect each other
▪ Reciprocal determinism –
o Many psychological concepts are difficult to define (e.g. intelligence) • The goals of psychology
We also discuss several other topics like What is behavioral economics?
▪ “I knew you were going to say that? Yea right.” We also discuss several other topics like Explain the bcg growth matrix.
▪ Can we reduce child abuse?
▪ Identify and stop the killer who goes on the rampage?
▪ Improve worker morale?
▪ Stop drunk driving? Stop driving while texting?
• If you don’t like drunk drivers don’t text and drive
▪ Help the autistic children learn?
• Things that make psych fun
o People in psychological experiments usually know they’re being studies ▪ Problem of reactivity –
• People are very reactive
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▪ People differ from each other
• Every one differs genetically
• Even identical twins differ genetically
• Siblings, homes, environment – all create a difference in We also discuss several other topics like Just price is a theory of what?
people (even identical siblings)
• One can’t control the environment
▪ Culture influences people’s behavior
• Gender differences in cultures
• What will we address?
o Do IQ tests provide accurate measures of intelligence?
▪ Is intelligence inherited, or learned? If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between states and nations?
• Nature vs Nurture
• Language is nurture
o How does psychological stress influence health?
o What is more effective with children, punishment for bad behaviors or reward for good behaviors?
▪ Similarly, does how your parents raise you impact the type of person you are today?
• When you punish a kid for writing on the wall are we
punishing them for writing or writing on the wall? So we We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of market power in economics?
must reward them for writing on paper
• Rewarding works better than punishing
o How does cognitive function differ with age? We also discuss several other topics like Allocative efficient point refers to what?
o Why is texting while driving so doggone dangerous?
▪ It is strikingly dangerous
▪ No one ever runs out of long term memory
▪ How many things can you keep in your mind at once
▪ Attention is limited – it takes a form of cognitive energy that we simply do not posses
o What is the best way to study for an exam?
o What did Freud say about sexual behavior?
o Is memory better when hypnotized than normal?
• Psychology’s Liberation from Philosophy
o For many centuries, psychology was indistinguishable from philosophy o The distinctions lie in the use of argument, versus data
▪ Don’t argue. Prove it to me
▪ Show me the data
▪ Now I will try to refute you
• Fact or Falsehood
• True – Psychology is a way of asking and answering questions • True – the biggest and most persistent issue in psychology concerns the nature nurture controversy
• False – Psychology’s different perspectives contradict each other • False – Random assignment is fulfilled as long as you have an equal number of male and female participants
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o Are people telling the truth?
• True – deceiving research subject is sometimes considered ethical o They only tell you what they want you to know
o Its for science
• Early schools of Psychology
o The Science of Psychology
▪ Wilhelm Wundt promotes the belief that experimental methods should be used to study mental processes.
▪ “What is the best way to measure mental processes?”
▪ Edward Titchener, a student of Wundt, held that complex
conscious experiences could be broken down into elemental parts or structures
▪ Advocated by William James and influenced by Darwin,
functionalism focuses on how behaviors function to allow people and animals to adapt to their environment
▪ “What are the structures of conscious experiences?”
• What are the functions of behavior and mental experiences?
o Why did you do that?
• How can psychology be applied to life?
o First Major Psychological Schools: William James’s Students ▪ G. Stanley Hall (1844-1924)
• Established first psychological lab in the US at John
Hopkins: founded the APA
▪ Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930)
• Was the first woman elected president of the APA
American Psychological Association
• Conducted research in dreams, memory, and personality
o Great Theoretical Frameworks of Psychology
▪ 1. Structuralism –What is this process?
• ‘Map’ the elements of consciousness (sensations, images,
feelings) using introspection
▪ 2. Functionalism – Why
• Psychologists must act as ‘detectives’ to discover these
• Evolutionary aspect still influences modern psychology
▪ The unconscious is the part of the mind that operates outside of conscious awareness
▪ Unconscious conflicts determine behavior and personality
▪ Psychoanalytic Theory – Unconscious mental process shape
feelings, thoughts, and behaviors
o New Schools Develop Behaviorism
▪ Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) – discovers conditioned reflexes
▪ Psychology redefined as the scientific study of observable behavior
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▪ This is about the dog that salivates to the ring of a bell due to conditioning
▪ John Watson (1878-1958) – extends approach to human behavior ▪ B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) – further experiments on behavior, learning, and conditioning
• These three moves Psychology away from Philosophy
• New Schools Develop
o Cognitive Psychology – the scientific study of how perception, thought, memory, and reasoning are processed
o A return to an emphasis on mental processes and how they influence behavior
▪ Whose happier to medal at the Olympics bronze or silver? Bronze, because they actually got a medal.
• Theoretical Perspectives
o Cognitive Perspective (1950’s – present)
▪ Noam Chomsky & Herbert Simon
▪ Sometimes Psychologists will study their own children sometimes • Behaviorism vs Cognitive
o Behaviorism is an S-R model
▪ Stimulus response
o Cognitive psychology emphasizes the S-O-R model
▪ The organism in the middle interprets that stimulus and produces a response
• Biological perspective
o Emphasizes the physical bases of human and animal behavior, including the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems, and genetics
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▪ Research techniques
o Different from other biological sciences
• Cross-cultural perspective
o Emerged in the 190’s
o Emphasizes diversity of behavior across cultures and the fact that many earlier psychological findings were not universal
o Important cultural terms:
▪ Individualistic cultures
• Different cultures react to similar situations differently
▪ Collectivistic cultures
• How do we make our decisions
• Evolutionary Perspective
o Reflects renewed interest in Darwin’s work
o Applies the principles of evolution to explain psychological processes o Suggests that most adaptive characteristics are perpetuated through natural selection
o Analyzes behavior in terms of how it increases a species’ chances to survive and reproduce
• Psychology’s three main levels of analysis
o 1. Biological Influences
▪ Genetic predispositions
▪ Genetic mutations
▪ Natural selection of adaptive physiology and behaviors
▪ Genes responding to the environment
o 2. Psychological influences
▪ Learned fears and other learned expectations
▪ Emotional responses
▪ Cognitive processing and perceptual interpretations
o 3. Social-cultural influences
▪ Presence of others
▪ Cultural, societal, and family expectations
▪ Peer and other group influences
▪ Compelling models (such as the media)
o These all lead to a behavior or mental process
• Psychologists and Psychiatrists
o Clinical Psychologists
▪ Trained in the diagnosis, treatment, caused and prevention of psychological disorders
▪ Have medical degrees followed by specialized training in the diagnosis, treatment, causes, and prevention of psychological
▪ Emphasize biological factors and use biomedical therapies
• The profession of Psychology
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o Basic Research builds psychology’s knowledge bas through research and training
o There are many sub specialties of psychology such as clinical, counseling, general, developmental, educational, social and personal, cognitive, industrial organizational, biological and experimental, etc.
o Psychologists work in a wide variety of settings
▪ Universities, colleges, and medical schools
▪ For-profit organizations and self-employment
▪ The federal government
▪ Stat and local government
• What is good research design?
• Explore the scientific method
• Discuss the ethics of experimentation
• Review statistics
• How do Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions?
• What about intuition and common sense?
o Many people believe that intuition and common sense are enough to bring forth answers regarding human nature
• Limits of Intuition
o Personal interviewers may rely too much on their “gut feelings” when meeting with job applicants
o We like people who are like up
• Hindsight Bias
o This is that “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon
o After learning the outcome of an event, many people believe they could have predicted that very outcome. We only knew the dot.com stocks would plummet after they actually did plummet.
• The scientific Attitude and Critical Thinking
o In whatever subfield and in whatever setting, psychologists seek to maintain a scientific attitude:
• Its okay to be wrong
o Critical thinking examines: assumptions, disconcerts, hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
o Psychologists, like all scientists, use the scientific method to construct theories that organize, summarize and simplify observations.
▪ We can theorize that irritating someone leads to them being angry – we collect data – and so on
• Using the Scientific Method
o Scientific method
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▪ A set of assumptions, attitudes, and procedures that guide researchers in creating questions to investigate, in generating evidence, and in drawing conclusions
• There was an experiment to see if babies can smell their mothers
o Step 1: Formulate a specific question that can be tested
▪ Form a hypothesis: a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables: a testable prediction or question ▪ Dependent – the variable we measure at the end
o Step 2: Design a study to collect relevant data
▪ Use descriptive or experimental methodologies
o Step 3: Analyze the data to arrive at conclusions
▪ Use statistics to analyze, summarize, and draw conclusions about the data they have collected
o Step 4: Report the results
▪ The rationale for testing the hypothesis who participated in the study and how they were selected
▪ How variables were operationally defined
▪ What procedures or methods were used
▪ How the data were analyzed
▪ What the results seem to suggest
o Scientific Terms
▪ Empirical Evidence – is information acquired by observation or experimentation
▪ Hypothesis – a testable prediction about the relationship between at least two events, characteristics, or variables.
▪ Variable – something that can be changed, such as a characteristic or value. They are generally used in psychology experiments to determine if changes to one thing result in changes to another.
▪ Operational definition – a statement of the procedures or ways in which a researcher is going to measure behaviors or qualities. ▪ Statistically significant – is the probability of some result from a statistical test occurring by chance.
• Psychologists look for a probability of 5% or less that the results are due to chance, which means a 95% chance the
results are “not” due to chance.
▪ Meta-analysis – is a study about other studies in order to get an integrated result. AKA a researcher reviews previously published studies on a topic, and analyzes the various results to find general trends across the studies.
▪ Replication – it’s a way of seeing if the same study can be re created and yield the same results
• The repetition of a research study, generally with different situations and different subjects, to determine if the basic
findings of the original study can be generalized to other
participants and circumstances.
PSYC 1301 Aug 25, 2016 Lecture Notes