BSC 108 Test 3 Study Guide
BSC 108 Test 3 Study Guide BSC 108
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kristen Walsh on Wednesday March 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 108 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Yates in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 416 views.
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Date Created: 03/25/15
Review Questions for 912 Spring 2014 1 What are the differences between RNA and DNA PEA BA Type of Sugar Deoxyribose ribose Number of Double stranded Single stranded Strands double helix single helix Nitrogenous Adenine Cytosine Adenine Cytosine Guanine and Guanine and Bases Thymine Uracnl Location in Nucleus amp Nucleus Cell Cytoplasm a 2 How do the bases pair in a DNA strand a A T b C G 3 What is a mutation What can cause a mutation a Mutation any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA b Mutations are caused by errors in DNA replication and physical or chemical agents called mutagens 4 What are the four nucleotide bases for DNA and RNA a DNA Adenine Cytosine Guanine and Thymine b RNA Adenine Cytosine Guanine and Uracil 5 What is the full name for DNA RNA a Deoxyribonucleic acid b Ribonucleic acid 6 Know where the sugar phosphates and nucleotides are located on the double helix a Each chain of the double helix is made up of repeating units called nucleotides b A single nucleotide is composed of three functional groups a sugar triphosphate and a nitrogenous base 7 How can a mutation be good bad or cause no obvious difference a Depends on the type of change where the change in DNA occurs if the change is detected and xed before replication and how it affects the organism and its survival 8 Who won the Nobel Prize for the structure of DNA a Watson and Crick 9 What is replication a When a cell or whole organism reproduces a complete set of genetic instructions must pass from one generation to the next b DNA replication i begins at specific sites on a double helix and proceeds in both directions ii 4 strands 2 parental and 2 daughter strands iii dozens of enzymes are needed ot make the covalent bonds and to keep the DNA unzipped 10 What is transcription a Process of copying a sequence of DNA to produce a complementary strand of RNA 11 What is translation a The process that converts mRNA into a polypeptide 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Where does replication transcription and translation take place a Eukaryotic cells i Replication occurs in the nucleus ii Transcription occurs in the nucleus iii Translation occurs in the cytoplasm b Prokaryotic cells i Replication transcription and translation occurs in the cytoplasm How can a mutation in the DNA result in a protein not functioning correctly a Base substitution nucleotide detection nucleotide insertion What is a mutagen Know some examples of mutagens a Mutagen a chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation b Ex Xrays gamma rays neutrons carcinogens What is a gene a Instructions encoded in DNA that code for a certain characteristic What are homologous chromosomes a Have genes at speci c loci b Have alleles of a gene at the same locus What is zygote a The cell resulting from the union of an egg and sperm fertilized egg Who is Gregor Mendel a The rst person to analyze patterns of inheritance b Deduced the fundamental principles of genetics c He studied garden sweet peas Why did he use the garden pea a They are easily manipulated and can selffertilize Be able to work genetic problems and use the following terms correctly Allele an alternative version of a gene Dominant an allele that is expressed in a trait Recessive an allele that is not shown if there is a dominant allele in the trait Homozygous when an organism has identical alleles for a gene Heterozygous when an organism has different alleles for a gene Genotype an organism s genetic makeup There should be two copies alleles of each gene Phenotype An organism s physical traits what you can see Truebreeding produces same physical distinction in offspring Locus the particular site where a gene is found on a chromosome Homologous chromosomes have corresponding gene loci j Gene a unit of inheritance in DNA consisting of a speci c nucleotide sequence that programs the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide What is the P generation a True breeding parents How do you produce an F1 generation a By crossing two different true breeding varieties creating hybrids the offspring from this cross is called the F1 generation How do you produce an F2 generation a Crossing the sperm from f1 and egg from f1 plant What are Mendel s 4 hypotheses and what does each mean a There are alternative forms of genes the units that determine heritable traits b For each inherited character an organism inherits two alleles one from each parent F39P qorhrbpps 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 c If the two alleles of an inherited pair differ then one determines the organism s appearance and is called the dominant allele the other has no noticeable effect on the organism s appearance and is called the recessive allele d A sperm or egg carried only one allele for each inherited character because the two members of an allele pair separate from each other during the production of gametes What is the difference between codominance and incomplete dominance a Codominance Expressing two different alleles of a gene in a heterozygote b Incomplete Dominance a type of inheritance in which the phenotype of a heterozygote Aa is intermediate between the phenotypes of the two types of homozygotes AA and aa Know examples of codominance and incomplete dominance a Codominance A O B blood groups b Incomplete Dominance Hypercholesterolemia What is pleiotropy Know an example a Pleiotropy the control of more than one phenotypic character by a single gene b Ex sicklecell What does a circle represent on a pedigree a Female What does a square represent on a pedigree a Male What does a colored circle indicate on a pedigree a Female who has a specific trait What does a colored square indicate on a pedigree a Male who has a specific trait What does a halfcolored square or circle indicate on a pedigree a Male or female who is a carrier What is a sexlinked gene Know an example i Gene located on sex chromosomes ii Ex redgreen color blindness Know which is the dominant trait between freckles and nonfreckles widow s peak and straight hairline and detached earlobe and attached earlobe a Dominant i Freckles ii Widow s peak iii Free earlobe b Recessive i No freckles ii Straight hairline iii Attached earlobe What is a virus a Virus a microscopic particle capable of infecting cells of living organisms and inserting its genetic material Viruses have very simple structures and are generally not considered to be alive because they do not display all of the characteristics associated with life Why are viruses not considered living organisms a Are in between life and nonlife i Energyless ii Contain either DNA or RNA but not both iii Replication is only by taking control of the host cell s synthetic machinery How does a virus replicate a By taking control of the host cells synthetic machinery What is reverse transcriptase a Reverse Transcriptase an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of DNA on an RNA template 39 What is cloning a Cloning producing genetically identical copies of a cell organism or DNA molecule 40 Know the steps for reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning Reproductive cloning y Donor Vcell Nucleus from a l donor cell a a a quot Implant embryo Clone of A in surrogate donor is born mother 39 l Therapeutic cloning Remove Addisomatic Grow in culture J nucleus cell from to produce an from egg adult donor early embryo Remove Induce stem cell embryonic cells to form stem cells from specialized embryo and cells for grow in culture therapeutic use 41 Who is Dolly Know the steps to how she was cloned a Dolly the sheep is the world s rst mammal cloned from a cell of an adult animal b Cloning Steps Reproductive Cloning i Remove nucleus from egg cell ii Add somatic cell from adult donor iii Grow in culture to produce an early embryo iv Implant embryo in surrogate mother v Clone of donor is born Dolly 42 What is regeneration a The regrowth of lost body parts in animals eX Star sh and lizards 43 What does differentiated mean a Cells become specialized in structure and function b Totipotent embryonic cells ES not yet specialized and can become any type of cell c Pluripotent adult stem cells cord blood bone marrow partially aloe the way of becoming the type of cell it s suppose to be 44 What happens when a cell is differentiated a Contain a complete genome b Have the potential to express all of an organism s genes c Have the ability to develop into a whole new organism 45 What is a stem cell a Nature s template for all cells b They can become any sort of cell or tissue in the body 46 Name three places stem cells come from a Embryo b Blood marrow c Placenta d Umbilical cord 47 What does genetically modi ed mean a An organism that carries recombinant DNA is called a Genetically Modi ed Organism GM 48 In simple terms how are genetic modi cations done a By transferring the gene for a desired protein product into a bacterium 49 What are some potential problems with GM crops and foods 50 51 52 53 54 55 a Harmful to the environment b Hazardous to human health c Pass genes to nearby wild areas What was the rst genetically modi ed product What is the company that produced the rst GM product a Humulin developed humin insulin What were some disadvantages to the rst GM product before it was produced through genetic engineering What are the advantages of the rst GM product a Advantages helps medical researchers develop vaccines can help corn resist insect infestation allows rice to grow in salt water b Disadvantages low supply and allergic reactions PCR is an acronym for what a Polymerase Chain Reaction What does PCR do Know the steps of the process a It s a technique by which any segment of DNA can be copied quickly and precisely through PCR scientists can obtain enough DNA from even small amounts of blood or other tissue to allow DNA ngerprinting What is gel electrophoresis and how does it work a Gel Electrophoresis can be used to separate the DNA fragments obtained from different sources i The DNA fragments are visualized as bands on the gel which can be compared to different DNA samples Four characteristics of good genetics research model organism Readily available Easily manipulated Short generation time Low cost 999
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