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MSU / History / HI 1063 / How was life for native americans changing through 1500?

How was life for native americans changing through 1500?

How was life for native americans changing through 1500?


School: Mississippi State University
Department: History
Course: Early US History
Professor: Andrew lang
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Early, us, history, peter, messer, europe, Spain, Indians, North, America, and trade
Cost: 25
Name: Early US History Week 2 Notes
Description: These notes are from week 2 of Early US History.
Uploaded: 08/26/2016
8 Pages 56 Views 1 Unlocks

8/23/16­ 8/25/16 US History 

• how was life fro native americans changing through 1500?

• How was life fro Native Americans changing through 1500? 

• In what ways were Native ideas brought about and institutions of society, religion, and politics  similar or different to European nations?

• Native North America­ 1450

­ very diverse

­ Native Americans arrived around 25,000­12,000 years ago

­ believed to have first settled in the west

• Central Plains

­ Clovis: 10,000­8000 BCE

• probably hunters (wooly mammoths, bison)

• named after specific spearpoints 

• climate shift occurs and Pleistocene Megafauna begin to die out

­ Folsom people: 8500­5000 BCE

In what ways were native ideas brought about and institutions of society, religion, and politics similar or different to european nations?

• very similar to Clovis 

• more fluting on spearpoints

• buffalo jumps

­ run buffalo off cliff as a form of “hunting”

• more political and social organization than Clovis

­ Dry period: 5000­2000 BCE

• drought

• migrations

­ east to River Valley off the Plains We also discuss several other topics like What is the most common cause of cell death?

­ west to front range

• small animal hunting

• agriculture

­ front range of Rockies

• began to take advantage of a series of microclimates

• very in­tune with geography and climate 

How did humans adapt to climate change?

• adapting!

• hunting 

8/23/16­ 8/25/16 US History 

­ drive lanes 

• rock walls built to trap animals

• Climate change is causing people to change and adapt to the environment. • Climate Change Persists

­ wet period: 800­1220

• high point of population on the Plains

­ dry period: 1200­1500

• people retreat from Plains to the River Valley

• Pawnee

• Arikaras

­ agriculture

• 3 sisters

1. corn­ Mexico; arrives in US around 300 BCE; staple

2. beans­ good source of protein and carbs

3. squash­ good source of protein and carbs

• caused people to hunt less; also caused population increase We also discuss several other topics like What are the factors that shifts the demand curve?

• friendlier to a more centralized political system

• still need hunters and farmers

­ men= hunters

­ women= farmers

• responsible for half the food

• owns crops and land

• VERY different from Europe

­ men own everything in Europe

­ women are treated like property

• since they own crops and land, they also have political influence

• Continental Trade Goods­ links Native Americans

­ textiles traded for buffalo meat

­ buffalo meat and robes traded for copper

­ trade brought in disease, technology, and steel

8/23/16­ 8/25/16 US History 

• Hohokam: 800­1100 

­ Phoenix, Arizona area

­ built canals around Salt River Valley 

­ rather sophisticated

­ built big houses and ball courts

• proves political and social organization

­ the canals dry out (drought), people try to take other people’s canals, therefore war  breaks out

• Cahokia: 700­1200

­ largest city in North America (25,000 people) but still relatively small compared to other  major cities around the world If you want to learn more check out Does best man or maid of honor give speech first?
If you want to learn more check out How does the environment effect our behavior and vice versa?

­ drought destroys city

• no more farming; fighting over useable farmland

­ trade center Don't forget about the age old question of Communication is composed of?

• spread of disease

• Indians on Arrival

­ rise of peoples

• Iroquois Confederation 

• Creeks, Choctaw, Shawnee

• generally the older groups demise and new groups emerge

• Iroquois­ 5 peoples and 5 clans­> lead by women

­ mythic leaders

• Deganawidah­ spiritual leader, “medicine man”, created a peace treaty between 5  peoples of the Iroquois

• Hiawatha­ Deganawidah’s little brother

­ very violent

• because of violence, created Confederation 

• Iroquois government is decentralized

­ war chief

8/23/16­ 8/25/16 US History 

­ hunt chief 

­ camp chief 

• VERY different from highly centralized government of Europe

• Iroquois government only recommends people do things; no force

• Indian religion

­ animistic­ animals and man have equal spiritual power; land as well; man can control  animals and animals can control man We also discuss several other topics like Why geography?

­ balance­ no good and evil; everything is in balance

­ pragmatic­ spiritual leaders

• European colonization

­ technology

• improved sailing ships

­ Arab: lanteen sail

­ Portuguese: caravel

• mapping

­ currents

­ wind

­ Portuguese exploration

• pioneers in mapping and ship design

• first nation to move out into the Atlantic to look for new trade routes (India, China) • Cape Bojador: 1434

• Cape of Good Hope: 1488

• Sao Tome: 1471

­ uninhabited

­ sugar will grow

­ laborers (slaves) from West Africa 

­ plantation style 

­ Europe learns about sugar, slaves, and plantation

8/23/16­ 8/25/16 US History 

• Africa 

­ old trade routes are inefficient, dangerous, and expensive

­ Africans know their advantages with Europe

­ people that don’t usually trade get the chance to

­ West Africa

• gold

• slaves

• characterized by a bunch of small states that are constantly competing  ­ less about controlling land and ore about controlling people (slaves)

­ slaves serve in armies, work as traders, servants of the king, and work on  plantations 

• small gap between slave and slave owner 

• paths for freedom

• diverse

• Spain

­ centralized by war (monarch)

­ surplus population (soldiers were there after war)

­ religious mission (spread Catholicism)

­ money???

• Conquest of the Indies

­ Columbus: 1492

• 10,000 miles off about the size of the world

• goes to Portugal= denied

• goes to England= denied

• goes to Spain= agrees to fund trip

• finds “Indians” on his journey (Tainos)

­ Indians are struck by Columbus’s steel, clothes, etc.

­ Columbus sees a workforce in the Indians

8/23/16­ 8/25/16 US History 

• doesn’t find big cities or trade routes like there were supposed to be in India (HE  WAS IN THE WRONG PLACE)

­ finds gold

• Encomienda­ labor institution

­ land to leaders

­ right to use Indian labor

• protect­ Tainos have rival/war

• convert

­ encomendaros

• Black Legend­ disease

­ 1492­1514: population went from millions to hundreds of thousands

­ mass depopulation

• Conquest of Mexico

­ Aztec Empire­ 13th or 14th century

• Tenochtitlan­ central Mexico, capital of Aztec Empire

• a lot of cities

• very war­like, very commercial

• Tlaxcalan

­ only part in center that’s not conquered

­ flowery wars­ individual combat, winners take losers back for human sacrifice • non­lethal fighting technique and technology

• Hernan Cortez: 1519

­ Spanish

­ moves to Caribbean, ends up in east Mexico

­ Montezuma sends gold to impress the Spanish

• has opposite effect 

• Cortez moves into the Aztec Empire

­ runs into Tlaxcalans and they form and ally

­ move into Tenochtitlan and eventually take over

8/23/16­ 8/25/16 US History 

­ Malinche­ allies 

• sold 3 times into slavery

• picks up a little Spanish from being a slave

• used as translator 

­ technology

• steel

• horses

• dogs

­ disease

• small pox

­ devastates population

­ depreciates morale

• North America

­ Cabeza de Vaca/Narváez: 1528­1536

• try to find gold in Florida

• unsuccessful

­ DeSoto: 1593­1542

• tried to find old in MS

• unsuccessful

• killed many Indians

­ Coronado

• no gold

• many Indians dead

• Pirates

­ choke point

• place to steal gold

­ English pirates

• best pirates

­ highlight potential of new world

• Fishing grounds­ Newfoundland

8/23/16­ 8/25/16 US History 

­ Catholics can’t eat meat on Friday so they eat fish 

­ Europe often fished out

­ fish trade starts the fur trade

­ Indians trade old, worn out furs

• useless to them, valuable to Europeans 

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