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Chapter 1 Study Guide

by: Renee Kisic

Chapter 1 Study Guide 407

Marketplace > Coastal Carolina University > Psychology > 407 > Chapter 1 Study Guide
Renee Kisic
GPA 3.7

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Study Guide for test 1
Principles of Learning
Dr. Bernard Albiniak
Study Guide
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Renee Kisic on Friday August 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 407 at Coastal Carolina University taught by Dr. Bernard Albiniak in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Principles of Learning in Psychology at Coastal Carolina University.


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Date Created: 08/26/16
Monday, August 29, 2016 5 Schools of Behaviorism Schools of Behaviorism environmental stimuli—> internal events (thinking)—> observable behavior 1. John Watson: methodological behaviorism - founder of behaviorism 1913 - “If psychology is to be a science, we need to treat it like one and do experimental research, if you can’t see or measure something, we can’t study it” - believed that environmental stimuli leads straight to observable behavior, leaving out the middle step (internal events (thinking)) because he believed that the environment stimuli affected observable behavior - believed private events (thoughts, emotions) cannot be studied - psychology is not scientific if studying consciousness - only thing we can study directly is public behavior - object all covert behavior - Watsonians: followers of Watson; believe that any behavior can be modified. If you are a criminal or burglar on a regular basis, it is because you are getting rewarded by the items you steal: They believed that this person is product of the environment, not a bad person. - behavioral therapists in this area need to learn two things: stimuli of behavior (when/ where behavior occurs) and what is rewarding/ reinforcing the behavior 2. Clark Hull: neobehaviorism - neobehaviorism: intervening variables (private event) Ex: hunger (foraging behavior is caused by hunger), thirst, sexual desire - Watson disagreed that these made behavior; the environment is where the cause is - this theory is moving away from Watson and moving more towards cognition 1 Monday, August 29, 2016 3. Edward Tolman: cognitive behaviorism - cognitive behaviorism: expectations Ex: I feed my dogs at 6pm every evening. They expect to be fed at that time. So if I forget one night, the will start barking around 6pm to get food because that is what they expect. - Watson does not agree with this; it is using expectations to explain behaviors - ex: alcoholic is a description of behavior, not an explanation 4. Albert Bandura: social learning theory - most cognitive - Bobo doll experiment; we learn behavior by mimicking/ imitating others’ behavior 5. B.F. Skinner: radical behaviorism, overt and covert behavior - 1945 - overt behavior: anything you can see a person or animal do, publicly observable - covert behavior: private events (thinking and feeling) - these don't cause behavior to occur, environment causes private events and behavior - Did an experiment with rats. Put them in a plexiglass box with a light in the corner and a lever that can be pushed by the rat to receive food. When the light turns on, the rat goes and presses the food lever. The light goes off and the rat goes back to the corner where it was. If the light is kept on, the rat keeps pushing lever. - Watson would say the light is controlling the rat. - agreed with Watson that causes of behavior are outside of the person (environment) - behaviors, emotions, and cognitions are all learned by the environment - love, rage, and fear are basic emotions and are not learned - emotion: fundamental emotion is not learned, but the way we express them is - cognition: learn the way we think (pessimistic: negative, defeatism) (optimistic: positive) 2 Monday, August 29, 2016 Albert Ellis: cognitive psychologist - A-B-C Theory: event(A)—>thought(B)—>behavioral response(C) - thinking process is learned from parents - the thinking process can be modified - thought processes are different; that is what causes behavior, not environment because sometimes environments can be the same but with different reactions from different people. - Ex: skin melanoma patients 3


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